L’endommagement, comme le diable, invisible mais redoutable.
The phenomenon of damage, described from a physical point of view in Chapter 1, and then presented schematically in Chapter 3, represents surface discontinuities in the form of microcracks, or volume discontinuities in the form of cavities. It, therefore, involves a rheological process quite different from deformation, although the initial causes of the two phenomena are identical: movement and accumulation of dislocations in metals, modification of intermolecular bonds in organic materials, microdecohesion in minerals. Damage is marked by pronounced irreversibility; the traditional thermomechanical treatments can only partially remove the defects caused by it. Macroscopic ...