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Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Second Edition

Book Description

A balanced mechanics-materials approach and coverage of the latest developments in biomaterials and electronic materials, the new edition of this popular text is the most thorough and modern book available for upper-level undergraduate courses on the mechanical behavior of materials. To ensure that the student gains a thorough understanding the authors present the fundamental mechanisms that operate at micro- and nano-meter level across a wide-range of materials, in a way that is mathematically simple and requires no extensive knowledge of materials. This integrated approach provides a conceptual presentation that shows how the microstructure of a material controls its mechanical behavior, and this is reinforced through extensive use of micrographs and illustrations. New worked examples and exercises help the student test their understanding. Further resources for this title, including lecture slides of select illustrations and solutions for exercises, are available online at www.cambridge.org/97800521866758.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the First Edition
  7. Preface to the Second Edition
  8. A Note to the Reader
  9. Chapter 1: Materials: Structure, Properties, and Performance
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Monolithic, Composite, and Hierarchical Materials
    3. 1.3 Structure of Materials
      1. 1.3.1 Crystal Structures
      2. 1.3.2 Metals
      3. 1.3.3 Ceramics
      4. 1.3.4 Glasses
      5. 1.3.5 Polymers
      6. 1.3.6 Liquid Crystals
      7. 1.3.7 Biological Materials and Biomaterials
      8. 1.3.8 Porous and Cellular Materials
      9. 1.3.9 Nano- and Microstructure of Biological Materials
      10. 1.3.10 The Sponge Spicule: An Example of a Biological Material
      11. 1.3.11 Active (or Smart) Materials
      12. 1.3.12 Electronic Materials
      13. 1.3.13 Nanotechnology
    4. 1.4 Strength of Real Materials
    5. Suggested Reading
    6. Exercises
  10. Chapter 2: Elasticity and Viscoelasticity
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Longitudinal Stress and Strain
    3. 2.3 Strain Energy (or Deformation Energy) Density
    4. 2.4 Shear Stress and Strain
    5. 2.5 Poisson’s Ratio
    6. 2.6 More Complex States of Stress
    7. 2.7 Graphical Solution of a Biaxial State of Stress: the Mohr Circle
    8. 2.8 Pure Shear: Relationship between G and E
    9. 2.9 Anisotropic Effects
    10. 2.10 Elastic Properties of Polycrystals
    11. 2.11 Elastic Properties of Materials
      1. 2.11.1 Elastic Properties of Metals
      2. 2.11.2 Elastic Properties of Ceramics
      3. 2.11.3 Elastic Properties of Polymers
      4. 2.11.4 Elastic Constants of Unidirectional Fiber Reinforced Composite
    12. 2.12 Viscoelasticity
      1. 2.12.1 Storage and Loss Moduli
    13. 2.13 Rubber Elasticity
    14. 2.14 Mooney–Rivlin Equation
    15. 2.15 Elastic Properties of Biological Materials
      1. 2.15.1 Blood Vessels
      2. 2.15.2 Articular Cartilage
      3. 2.15.3 Mechanical Properties at the Nanometer Level
    16. 2.16 Elastic Properties of Electronic Materials
    17. 2.17 Elastic Constants and Bonding
    18. Suggested Reading
    19. Exercises
  11. Chapter 3: Plasticity
