You are previewing Materials for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort in Buildings.
O'Reilly logo
Materials for Energy Efficiency and Thermal Comfort in Buildings

Book Description

Almost half of the total energy produced in the developed world is inefficiently used to heat, cool, ventilate and control humidity in buildings, to meet the increasingly high thermal comfort levels demanded by occupants. The utilisation of advanced materials and passive technologies in buildings would substantially reduce the energy demand and improve the environmental impact and carbon footprint of building stock worldwide.

Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in buildings critically reviews the advanced building materials applicable for improving the built environment. Part one reviews both fundamental building physics and occupant comfort in buildings, from heat and mass transport, hygrothermal behaviour, and ventilation, on to thermal comfort and health and safety requirements.

Part two details the development of advanced materials and sustainable technologies for application in buildings, beginning with a review of lifecycle assessment and environmental profiling of materials. The section moves on to review thermal insulation materials, materials for heat and moisture control, and heat energy storage and passive cooling technologies. Part two concludes with coverage of modern methods of construction, roofing design and technology, and benchmarking of façades for optimised building thermal performance.

Finally, Part three reviews the application of advanced materials, design and technologies in a range of existing and new building types, including domestic, commercial and high-performance buildings, and buildings in hot and tropical climates.

This book is of particular use to, mechanical, electrical and HVAC engineers, architects and low-energy building practitioners worldwide, as well as to academics and researchers in the fields of building physics, civil and building engineering, and materials science.

  • Explores improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort through material selection and sustainable technologies
  • Documents the development of advanced materials and sustainable technologies for applications in building design and construction
  • Examines fundamental building physics and occupant comfort in buildings featuring heat and mass transport, hygrothermal behaviour and ventilation

