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Mechanics of Composite Structures by George S. Springer, László P. Kollár

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CHAPTER THREE

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Laminated Composites

Composites are frequently made of layers (plies) bonded together to form a lam-inate (Fig. 3.1). A layer may consist of short fibers, unidirectional continuous fibers, or woven or braided fibers embedded in a matrix (Figs. 1.1 and 1.2). A layer containing woven or braided fibers is referred to as fabric.

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Figure 3.1: Laminated composite.

Adjacent plies having the same material and the same orientation are referred to as a ply group. Since the properties and the orientations are the same across the ply group, a ...

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