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Material Science and Metallurgy

Book Description

Material Science and Metallurgy is presented in a user-friendly language and the diagrams give a clear view and concept. Solved problems, multiple choice questions and review questions are also integral part of the book. The contents of the book are designed taking into account the syllabi of various universities, technical institutions and competitive examinations like UPSC, GATE etc. This book is among the very few in the market that covers both Material Science and Metallurgy as per various university requirements.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title page
  3. Contents
  4. About the Author
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1. Atomic Structure
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Isotopes
    3. 1.3 Isobars
    4. 1.4 Avogadro’s Number
    5. 1.5 Atomic Model
    6. 1.6 Electron Configurations
    7. 1.7 Periodic Table
    8. Multiple Choice Questions
    9. Review Questions
  8. Chapter 2. Atomic Bonding and Crystal Structure
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Classification of Materials
    3. 2.3 Atomic Structure
    4. 2.4 Space Lattice
    5. 2.5 Basis
    6. 2.6 Bravais Crystal Structure
    7. 2.7 Atomic Bonding in Solids
    8. 2.8 Primary Interatomic Bonding
    9. 2.9 Structures of Crystalline Solids
    10. 2.10 Density
    11. 2.11 Allotropy or Polymorphism
    12. 2.12 Crystallographic Directions
    13. 2.13 Crystallographic Planes
    14. 2.14 Atomic Arrangements
    15. 2.15 Crystal Growth of Polycrystalline Materials
    16. 2.16 Single Crystal
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Review Questions
    19. Practice Problems
  9. Chapter 3. Imperfections in Solids
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Point Defects
    3. 3.3 Impurities in Solids
    4. 3.4 Line Defects
    5. 3.5 Characteristics of Dislocations
    6. 3.6 Sources of Dislocations
    7. 3.7 Stacking of Close-packed Structures
    8. 3.8 Stacking Faults
    9. 3.9 Behaviour of Dislocations
    10. 3.10 Twinning
    11. 3.11 Grain Boundaries
    12. 3.12 Low-angle Grain Boundaries
    13. 3.13 Volume Imperfections
    14. 3.14 Whiskers
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Review Questions
    17. Practice Problems
  10. Chapter 4. Plastic Deformation in Crystalline Materials
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Slip in Perfect Lattice
    3. 4.3 Slip Systems
    4. 4.4 Critical Resolved Shear Stress for Slip
    5. 4.5 Strain Hardening of Single Crystal
    6. 4.6 Yield Point Phenomenon
    7. 4.7 Strain Ageing
    8. 4.8 Hardening Due to Point Defects
    9. 4.9 Mechanism of Strengthening in Metals
    10. 4.10 Recovery, Recrystallization and Grain Growth
    11. Multiple Choice Questions
    12. Review Questions
  11. Chapter 5. Mechanical Properties
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Tension Test
    3. 5.3 Hardness
    4. 5.4 Fracture
    5. 5.5 Fracture Mechanics
    6. 5.6 Impact Fracture Testing
    7. 5.7 Temper Embrittlement
    8. 5.8 Hydrogen Embrittlement
    9. 5.9 Fatigue
    10. 5.10 Creep
    11. 5.11 Stress Relaxation
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Practice Problems
  12. Chapter 6. Diffusion
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Diffusion Couple
    3. 6.3 Grain Boundary Diffusion and Surface Diffusion
    4. 6.4 Types of Diffusion
    5. 6.5 Factors Affecting Diffusion
    6. 6.6 Laws of Diffusion
    7. 6.7 Fick’s Second Law
    8. 6.8 Depth of Case Carburization
    9. 6.9 Impurity Diffusion
    10. 6.10 Diffusion-controlled Applications
    11. 6.11 Kirkendal Effect
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Practice Problems
  13. Chapter 7. Phase Diagrams
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Phases
    3. 7.3 Solidification of a Metal in an Ingot Mould
    4. 7.4 Types of Phase Diagrams
    5. 7.5 Binary Amorphous Alloys
    6. 7.6 Development of Microstructure in Amorphous Alloy
    7. 7.7 Non-equilibrium cooling—Development of Microstructure in Binary Amorphous Alloy
    8. 7.8 Binary Eutectic Systems
    9. 7.9 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys
    10. 7.10 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds
    11. 7.11 Eutectoid or Peritectic Reactions
    12. 7.12 Gibb’s Phase Rule