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributor contact details
  6. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy
  7. Preface
  8. This publication was sponsored by The Austin Company of UK Limited
  9. Part I: Fundamental issues and building physics: understanding energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the built environment
    1. Chapter 1: Heat and mass transport processes in building materials
      1. Abstract:
      2. 1.1 Introduction
      3. 1.2 Heat transfer: the transport of energy
      4. 1.3 Mass transfer: the transport of matter
      5. 1.4 Summary
      6. 1.7 Appendix: Nomenclature
    2. Chapter 2: Hygrothermal behaviour and simulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 2.1 Introduction
      3. 2.2 Hygrothermal loads
      4. 2.3 Modelling simultaneous heat and moisture transfer processes
      5. 2.4 Input data for hygrothermal calculations
      6. 2.5 Hygrothermal calculation results
      7. 2.6 Model validation and practical applications
      8. 2.7 Limitations of current hygrothermal models
      9. 2.8 Conclusions and future trends
    3. Chapter 3: Ventilation, air quality and airtightness in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Ventilation systems
      4. 3.3 Physical mechanisms
      5. 3.4 Feasibility of natural ventilation
      6. 3.5 Natural ventilation design
      7. 3.6 Issues concerning materials
      8. 3.7 Future trends
    4. Chapter 4: Heat energy storage and cooling in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Psychrometrics
      4. 4.3 Fundamentals of thermal energy storage
      5. 4.4 Materials for thermal energy storage
      6. 4.5 Thermal storage applications for building heating and cooling
      7. 4.8 Appendix: Nomenclature
    5. Chapter 5: Thermal comfort in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 5.1 Introduction
      3. 5.2 Thermal comfort
      4. 5.3 Measurement of thermal comfort
      5. 5.4 The thermal index: an assessment technique
      6. 5.5 Thermal comfort indices
      7. 5.6 International Standards and thermal comfort
      8. 5.7 Behavioural thermoregulation, thermal comfort and the adaptive model
      9. 5.8 Equivalent clothing index (IEQUIV)
      10. 5.9 Equivalent clothing index, the comfort temperature range and temperature limits in offices
      11. 5.10 Sustainable thermal comfort
    6. Chapter 6: Environmental health and safety in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Safety issues in occupied spaces
      4. 6.3 Combustion, fire and combustible materials
      5. 6.4 Infiltration of outdoor pollutants
      6. 6.5 Indoor emissions and outgassing
      7. 6.6 Occupant activity
      8. 6.7 Transformations within the interior
      9. 6.8 Particles in buildings that impact on environmental health and safety
      10. 6.9 Materials and toxicity
      11. 6.10 Advanced material requirements
      12. 6.11 Future trends
  10. Part II: Materials and sustainable technologies: improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the built environment
    1. Chapter 7: Life cycle assessment and environmental profiling of building materials
      1. Abstract:
      2. 7.1 Materials sustainability
      3. 7.2 A life cycle approach to selecting building materials
      4. 7.3 A brief history of life cycle assessment (LCA)
      5. 7.4 Environmental labelling
      6. 7.5 Life cycle assessment (LCA) of building materials
      7. 7.6 Life cycle assessment (LCA) standardisation
      8. 7.7 UK context
      9. 7.8 Other issues
    2. Chapter 8: Inorganic mineral materials for insulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Regulatory requirements
      4. 8.3 Building-related properties
      5. 8.4 Ecological and health aspects
      6. 8.5 Individual product profiles
      7. 8.6 Summary
    3. Chapter 9: Natural fibre and fibre composite materials for insulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Regulatory requirements
      4. 9.3 Building-related properties
      5. 9.4 Ecological and health aspects
      6. 9.5 Individual product profiles
      7. 9.6 Reference buildings
      8. 9.7 Summary
    4. Chapter 10: Polymeric foam materials for insulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 Foams classification, materials and foaming mechanism
      4. 10.3 Processing technologies
      5. 10.4 Thermoplastic and thermosetting foams
      6. 10.5 Future trends
      7. 10.8 Appendix: Abbreviations
    5. Chapter 11: Thermal insulation material for building equipment
      1. Abstract:
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Insulation materials
      4. 11.3 Form pieces and form parts
      5. 11.4 Support and spacer ring constructions
      6. 11.5 Vapour retarder materials
      7. 11.6 Claddings
      8. 11.7 Insulation system
      9. 11.8 Heat loss of the operational installation in technical building equipment
    6. Chapter 12: Reflective materials and radiant barriers for insulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 12.1 Background and definitions
      3. 12.2 Applications and assemblies
      4. 12.3 Basis for thermal performance
      5. 12.4 Measurement of thermal performance
      6. 12.5 Codes and standards
    7. Chapter 13: Aerogel materials for insulation in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Processing material and properties
      4. 13.3 Aerogel formation
      5. 13.4 Physical properties of aerogels
      6. 13.5 Applications of aerogels
      7. 13.6 Future trends
      8. 13.7 Conclusions
    8. Chapter 14: Hygrothermal materials for heat and moisture control in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Characterization of hygrothermal functional properties
      4. 14.3 Material classes
      5. 14.4 Applications in buildings and occupied spaces
      6. 14.5 Future trends
      7. 14.6 Sources of further information and advice
      8. 14.7 Acknowledgements
      9. 14.9 Appendix: Nomenclature
    9. Chapter 15: Desiccant materials for moisture control in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Desiccant cycle
      4. 15.3 Desiccant applications
      5. 15.4 Health and comfort
      6. 15.5 Air quality
