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Materials in Mechanical Extremes

Book Description

This unified guide brings together the underlying principles, and predictable material responses, that connect metals, polymers, brittle solids and energetic materials as they respond to extreme external stresses. Previously disparate scientific principles, concepts and terminology are combined within a single theoretical framework, across different materials and scales, to provide all the tools necessary to understand, and calculate, the responses of materials and structures to extreme static and dynamic loading. Real-world examples illustrate how material behaviours produce a component response, enabling recognition – and avoidance – of the deformation mechanisms that contribute to mechanical failure. A final synoptic chapter presents a case study of extreme conditions brought about by the infamous Chicxulub impact event. Bringing together simple concepts from diverse fields into a single, accessible, rigorous text, this is an indispensable reference for all researchers and practitioners in materials science, mechanical engineering, physics, physical chemistry and geophysics.

Table of Contents

  1. Coverpage
  2. Materials in Mechanical Extremes
  3. Title page
  4. Copyright page
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1 Natural extremes
    1. 1.1 Akrology
    2. 1.2 Natural extremes
    3. 1.3 Key concepts in dynamic loading
    4. 1.4 Final remarks
    5. 1.5 A note on units
    6. 1.6 Selected reading
  8. 2 A basic analytical framework
    1. 2.1 Loading states
    2. 2.2 Elastic waves in solids and on bars
    3. 2.3 Shock loading
    4. 2.4 The response of materials with strength
    5. 2.5 Impact states
    6. 2.6 Distance–time diagrams
    7. 2.7 The release of dynamic compression
    8. 2.8 The compaction of porous materials
    9. 2.9 The shape of Hugoniots and the wave structures that result
    10. 2.10 Phase transformations
    11. 2.11 Spallation
    12. 2.12 Burning and detonation
    13. 2.13 Numerical modelling techniques
    14. 2.14 Final comments
    15. 2.15 Selected reading
  9. 3 Platforms to excite a response
    1. 3.1 The scientific method
    2. 3.2 Derivation and validation experiments and verification and validation of material models
    3. 3.3 Compressive stress
    4. 3.4 Experimental platforms
    5. 3.5 Tools for discovery science
    6. 3.6 Static high-pressure devices
    7. 3.7 Platforms for loading at intermediate strain rates
    8. 3.8 Platforms for shock and quasi-isentropic loading
    9. 3.9 Final comments
    10. 3.10 Selected reading
  10. 4 Tools to monitor response
    1. 4.1 What do you need to measure?
    2. 4.2 Derivation and validation experiments
    3. 4.3 Imaging and sensing
    4. 4.4 Sensors
    5. 4.5 Recovery
    6. 4.6 Imaging
    7. 4.7 X-ray microtomography
    8. 4.8 Particle accelerated imaging
    9. 4.9 Future imaging platforms
    10. 4.10 Future experimental techniques
    11. 4.11 Selected reading
  11. 5 Metals
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Shock compression of FCC, BCC and HCP metals
    3. 5.3 Energy balance in shock and the fourth power law
    4. 5.4 Amorphous metals
    5. 5.5 Phase transformations
    6. 5.6 Plasticity in compression
    7. 5.7 Ramp loading
    8. 5.8 Release, spallation and failure
    9. 5.9 Adiabatic shear banding in metals
    10. 5.10 Metallic response under dynamic compression
    11. 5.11 The response of metals to dynamic tension
    12. 5.12 Final comments
    13. 5.13 Selected reading
  12. 6 Brittle materials
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Brittle failure
    3. 6.3 Crack speeds and fracture propagation
    4. 6.4 Material classes and their structures
    5. 6.5 Shock loading of glasses and polycrystalline ceramics
    6. 6.6 Dynamic compression of glasses
    7. 6.7 Dynamic compression of polycrystalline ceramics
    8. 6.8 Ballistics
    9. 6.9 The response of brittle solids to dynamic compression
    10. 6.10 Final comments
    11. 6.11 Selected reading
  13. 7 Polymers
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Classification and key behaviours
    3. 7.3 High strain rate properties
    4. 7.4 Dynamic compression of polymers
    5. 7.5 Shock polarisation of polymers
    6. 7.6 PTFE, PEEK and PMMA Taylor cylinder impact
    7. 7.7 The response of plastics to dynamic compression
    8. 7.8 Final comments
    9. 7.9 Selected reading
  14. 8 Energetic materials
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Classification of energetics
    3. 8.3 Reaction pathways
    4. 8.4 Ignition and initiation
    5. 8.5 Approaches in describing growth of reaction
    6. 8.6 The response of energetic materials to dynamic compression
    7. 8.7 Explosives engineering
    8. 8.8 Final comments
    9. 8.9 Selected reading
  15. 9 Asteroid impact
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Structural scales in condensed matter
    3. 9.3 Regimes of compression
    4. 9.4 Phases of loading
    5. 9.5 Weak shock behaviour in metals, brittle solids, plastics and explosives
    6. 9.6 Response of materials to extreme dynamic loading
    7. 9.7 Response of components and structures to extreme dynamic loading
    8. 9.8 Impact at Chicxulub
    9. 9.9 Final comments
    10. 9.10 Selected reading
  16. Appendix A Relevant topics from materials science
    1. A.1 Structures
    2. A.2 Strength of a crystalline material
    3. A.3 Crystalline defects
    4. A.4 Plasticity
    5. A.5 Brittle behaviour: crack generation and propagation
    6. A.6 Summary
  17. Appendix B Glossary
  18. Appendix C Elastic moduli in solid mechanics
  19. Appendix D Shock relations and constants
  20. Bibliography
  21. Index