    13. 7.13 Iron Carbon System
    14. 7.14 Microstructural Developments
    15. Multiple Choice Questions
    16. Review Questions
    17. Practice Problems
  14. Chapter 8. Phase Transformations
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Solidification of Metal in Ingot Mould
    3. 8.3 Types of Phase Transformations
    4. 8.4 Nucleation and Growth Kinetics
    5. 8.5 Multiphase Transformations
    6. 8.6 Pearlitic Transformation
    7. 8.7 Bainite Transformation
    8. 8.8 Martensitic Transformation
    9. 8.9 Formation of Austenite
    10. 8.10 Precipitation and Age Hardening
    11. 8.11 Continuous Cooling Transformation Curve
    12. 8.12 Mechanical Behaviour of Iron–Carbon Alloys
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Review Questions
    15. Practice Problems
  15. Chapter 9. Heat Treatment of Steels
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Heat Treatment Processes
    3. 9.3 Temperature Ranges of Various Heat Treatment Processes
    4. 9.4 Annealing
    5. 9.5 Normalizing
    6. 9.6 Hardening
    7. 9.7 Hardenability
    8. 9.8 Hardening Methods
    9. 9.9 Tempering
    10. 9.10 Subzero Treatment of Steel
    11. 9.11 Diffusion Treatments
    12. 9.12 Surface Hardening Techniques
    13. 9.13 Special Purpose Heat Treatments
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Review Questions
  16. Chapter 10. Metals and Alloys
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Types of Ferrous Alloys
    3. 10.3 Plain Carbon Steels
    4. 10.4 Alloy Steels
    5. 10.5 Stainless Steels
    6. 10.6 Cast Irons
    7. 10.7 Non-ferrous Alloys
    8. 10.8 Copper and its Alloys
    9. 10.9 Aluminium and its Alloys
    10. 10.10 Nickel Base Alloys
    11. 10.11 Magnesium and its Alloys
    12. 10.12 Titanium and its Alloys
    13. 10.13 Zinc
    14. 10.14 Refractory Metals
    15. 10.15 Superalloys
    16. 10.16 Bearing Metals
    17. 10.17 Aircraft Materials
    18. Multiple Choice Questions
    19. Review Questions
  17. Chapter 11. Organic Materials
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Types of Organic Materials
    3. 11.3 Types of Polymers
    4. 11.4 Degree of Polymerization
    5. 11.5 Geometry of Polymeric Chains
    6. 11.6 Mechanism of Polymerization
    7. 11.7 Homopolymerization and Copolymerization
    8. 11.8 Condensation Polymerization
    9. 11.9 Additives in Polymers
    10. 11.10 Strengthening Mechanisms of Polymers
    11. 11.11 Stereotactic Synthesis
    12. 11.12 Plastics
    13. 11.13 Fibers and Filaments
    14. 11.14 Elastomers and Rubbers
    15. 11.15 Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of Polymers
    16. 11.16 Special Purpose Plastics
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Review Questions
    19. Practice Problems
  18. Chapter 12. Ceramic Materials
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Classification of Ceramics
    3. 12.3 Refractories
    4. 12.4 Silicates and Silica
    5. 12.5 Structure of Glasses
    6. 12.6 Glasses
    7. 12.7 Thermal Behavior of Glasses
    8. 12.8 Lime
    9. 12.9 Polymorphs of Carbon
    10. 12.10 Carbon Products and Hard Ceramics
    11. 12.11 Clay-based Ceramics
    12. 12.12 Cement
    13. 12.13 Concrete
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Review Questions
  19. Chapter 13. Composite Materials
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Types of Composites
    3. 13.3 Large Particle Composites
    4. 13.4 Dispersion-strengthened Composites
    5. 13.5 Fiber-reinforced Composites
    6. 13.6 Fiber Phase
    7. 13.7 Matrix Phase
    8. 13.8 Polymer Matrix Composites
    9. 13.9 Ceramic Matrix Composites
    10. 13.10 Carbon–carbon Composites
    11. 13.11 Metal Matrix Composites
    12. 13.12 Hybrid Composites
    13. 13.13 Structural Composites
    14. Multiple Choice Questions
    15. Review Questions
    16. Practice Problems
  20. Chapter 14. Wear of Materials
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 History of Friction and Wear
    3. 14.3 Contact Mechanics
    4. 14.4 Friction
    5. 14.5 Measurements
    6. 14.6 Definition of Wear
    7. 14.7 Forms of Wear
    8. 14.8 Sliding Contact Wear
    9. 14.9 Abrasive Wear
    10. 14.10 Types of Erosion
    11. 14.11 Surface Fatigue
    12. 14.12 Protection Against Wear
    13. 14.13 Hard Facing
    14. 14.14 Bearings
    15. 14.15 Lubrication
    16. Multiple Choice Questions
    17. Review Questions
