You are previewing Mastering Windows Server® 2008 Networking Foundations.
O'Reilly logo
Mastering Windows Server® 2008 Networking Foundations

Book Description

Find in-depth coverage of general networking concepts and basic instruction on Windows Server 2008 installation and management including active directory, DNS, Windows storage, and TCP/IP and IPv4 networking basics in Mastering Windows Server 2008 Networking Foundations. One of three new books by best-selling author Mark Minasi, this guide explains what servers do, how basic networking works (IP basics and DNS/WINS basics), and the fundamentals of the under-the-hood technologies that support staff must understand. Learn how to install Windows Server 2008 and build a simple network, security concepts, and basic Windows Server administration.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Introduction
  4. 1. Why Network?
    1. 1.1. What's the Point of Networks and Networking?
      1. 1.1.1. Choosing a Network Type
      2. 1.1.2. Network Client and Server Software
      3. 1.1.3. Networks Need Connection Hardware and Links
      4. 1.1.4. Considering the Hardware
      5. 1.1.5. Clients and Servers Must Speak the Same Protocols
    2. 1.2. A Brief History of Windows
  5. 2. Building a Simple Network
    1. 2.1. Getting Your Free Copy of Windows Server 2008
      1. 2.1.1. Downloading the Software
      2. 2.1.2. Extending the 30-Day Version to 180 Days
      3. 2.1.3. Performing the Installation
    2. 2.2. Performing the Basic Network Setup
      1. 2.2.1. Changing the Machine Name
      2. 2.2.2. Changing the Network Name
    3. 2.3. Creating User Accounts
    4. 2.4. Sharing Resources with Other Computers
    5. 2.5. Accessing Resources on Another Computer
      1. 2.5.1. Accessing Resources Temporarily
      2. 2.5.2. Making Resource Access Automatic
  6. 3. Security Concepts in Windows
    1. 3.1. Understanding the Need to Secure Windows
    2. 3.2. Considering What You Need to Secure in Windows
    3. 3.3. Understanding Authentication versus Authorization
    4. 3.4. Understanding How Authentication Works
      1. 3.4.1. Where Windows Stores Users and Passwords
      2. 3.4.2. Securing the User Account Database
      3. 3.4.3. Networkable, Centralized Accounts: Domains
      4. 3.4.4. Secure Logons Across a Network
    5. 3.5. Understanding How Authorization Works
      1. 3.5.1. Permissions and Access Control Lists (ACLs)
      2. 3.5.2. Understanding What Tokens Do
      3. 3.5.3. Access to Earlier Security Systems
      4. 3.5.4. Defining File and Folder Security
  7. 4. Installing Windows Server 2008: Basics
    1. 4.1. Choosing a Windows Server 2008 Edition
    2. 4.2. Performing a Windows Server 2008 Full Version Installation
      1. 4.2.1. Considering the Installation Choices
      2. 4.2.2. Using the DVD Installation Method
    3. 4.3. Using the Initial Tasks Page
      1. 4.3.1. Providing Computer Information
      2. 4.3.2. Update the Server
      3. 4.3.3. Customizing This Server
    4. 4.4. Understanding Roles and Features
    5. 4.5. Determining the Need for Specific Roles and Features
    6. 4.6. Installing Roles and Features
      1. 4.6.1. Adding Roles
      2. 4.6.2. Removing Roles
      3. 4.6.3. Adding and Removing Features
  8. 5. Controlling Windows Server: MMC
    1. 5.1. Fixing the Server 2008 GUI
      1. 5.1.1. Restoring Your Desktop Icons and Start Menu
      2. 5.1.2. Setting Administrator-Friendly Folder Options
    2. 5.2. A Microsoft Management Console Primer
      1. 5.2.1. What Is This MMC Thing?
