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Mathematics for 3D Game Programming and Computer Graphics, Third Edition by Eric Lengyel

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Chapter 7. Lighting and Shading

This chapter describes the mathematics used to illuminate and shade a surface. The term lighting or illumination is often used to describe the process by which the color and intensity of light reaching a surface is determined. The term shading normally describes the methods used to determine the color and intensity of light reflected toward the viewer for each point on a surface. This color depends on the properties of the light sources illuminating the surface as well as the reflective characteristics of the surface itself.

The interaction between light and a surface is a complex physical process. Photons can be absorbed, reflected, or transmitted when they strike the surface of a material. To model this interaction ...

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