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Plastic Deformation in Tension
      1. 3.2.1 Tensile Curve Parameters
      2. 3.2.2 Necking
      3. 3.2.3 Strain Rate Effects
    3. 3.3 Plastic Deformation in Compression Testing
    4. 3.4 The Bauschinger Effect
    5. 3.5 Plastic Deformation of Polymers
      1. 3.5.1 Stress–Strain Curves
      2. 3.5.2 Glassy Polymers
      3. 3.5.3 Semicrystalline Polymers
      4. 3.5.4 Viscous Flow
      5. 3.5.5 Adiabatic Heating
    6. 3.6 Plastic Deformation of Glasses
      1. 3.6.1 Microscopic Deformation Mechanism
      2. 3.6.2 Temperature Dependence and Viscosity
    7. 3.7 Flow, Yield, and Failure Criteria
      1. 3.7.1 Maximum-Stress Criterion (Rankine)
      2. 3.7.2 Maximum-Shear-Stress Criterion (Tresca)
      3. 3.7.3 Maximum-Distortion-Energy Criterion (von Mises)
      4. 3.7.4 Graphical Representation and Experimental Verification of Rankine, Tresca, and von Mises Criteria
      5. 3.7.5 Failure Criteria for Brittle Materials
      6. 3.7.6 Yield Criteria for Ductile Polymers
      7. 3.7.7 Failure Criteria for Composite Materials
      8. 3.7.8 Yield and Failure Criteria for Other Anisotropic Materials
    8. 3.8 Hardness
      1. 3.8.1 Macroindentation Tests
      2. 3.8.2 Microindentation Tests
      3. 3.8.3 Nanoindentation
    9. 3.9 Formability: Important Parameters
      1. 3.9.1 Plastic Anisotropy
      2. 3.9.2 Punch–Stretch Tests and Forming-Limit Curves (or Keeler–Goodwin Diagrams)
    10. 3.10 Muscle Force
    11. 3.11 Mechanical Properties of Some Biological Materials
    12. Suggested Reading
    13. Exercises
  12. Chapter 4: Imperfections: Point and Line Defects
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Theoretical Shear Strength
    3. 4.3 Atomic or Electronic Point Defects
      1. 4.3.1 Equilibrium Concentration of Point Defects
      2. 4.3.2 Production of Point Defects
      3. 4.3.3 Effect of Point Defects on Mechanical Properties
      4. 4.3.4 Radiation Damage
      5. 4.3.5 Ion Implantation
    4. 4.4 Line Defects
      1. 4.4.1 Experimental Observation of Dislocations
      2. 4.4.2 Behavior of Dislocations
      3. 4.4.3 Stress Field Around Dislocations
      4. 4.4.4 Energy of Dislocations
      5. 4.4.5 Force Required to Bow a Dislocation
      6. 4.4.6 Dislocations in Various Structures
      7. 4.4.7 Dislocations in Ceramics
      8. 4.4.8 Sources of Dislocations
      9. 4.4.9 Dislocation Pileups
      10. 4.4.10 Intersection of Dislocations
      11. 4.4.11 Deformation Produced by Motion of Dislocations (Orowan’s Equation)
      12. 4.4.12 The Peierls–Nabarro Stress
      13. 4.4.13 The Movement of Dislocations: Temperature and Strain Rate Effects
      14. 4.4.14 Dislocations in Electronic Materials
    5. Suggested Reading
    6. Exercises
  13. Chapter 5: Imperfections: Interfacial and Volumetric Defects
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Grain Boundaries
      1. 5.2.1 Tilt and Twist Boundaries
      2. 5.2.2 Energy of a Grain Boundary
      3. 5.2.3 Variation of Grain-Boundary Energy with Misorientation
      4. 5.2.4 Coincidence Site Lattice (CSL) Boundaries
      5. 5.2.5 Grain-Boundary Triple Junctions
      6. 5.2.6 Grain-Boundary Dislocations and Ledges
      7. 5.2.7 Grain Boundaries as a Packing of Polyhedral Units
    3. 5.3 Twinning and Twin Boundaries
      1. 5.3.1 Crystallography and Morphology