      2. 5.2.2. MMC Terms to Know
      3. 5.2.3. The Computer Management Console
      4. 5.2.4. Other MMC Tools
    3. 5.3. Building Your Own MMC Tools
      1. 5.3.1. Building a Simple Microsoft Saved Console
      2. 5.3.2. Creating the Removable Storage Manager Console
  9. 6. Controlling Windows Server: The Command Line
    1. 6.1. Why You Give a Hoot about the Command Line Interface
      1. 6.1.1. Reasons to Use the Command Line
      2. 6.1.2. Situations Where the Command Line Is Less Useful
    2. 6.2. Elements of the Command Line
      1. 6.2.1. Command Line Rights
      2. 6.2.2. Command Prompt Window Configuration
      3. 6.2.3. Command Prompt Personalization
      4. 6.2.4. Internal Versus External Commands
    3. 6.3. Basic Command Examples
      1. 6.3.1. Getting Help at the Command Line
      2. 6.3.2. Checking the Status of the System
      3. 6.3.3. Viewing and Managing Tasks
      4. 6.3.4. Locating Specific Files Based on Content
    4. 6.4. Simple Batch Files
  10. 7. Controlling Windows III: The Registry
    1. 7.1. Computer Configuration and the Registry
    2. 7.2. Why Should You Care About the Registry?
      1. 7.2.1. The Registry Is the Real Control Panel
      2. 7.2.2. Some Administrative Tasks Require Direct Registry Editing
    3. 7.3. Looking at the Registry
      1. 7.3.1. The Keys
      2. 7.3.2. Viewing the Registry from the Command Line
    4. 7.4. Changing Registry Entries
      1. 7.4.1. Changing Registry Entries from the Command Line
      2. 7.4.2. Registry Entry Types
    5. 7.5. Researching the Registry
      1. 7.5.1. Discovering Registry Keys on Your Own
      2. 7.5.2. Dealing with a "Hey, Where Is It?" Registry Value
    6. 7.6. Creating/Deleting a New Registry Entry
      1. 7.6.1. Creating and Deleting Registry Entries from the CLI
    7. 7.7. Backing Up and Restoring a Registry Subkey
    8. 7.8. Securing the Registry
      1. 7.8.1. Subkeys Have Permissions
      2. 7.8.2. Registry Security: the Idea and the Effects
    9. 7.9. Where the Registry Lives: Hives
      1. 7.9.1. A Look at the Hive Files
      2. 7.9.2. Fault Tolerance in the Registry
    10. 7.10. Remote Registry Modification
    11. 7.11. Backing Up and Restoring a Registry
  11. 8. Controlling Windows Server: Group Policy
    1. 8.1. The Power of Group Policy
    2. 8.2. Working with LGPOs
      1. 8.2.1. Local Group Policy
      2. 8.2.2. Administrators or Non-Administrators LGPO
      3. 8.2.3. User Specific LGPO
    3. 8.3. Group Policy Breakdown: How LGPOs Are Organized and Structured
      1. 8.3.1. Computer Node vs. User Node
      2. 8.3.2. LGPO ... Just a Glorified Registry Editor
      3. 8.3.3. Introducing ADM Templates and ADMX Files
      4. 8.3.4. Not All Group Policy Settings Are Registry-Based
      5. 8.3.5. Introducing Client Side Extensions
      6. 8.3.6. Essential Policy Settings
    4. 8.4. Using Scripts inGroup Policy
    5. 8.5. Working with Active Directory—Based GPOs
      1. 8.5.1. LGPOs and Active Directory GPOs
  12. 9. Windows Storage Concepts and Skills
    1. 9.1. Disk Management versus DiskPart
      1. 9.1.1. The Disk Management Gooey (GUI)
      2. 9.1.2. Meet DiskPart, the Command-Line Interface
    2. 9.2. The Basics of Disk Management
      1. 9.2.1. Physical/Logical Disks: How to Slice Them Up
      2. 9.2.2. Basic Disks versus Dynamic Disks
      3. 9.2.3. Server 2008 Setup and System Disk Meet Dynamic Disks
    3. 9.3. RAID in Server 2008
      1. 9.3.1. Mirrored Volumes — RAID-1
      2. 9.3.2. RAID-5
      3. 9.3.3. Moving a Dynamic Disk
    4. 9.4. Performing Disk Maintenance
      1. 9.4.1. Background: Disk Geometry and File Formats
      2. 9.4.2. Formatting Disks
      3. 9.4.3. Dealing Out Disk Space ... Managing Disk Quotas
      4. 9.4.4. Volume Shadow Copy Service
      5. 9.4.5. Encrypting NTFS Files and Folders
      6. 9.4.6. Tools of Disk Maintenance
      7. 9.4.7. Defragmenting Disks
      8. 9.4.8. Remote Storage
    5. 9.5. The Evolution of Storage
  13. 10. TCP/IP and IPv4 Networking Basics
    1. 10.1. A Brief History of TCP/IP
      1. 10.1.1. Origins of TCP/IP: From the ARPANET to the Internet
      2. 10.1.2. Goals of TCP/IP's Design
    2. 10.2. Getting There: The Internet Protocol (IP)
      1. 10.2.1. A Simple Internet
      2. 10.2.2. Subnets and Routers: "Should I Shout, or Should I Route?"
