Copyright by Eric Lengyel

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

O'Reilly logo

Appendix C. Coordinate Systems

Cartesian Coordinates

A Cartesian coordinate system is characterized by three mutually perpendicular axes, usually named x, y, and z. As shown in Figure C.1, a point P can be expressed as

Equation C.1. 

where i, j, and k are unit vectors parallel to the three axes. The scalars x, y, and z are the Cartesian coordinates of the point P.

Cartesian coordinates.

Figure C.1. Cartesian coordinates.

The gradient operator ▽ has the following form in Cartesian coordinates.

Equation C.2. 

In other coordinate systems in which a point P has coordinates u, v, and ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required