      2. 5.3.2 Mechanical Effects
    4. 5.4 Grain Boundaries in Plastic Deformation (Grain-size Strengthening)
      1. 5.4.1 Hall–Petch Theory
      2. 5.4.2 Cottrell’s Theory
      3. 5.4.3 Li’s Theory
      4. 5.4.4 Meyers–Ashworth Theory
    5. 5.5 Other Internal Obstacles
    6. 5.6 Nanocrystalline Materials
    7. 5.7 Volumetric or Tridimensional Defects
    8. 5.8 Imperfections in Polymers
    9. Suggested Reading
    10. Exercises
  14. Chapter 6: Geometry of Deformation and Work-Hardening
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Geometry of Deformation
      1. 6.2.1 Stereographic Projections
      2. 6.2.2 Stress Required for Slip
      3. 6.2.3 Shear Deformation
      4. 6.2.4 Slip in Systems and Work-Hardening
      5. 6.2.5 Independent Slip Systems in Polycrystals
    3. 6.3 Work-Hardening in Polycrystals
      1. 6.3.1 Taylor’s Theory
      2. 6.3.2 Seeger’s Theory
      3. 6.3.3 Kuhlmann–Wilsdorf’s Theory
    4. 6.4 Softening Mechanisms
    5. 6.5 Texture Strengthening
    6. Suggested Reading
    7. Exercises
  15. Chapter 7: Fracture: Macroscopic Aspects
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Theorectical Tensile Strength
    3. 7.3 Stress Concentration and Griffith Criterion of Fracture
      1. 7.3.1 Stress Concentrations
      2. 7.3.2 Stress Concentration Factor
    4. 7.4 Griffith Criterion
    5. 7.5 Crack Propagation with Plasticity
    6. 7.6 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics
      1. 7.6.1 Fracture Toughness
      2. 7.6.2 Hypotheses of LEFM
      3. 7.6.3 Crack-Tip Separation Modes
      4. 7.6.4 Stress Field in an Isotropic Material in the Vicinity of a Crack Tip
      5. 7.6.5 Details of the Crack-Tip Stress Field in Mode I
      6. 7.6.6 Plastic-Zone Size Correction
      7. 7.6.7 Variation in Fracture Toughness with Thickness
    7. 7.7 Fracture Toughness Parameters
      1. 7.7.1 Crack Extension Force G
      2. 7.7.2 Crack Opening Displacement
      3. 7.7.3 J Integral
      4. 7.7.4 R Curve
      5. 7.7.5 Relationships among Different Fracture Toughness Parameters
    8. 7.8 Importance of K[sub(Ic)] in Practice
    9. 7.9 Post-Yield Fracture Mechanics
    10. 7.10 Statistical Analysis of Failure Strength
    11. Appendix: Stress Singularity at Crack Tip
    12. Suggested Reading
    13. Exercises
  16. Chapter 8: Fracture: Microscopic Aspects
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Facture in Metals
      1. 8.2.1 Crack Nucleation
      2. 8.2.2 Ductile Fracture
      3. 8.2.3 Brittle, or Cleavage, Fracture
    3. 8.3 Facture in Ceramics
      1. 8.3.1 Microstructural Aspects
      2. 8.3.2 Effect of Grain Size on Strength of Ceramics
      3. 8.3.3 Fracture of Ceramics in Tension
      4. 8.3.4 Fracture in Ceramics Under Compression
      5. 8.3.5 Thermally Induced Fracture in Ceramics
    4. 8.4 Fracture in Polymers
      1. 8.4.1 Brittle Fracture
      2. 8.4.2 Crazing and Shear Yielding
      3. 8.4.3 Fracture in Semicrystalline and Crystalline Polymers
      4. 8.4.4 Toughness of Polymers
    5. 8.5 Fracture and Toughness of Biological Materials
    6. 8.6 Facture Mechanism Maps
    7. Suggested Reading
    8. Exercises
  17. Chapter 9: Fracture Testing
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Impact Testing
      1. 9.2.1 Charpy Impact Test
      2. 9.2.2 Drop-Weight Test
