POM stands for Project Object Model. It is primarily an XML representation of a project in a file named
pom.xml. POM is the identity of a Maven project and without it, the project has no existence. It is analogous to a Make file or a
build.xml file of Ant.
A project in a broad sense should contain more than just mere code files and should act as a one-stop shop for all the things concerning it. Maven fulfills this need using the
pom file. POM tends to answer questions such as: Where is the source code? Where are the resources? How is the packaging done? Where are the unit tests? Where are the artifacts? What is the build environment like? Who are the actors of the project? and so on.
In a nutshell, the contents of POM ...