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Mechanics of Solid Interfaces

Book Description

The growing occurrence of heterogeneous materials such as composites or coated substrates in structural parts makes it necessary for designers and scientists to deal with the specific features of the mechanical behavior of solid interfaces.

This book introduces basic concepts on mechanical problems related to the presence of solid/solid interfaces and their practical applications. The various topics discussed here are the mechanical characterization of interfaces, the initiation and growth of cracks along interfaces, the origin and control of interface adhesion, focusing in particular on thin films on substrate systems. It is designed and structured to provide a solid background in the mechanics of heterogeneous materials to help students in materials science, as well as scientists and engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Foreword
  5. Part 1: Fundamentals
    1. Chapter 1: Interfaces: the Physics, Chemistry and Mechanics of Heterogeneous Continua
    2. 1.1. Definition and terminology
    3. 1.2. Energy considerations
    4. 1.3. Elastic behavior of an interface
      1. 1.3.1. Flat interface
      2. 1.3.2. Effects of elastic coupling
      3. 1.3.3. Ellipsoidal elastic inclusion
    5. 1.4. Experimental stress analysis techniques
      1. 1.4.1. Digital image correlation
      2. 1.4.2. Incremental hole-drilling method
      3. 1.4.3. X-ray diffraction
      4. 1.4.4. Numerical modeling
    6. 1.5. Conclusion
    7. 1.6. Bibliography
    8. Chapter 2: Structure and Defects of Crystalline Interfaces
      1. 2.1. What is a crystalline interface?
      2. 2.2. Definitions and geometric tools to describe interfaces
        1. 2.2.1. Formation of an interface
        2. 2.2.2. Coincidence lattice
        3. 2.2.3. Translation lattice of the bicrystal
      3. 2.3. Structure of interfaces: intrinsic dislocations and structural units
      4. 2.4. Linear interface defects: extrinsic dislocations
      5. 2.5. Interaction between dislocations and interfaces: relaxation of interfacial stresses
        1. 2.5.1. Slip transmission processes across an interface
        2. 2.5.2. Relaxation processes in the interface
        3. 2.5.3. Interfacial dislocation stress fields
        4. 2.5.4. Evolution of stress fields over time
      6. 2.6. Conclusion
      7. 2.7. Bibliography
  6. Part 2: Singularities, Notches and Interfacial Cracks
    1. Chapter 3: Singularities and Interfacial Cracks
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Singularities
        1. 3.2.1. A generic case – the V-notch
        2. 3.2.2. Calculation of the GSIFs
        3. 3.2.3. The case of interfaces: complex singularities
        4. 3.2.4. A particular case
      3. 3.3. Modal mixity
      4. 3.4. Brittle fracture mechanics
        1. 3.4.1. The Griffith criterion
        2. 3.4.2. Kinking of a crack out of the interface
      5. 3.5. Nucleation of cracks
        1. 3.5.1. Energy condition
        2. 3.5.2 Stress condition
        3. 3.5.3. The nucleation criterion
      6. 3.6. Deflection of a crack at an interface
        1. 3.6.1. Weak singularity
        2. 3.6.2. Strong singularity
      7. 3.7. Conclusion
      8. 3.8. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 4: Interface Adherence
      1. 4.1. Adhesion and adherence
      2. 4.2. Mode mixity
      3. 4.3. Measurement of adherence
        1. 4.3.1. Grid method
        2. 4.3.2. Pull test
        3. 4.3.3. Tape peel test
        4. 4.3.4. Peel test
        5. 4.3.5. Bulge-and-blister test
        6. 4.3.6. Indentation methods (normal and transverse)
        7. 4.3.7. Wedge test
        8. 4.3.8. Four-point bending
      4. 4.4. Conclusion: choosing a test
      5. 4.5. Bibliography
  7. Part 3: Practical Applications
    1. Chapter 5: Controlling Adherence
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Multiscale adherence modeling
      3. 5.3. Nature and control of interface bonds
