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### 11.13. Step Response of Linear Dynamic Systems

Step response of linear dynamic systems can be obtained by using either transfer function approach or by using state-space approach.

#### 11.13.1. Transfer Function Approach

The transfer function is represented by a ratio of two polynomials. Consider a transfer function given as

This system can be represented by two arrays, say n and d representing numerator and denominator respectively, each containing the coefficients of the polynomials in decreasing powers of s:

 n = [81 4] and d = [1 6 81]

To make the dimensions of numerator n and denominator d same, ‘0’ may be added in numerator array. Thus, the ...

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