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Mathematics for 3D Game Programming and Computer Graphics, Third Edition by Eric Lengyel

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Appendix A. Complex Numbers

Definition

The set of complex numbers Definition is a field containing the set of real numbers Definition and the “imaginary” number i. The number i is defined to be the square root of –1:

Equation A.1. 

Thus, the square root of any negative number –n can be written as

Equation A.2. 

A complex number z is one of the form

Equation A.3. 

where a and

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