      7. 15.6 Natural and commercial desiccants: typical materials
      8. 15.7 Practical applications of commercial desiccants
      9. 15.8 Practical applications of natural desiccants for modifying building humidity
      10. 15.10 Appendix: Energy efficiency ratio (EER) and coefficient of performance (COP)
    10. Chapter 16: Phase change materials for energy storage and thermal comfort in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Background
      4. 16.3 Selection of phase change materials (pcm) and fabrication of pcm-gypsum wallboards (pcmgw)
      5. 16.4 Full-scale testing facilities
      6. 16.5 Benefits of applying thermal energy storage
      7. 16.6 Computer simulation
      8. 16.7 Conclusions
    11. Chapter 17: Porous materials for direct and indirect evaporative cooling in buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 17.1 Introduction
      3. 17.2 Assessing the capacities of evaporative cooling systems and the associated requirements in materials
      4. 17.3 Comparative analyses of potential materials for evaporative cooling
      5. 17.4 Potential applications of porous materials in buildings
      6. 17.5 Conclusions
      7. 17.7 Appendix: Nomenclature
    12. Chapter 18: Prefabricated building units and modern methods of construction (MMC)
      1. Abstract:
      2. 18.1 Materials led building design
      3. 18.2 Offsite construction
      4. 18.3 Standardisation in construction
      5. 18.4 Types of offsite construction
      6. 18.5 Comfort factors in lightweight buildings
      7. 18.6 Design led materials for addressing lightweight performance issues
      8. 18.7 Delivering sustainable comfort: a question of balance
      9. 18.8 Thin solutions (insulation and mass)
      10. 18.9 Thermal mass in offsite potential
      11. 18.10 Phase change materials (PCMs)
      12. 18.11 Advancements in phase change materials for buildings
      13. 18.12 New membrane developments
      14. 18.13 Composite design
    13. Chapter 19: Roofing materials for thermal performance and environmental integration of buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 19.1 A question of design
      3. 19.2 Roof construction
      4. 19.3 Thermal performance of roofing materials
      5. 19.4 Vegetated roofing systems
      6. 19.5 Solar integrated roofing systems
      7. 19.6 Natural ventilation
      8. 19.7 Rainwater harvesting
      9. 19.8 The role of roofs in building rating systems
      10. 19.9 Conclusions
    14. Chapter 20: Assessing and benchmarking the performance of advanced building façades
      1. Abstract:
      2. 20.1 Advanced façades
      3. 20.2 Façade component options
      4. 20.3 Performance models and model parameter measurement
      5. 20.4 Integrated performance rating
      6. 20.5 Application in practice
      7. 20.6 Benchmarking façade performance
  11. Part III: Application of advanced building materials and design: improving energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the built environment
    1. Chapter 21: Advanced building materials and eco-building design
      1. Abstract:
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 Issues in eco-building design
      4. 21.3 Challenges of sustainable development for a designer
      5. 21.4 The eco-building design process
      6. 21.5 Heelis: brief case history
      7. 21.6 Future trends
    2. Chapter 22: Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in domestic buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 EU domestic housing stock
      4. 22.3 UK domestic housing
      5. 22.4 Building fabric heat loss and CO2 emissions
      6. 22.5 Architectural vernacular
      7. 22.6 Intervention strategies
      8. 22.7 Internal wall insulation
      9. 22.8 External wall insulation
      10. 22.9 Carbon payback time
      11. 22.10 Summary
    3. Chapter 23: Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in commercial buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Energy efficiency and thermal comfort in offices
      4. 23.3 Energy efficiency and thermal comfort in retail spaces
      5. 23.4 Energy efficiency and thermal comfort in factories and warehouses
      6. 23.5 Embodied energy
      7. 23.6 Material choice
      8. 23.7 Modelling and monitoring thermal performance and comfort
      9. 23.8 Future trends in design and refurbishment
    4. Chapter 24: Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in high performance buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 User considerations
      4. 24.3 External considerations
      5. 24.4 Internal considerations
      6. 24.5 Process areas
      7. 24.6 People areas
      8. 24.7 Environmental design and computer modelling
      9. 24.8 Environmental and energy considerations
      10. 24.9 Building research establishment environmental assessment method (BREEAM®)
      11. 24.10 Future trends
    5. Chapter 25: Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in new buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Challenges facing the new build construction sector
      4. 25.3 The role, shape and trend of legislation
      5. 25.4 Thermal mass
      6. 25.5 Phase change materials (PCMs)
      7. 25.6 Vegetation and reflective materials
      8. 25.7 Future trends
    6. Chapter 26: Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in the refurbishment of existing buildings
      1. Abstract:
      2. 26.1 Introduction
      3. 26.2 Change of use in buildings
      4. 26.3 Approaches to low carbon retrofit systems/technologies
      5. 26.4 Post-occupancy evaluation (POE)
      6. 26.5 Sources of further information
      7. 26.6 Acknowledgements
    7. Chapter 27: Application of design and passive technologies for thermal comfort in buildings in hot and tropical climates
      1. Abstract:
      2. 27.1 Thermal comfort in different climates
      3. 27.2 Climate impact on urban pattern and building form and fabric
      4. 27.3 Climate impact on building fabric
      5. 27.4 Approaches and lessons learned from traditional hot-climate architecture
      6. 27.5 Applications of design and passive technologies in modern buildings
      7. 27.6 Thermal performance of passive solar systems
      8. 27.7 Conclusions
  12. Index