      3. 9.2.3 Instrumented Charpy Impact Test
    3. 9.3 Plane-Strain Fracture Toughness Test
    4. 9.4 Crack Opening Displacement Testing
    5. 9.5 J-Integral Testing
    6. 9.6 Flexure Test
      1. 9.6.1 Three-Point Bend Test
      2. 9.6.2 Four-Point Bending
      3. 9.6.3 Interlaminar Shear Strength Test
    7. 9.7 Fracture Toughness Testing of Brittle Materials
      1. 9.7.1 Chevron Notch Test
      2. 9.7.2 Indentation Methods for Determining Toughness
    8. 9.8 Adhesion of Thin Films to Substrates
    9. Suggested Reading
    10. Exercises
  18. Chapter 10: Solid Solution, Precipitation, and Dispersion Strengthening
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Solid-Solution Strengthening
      1. 10.2.1 Elastic Interaction
      2. 10.2.2 Other Interactions
    3. 10.3 Mechanical Effects Associated with Solid Solutions
      1. 10.3.1 Well-Defined Yield Point in the Stress–Strain Curves
      2. 10.3.2 Plateau in the Stress–Strain Curve and Lüders Band
      3. 10.3.3 Strain Aging
      4. 10.3.4 Serrated Stress–Strain Curve
      5. 10.3.5 Snoek Effect
      6. 10.3.6 Blue Brittleness
    4. 10.4 Precipitation- and Dispersion-Hardening
    5. 10.5 Dislocation–Precipitate Interaction
    6. 10.6 Precipitation in Microalloyed Steels
    7. 10.7 Dual-Phase Steels
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Exercises
  19. Chapter 11: Martensitic Transformation
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Structures and Morphologies of Martensite
    3. 11.3 Strength of Martensite
    4. 11.4 Mechanical Effects
    5. 11.5 Shape-Memory Effect
      1. 11.5.1 Shape-Memory Effect in Polymers
    6. 11.6 Martensitic Transformation in Ceramics
    7. Suggested Reading
    8. Exercises
  20. Chapter 12: Special Materials: Intermetallics and Foams
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Silicides
    3. 12.3 Ordered Intermetallics
      1. 12.3.1 Dislocation Structures in Ordered Intermetallics
      2. 12.3.2 Effect of Ordering on Mechanical Properties
      3. 12.3.3 Ductility of Intermetallics
    4. 12.4 Cellular Materials
      1. 12.4.1 Structure
      2. 12.4.2 Modeling of the Mechanical Response
      3. 12.4.3 Comparison of Predictions and Experimental Results
      4. 12.4.4 Syntactic Foam
      5. 12.4.5 Plastic Behavior of Porous Materials
    5. Suggested Reading
    6. Exercises
  21. Chapter 13: Creep and Superplasticity
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Correlation and Extrapolation Methods
    3. 13.3 Fundamental Mechanisms Responsible for Creep
    4. 13.4 Diffusion Creep
    5. 13.5 Dislocation (or Power Law) Creep
    6. 13.6 Dislocation Glide
    7. 13.7 Grain-Boundary Sliding
    8. 13.8 Deformation-Mechanism (Weertman–Ashby) Maps
    9. 13.9 Creep-Induced Fracture
    10. 13.10 Heat-Resistant Materials
    11. 13.11 Creep in Polymers
    12. 13.12 Diffusion-Related Phenomena in Electronic Materials
    13. 13.13 Superplasticity
    14. Suggested Reading
    15. Exercises
  22. Chapter 14: Fatigue
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Fatigue Parameters and S–N (Wöhler) Curves
    3. 14.3 Fatigue Strength or Fatigue Life
    4. 14.4 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
    5. 14.5 Effect of Frequency
    6. 14.6 Cumulative Damage and Life Exhaustion
    7. 14.7 Mechanisms of Fatigue
