Un modèle devient une loi … ou, sombre dans l’oubli!
This chapter deals with the phenomenological and mathematical modelling of plastic solids according to the schematic classification of Chapter 3: rigid, perfectly plastic solid; elastic, perfectly plastic solid; elastoplastic solid. It can be said that the first scientific work concerning plasticity goes back to Tresca’s memoir in 1864 on the maximum shear stress criterion. Although the isotropic flow law was formulated as early as 1871 by St. Venant and Levy, its applications to structures had to wait until about 1950 when limit theorems were discovered. Since 1970 the availability of fast and large computers has led to application of the theory to practical problems. Proportional ...