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Material Science and Metallurgy by U. C. Jindal

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10

Metals and Alloys

10.1 INTRODUCTION

From the beginning of civilization, man is in the search of newer and newer materials. Gold, silver and copper are known to the man from the Stone Age, when the ancient people used to kill their prey with the help of stone weapons. Iron is being used for more than last 8000 years, when the iron tools were chipped from the pieces of meteorites containing metallic iron. Initially, iron was used in forged form, and then the iron casting was established.

There are two types of alloys: Ferrous alloys and non-ferrous alloys. In ferrous alloys, iron is the prime constituent and for the improvement of its mechanical and physical properties, various elements as Ni, Cr, Mn and W are added. There are different types ...

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