  21. Chapter 15. Corrosion and Oxidation
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Electrochemical Reaction
    3. 15.3 Electrochemical Process
    4. 15.4 Electrolytes
    5. 15.5 Galvanic Cell
    6. 15.6 Types of Corrosion
    7. 15.7 Laws of Corrosion
    8. 15.8 Corrosion Rate
    9. 15.9 Dry Corrosion
    10. 15.10 Rusting of Steel
    11. 15.11 Various Forms of Corrosion
    12. 15.12 Factors Affecting Corrosion
    13. 15.13 Corrosion Fatigue
    14. 15.14 Corrosion of Ceramic Materials
    15. 15.15 Degradation of Polymers
    16. 15.16 Guidelines for Protection Against Corrosion and Oxidation
    17. Multiple Choice Questions
    18. Review Questions
  22. Chapter 16. Thermal Properties
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Temperature Scale
    3. 16.3 Melting Point
    4. 16.4 Heat Capacity
    5. 16.5 Temperature Dependence of Heat Capacity
    6. 16.6 Thermal Shock
    7. 16.7 Thermal Conductivity
    8. 16.8 Thermal Expansion
    9. 16.9 Thermal Stresses
    10. 16.10 Materials for High-temperature Applications
    11. 16.11 Materials for Low-temperature Applications
    12. Multiple Choice Questions
    13. Review Questions
    14. Practice Problems
  23. Chapter 17. Electrical Conductivity and Insulating Properties
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Ohm’s Law
    3. 17.3 Commonly Used Conducting Materials
    4. 17.4 High-resistivity Materials
    5. 17.5 Electron Configuration
    6. 17.6 Electron Energy Band
    7. 17.7 Different Types of Band Structures
    8. 17.8 Band and Atomic Bonding Model for Conduction
    9. 17.9 Electron Mobility
    10. 17.10 Electrical Resistivity of Metals
    11. 17.11 Electronic and Ionic Conduction
    12. 17.12 Commercial Alloys
    13. 17.13 Insulation
    14. 17.14 High-voltage Insulators
    15. 17.15 Insulation of Antennas
    16. 17.16 Insulation of Electrical Apparatus
    17. 17.17 Class I And Class II Insulation
    18. 17.18 Properties of Insulating Materials
    19. Multiple Choice Questions
    20. Review Questions
    21. Practice Problems
  24. Chapter 18. Semiconductors
    1. 18.1 Introduction
    2. 18.2 Semiconduction
    3. 18.3 Temperature Effect on Intrinsic Semiconductor
    4. 18.4 Extrinsic Semiconductors
    5. 18.5 Hall Effect
    6. 18.6 Variation of Conductivity with Temperature and Carrier Concentration
    7. 18.7 Semiconductor Devices
    8. 18.8 Infrared Detectors and Photoconductors
    9. 18.9 Thermoelectrics
    10. 18.10 Transistors
    11. 18.11 Microelectronic Circuitry
    12. 18.12 Applications of Semiconductors
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Review Questions
    15. Practice Problems
  25. Chapter 19. Dielectric Properties
    1. 19.1 Introduction
    2. 19.2 Dielectric Behaviour
    3. 19.3 Dipole Moment and Polarization
    4. 19.4 Polarization of an Electric Field
    5. 19.5 Frequency Dependence of Dielectric Constant
    6. 19.6 Effect of Temperature on Dielectric Constant
    7. 19.7 Dielectric Losses
    8. 19.8 Dielectric Breakdown
    9. 19.9 Ferroelectricity
    10. 19.10 Piezoelectricity
    11. 19.11 Dielectric Materials
    12. 19.12 Practical Dielectrics
    13. Multiple Choice Questions
    14. Review Questions
    15. Practice Problems
  26. Chapter 20. Magnetic Properties
    1. 20.1 Introduction
    2. 20.2 Magnetism
    3. 20.3 Magnetic Field Vectors
    4. 20.4 Magnetization Curves
    5. 20.5 Ferromagnetism
    6. 20.6 Ferrimagnetism
    7. 20.7 Magnetostriction
    8. 20.8 Effect of Temperature on Magnetic Behaviour
    9. 20.9 Domains
    10. 20.10 Hysteresis
    11. 20.11 Soft Magnetic Materials
    12. 20.12 Hard Magnetic Materials
    13. 20.13 Magnetic Storage
    14. 20.14 Commonly Used Magnetic Materials
    15. 20.15 Superconductivity
    16. Multiple Choice Questions
    17. Review Questions
    18. Practice Problems
  27. Chapter 21. Optical Properties of Materials
    1. 21.1 Introduction
    2. 21.2 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Solids
    3. 21.3 Reflection and Refraction at the Interface
    4. 21.4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    5. 21.5 Absorption and Scattering
    6. 21.6 Colour
    7. 21.7 Fluorescence, Phosphorescence and Luminescence
    8. 21.8 Laser
    9. 21.9 The Fibre Optic Communication
    10. Multiple Choice Questions
    11. Review Questions
    12. Practice Problems
  28. Copyright