      1. 14.7.1 Fatigue Crack Nucleation
      2. 14.7.2 Fatigue Crack Propagation
    8. 14.8 Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics Applied to Fatigue
    9. 14.8.1 Fatigue of Biomaterials
    10. 14.9 Hysteretic Heating in Fatigue
    11. 14.10 Environmental Effects in Fatigue
    12. 14.11 Fatigue Crack Closure
    13. 14.12 The Two-Parameter Approach
    14. 14.13 The Short-Crack Problem in Fatigue
    15. 14.14 Fatigue Testing
      1. 14.14.1 Conventional Fatigue Tests
      2. 14.14.2 Rotating Bending Machine
      3. 14.14.3 Statistical Analysis of S–N Curves
      4. 14.14.4 Nonconventional Fatigue Testing
      5. 14.14.5 Servohydraulic Machines
      6. 14.14.6 Low-Cycle Fatigue Tests
      7. 14.14.7 Fatigue Crack Propagation Testing
    16. Suggested Reading
    17. Exercises
  23. Chapter 15: Composite Materials
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Types of Composites
    3. 15.3 Important Reinforcements and Matrix Materials
      1. 15.3.1 Microstructural Aspects and Importance of the Matrix
    4. 15.4 Interfaces in Composites
      1. 15.4.1 Crystallographic Nature of the Fiber–Matrix Interface
      2. 15.4.2 Interfacial Bonding in Composites
      3. 15.4.3 Interfacial Interactions
    5. 15.5 Properties of Composites
      1. 15.5.1 Density and Heat Capacity
      2. 15.5.2 Elastic Moduli
      3. 15.5.3 Strength
      4. 15.5.4 Anisotropic Nature of Fiber Reinforced Composites
      5. 15.5.5 Aging Response of Matrix in MMCs
      6. 15.5.6 Toughness
    6. 15.6 Load Transfer from Matrix to Fiber
      1. 15.6.1 Fiber and Matrix Elastic
      2. 15.6.2 Fiber Elastic and Matrix Plastic
    7. 15.7 Fracture in Composites
      1. 15.7.1 Single and Multiple Fracture
      2. 15.7.2 Failure Modes in Composites
    8. 15.8 Some Fundamental Characteristics of Composites
      1. 15.8.1 Heterogeneity
      2. 15.8.2 Anisotropy
      3. 15.8.3 Shear Coupling
      4. 15.8.4 Statistical Variation in Strength
    9. 15.9 Functionally Graded Materials
    10. 15.10 Applications
      1. 15.10.1 Aerospace Applications
      2. 15.10.2 Nonaerospace Applications
    11. 15.11 Laminated Composites
    12. Suggested Reading
    13. Exercises
  24. Chapter 16: Environmental Effects
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Electrochemical Nature of Corrosion in Metals
      1. 16.2.1 Galvanic Corrosion
      2. 16.2.2 Uniform Corrosion
      3. 16.2.3 Crevice corrosion
      4. 16.2.4 Pitting Corrosion
      5. 16.2.5 Intergranular Corrosion
      6. 16.2.6 Selective leaching
      7. 16.2.7 Erosion-Corrosion
      8. 16.2.8 Radiation Damage
      9. 16.2.9 Stress Corrosion
    3. 16.3 Oxidation of metals
    4. 16.4 Environmentally Assisted Fracture in Metals
      1. 16.4.1 Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC)
      2. 16.4.2 Hydrogen Damage in Metals
      3. 16.4.3 Liquid and Solid Metal Embrittlement
    5. 16.5 Environmental Effects in Polymers
      1. 16.5.1 Chemical or Solvent Attack
      2. 16.5.2 Swelling
      3. 16.5.3 Oxidation
      4. 16.5.4 Radiation Damage
      5. 16.5.5 Environmental Crazing
      6. 16.5.6 Alleviating the Environmental Damage in Polymers
    6. 16.6 Environmental Effects in Ceramics
    7. 16.6.1 Oxidation of Ceramics
    8. Suggested Reading
    9. Exercises
  25. Appendixes
  26. Index