        1. 5.3.1. Elimination of barriers to adhesion
          1. 5.3.1.1. Prior cleaning of surfaces
          2. 5.3.1.2. In-situ elimination during combination
        2. 5.3.2. Modification of interface chemistry
          1. 5.3.2.1. Two-dimensional modification
          2. 5.3.2.2. Formation of a new three-dimensional phase at the interface
            1. 5.3.2.2.1. Modification prior to joining
        3. 5.3.3. Reactivity and joining
        4. 5.3.4. Conclusion
      4. 5.4. Dissipative mechanisms
      5. 5.5. The effect of interface geometry
        1. 5.5.1. Mechanical anchoring
        2. 5.5.2. Microtextured interface
        3. 5.5.3. Biomimetics
      6. 5.6. Conclusion
      7. 5.7. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 6: Crack-Interface Interaction
      1. 6.1. Propagation of a crack near an interface
      2. 6.2. Criterion of crack deviation by an interface
      3. 6.3. Propagation of an interfacial crack
      4. 6.4. Branching criterion of a crack outside an interface
      5. 6.5. Conclusion
      6. 6.6. Bibliography
    3. Chapter 7: Shock Mechanics and Interfaces
      1. 7.1. Introduction to shock wave mechanics
        1. 7.1.1. Preface
        2. 7.1.2. Generation of shock waves
        3. 7.1.3. Shock wave mechanics relationships
          1. 7.1.3.1. Rankine-Hugoniot relationships
            1. 7.1.3.1.1. Conservation of momentum
            2. 7.1.3.1.2. Conservation of energy
          2. 7.1.3.2. Mie-Grüneisen equation of state
        4. 7.1.4. Determination of the Hugoniot in plane P–U (the one-dimensional case)
        5. 7.1.5. Passage of a shock between two materials
      2. 7.2. Damage under shock
        1. 7.2.1. Spallation phenomenon
        2. 7.2.2. Some damage criteria
          1. 7.2.2.1. Cutoff criterion
          2. 7.2.2.2. Tuler-Butcher criterion [TUL 68]
          3. 7.2.2.3. Kanel criterion [KAN 87]
      3. 7.3. Application to the shock adhesion test
        1. 7.3.1. Principle
        2. 7.3.2. Evaluation of the test on Al–Cu samples [BOL 03]
        3. 7.3.3. Tests on glued assemblages
      4. 7.4. Retrospective: recent advances made in shock adherence testing
        1. 7.4.1. Technological advances
        2. 7.4.2. Analytical approaches
        3. 7.4.3. Contributions of numerical simulation
      5. 7.5. Perspectives
      6. 7.6. Bibliography
  8. Part 4: Thin Films
    1. Chapter 8: Coating-Substrate Interfaces
      1. 8.1. Thin films on massive substrates: a typical case
      2. 8.2. State of stress in a thin film–substrate specimen
        1. 8.2.1. Boundary conditions
        2. 8.2.2. Strain and stress tensors in the film
        3. 8.2.3. Strain and stress in a planar substrate
        4. 8.2.4. Edge effects
      3. 8.3. Residual strains in thin films
        1. 8.3.1. Physical and chemical origin of stresses
        2. 8.3.2. Thermoelastic stresses
        3. 8.3.3. Extrinsic stresses
        4. 8.3.4. Intrinsic stresses
      4. 8.4. Determination of stresses in thin films
        1. 8.4.1. Problems
        2. 8.4.2. Some frequent tests for the characterization of thin films and their residual stresses
          1. 8.4.2.1. Direct mechanical tests on self-supporting thin films
          2. 8.4.2.2. Mechanical tests on coated substrates
          3. 8.4.2.3. Indirect physical methods
          4. 8.4.2.4. Further details
      5. 8.5. Conclusions
      6. 8.6. Bibliography
    2. Chapter 9: Damage in Thin Films on Substrates
      1. 9.1. Overview
        1. 9.1.1. Typical damage
        2. 9.1.2. Elastically stored energy
      2. 9.2. Layers in tension
        1. 9.2.1. Typology of damage in layers in tension
        2. 9.2.2. Energy balance of crack growth at the film–substrate interface
        3. 9.2.3. Stress corrosion cracking
      3. 9.3. Films in compression
        1. 9.3.1. Typology of damage in films under compression
        2. 9.3.2. Mechanical modeling of ripples and blisters
      4. 9.4. Conclusion
      5. 9.5. Bibliography
  9. List of Authors
  10. Index