      3. 10.2.3. IP Addresses and Ethernet/Media Access Control (MAC) Addresses
      4. 10.2.4. Where Your System Gets Its IP Address From
      5. 10.2.5. IP Routers
      6. 10.2.6. Routing in More Detail
    3. 10.3. Class A, B, and C Networks, CIDR Blocks, and Routable and Nonroutable Addresses
      1. 10.3.1. A, B, and C Class Networks
      2. 10.3.2. Routable and Nonroutable Addresses
      3. 10.3.3. You Can't Use All of the Numbers
      4. 10.3.4. Subnet Masks
      5. 10.3.5. Exercise: Using IPCon.g to View Network Information
      6. 10.3.6. Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
      7. 10.3.7. What IP Doesn't Do: Error Checking
    4. 10.4. Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
      1. 10.4.1. Sequencing
      2. 10.4.2. Flow Control
      3. 10.4.3. Error Detection/Correction
    5. 10.5. Sockets, Ports, and the Winsock Interface
      1. 10.5.1. How Ports and Sockets Work: An Example
      2. 10.5.2. Routing the Nonroutable, Part II: PAT and NAT
      3. 10.5.3. Winsock Sockets
    6. 10.6. Internet Host Names
      1. 10.6.1. Simple Naming Systems (HOSTS)
      2. 10.6.2. Domain Name System (DNS)
      3. 10.6.3. E-Mail Names: A Note
    7. 10.7. Attaching to an Internet
      1. 10.7.1. Dumb Terminal Connection
      2. 10.7.2. PPP Serial Connection
      3. 10.7.3. Cable Modem and DSL Connections
      4. 10.7.4. LAN Connection
      5. 10.7.5. Terminal Connections versus Other Connections
    8. 10.8. The Basics of Setting Up TCP/IP on Windows Server 2008 with Static IP Addresses
      1. 10.8.1. Conguring TCP/IP with a Static IP Address
      2. 10.8.2. Setting Up MAIN
      3. 10.8.3. Testing Your IP Configuration
      4. 10.8.4. Configuration Continued: Setting Domain Suffixes
      5. 10.8.5. Handling Old Names: Con.guring Your Workstation for WINS
      6. 10.8.6. Adding IP Addresses to a Single NIC
    9. 10.9. Lower-Cost LAN-to-WAN Routingwith Internet Connection Sharing
      1. 10.9.1. Step One: Connect the Internal Network — and Meet Automatic Private Internet Protocol Addressing (APIPA)
      2. 10.9.2. Step Two: Get Connected to Your ISP
      3. 10.9.3. Step Three: Turn ICS On
      4. 10.9.4. Step Four: Con.gure the Intranet Machines
      5. 10.9.5. What About the Firewall?
  14. 11. What's in a Name? Network Name Overview
    1. 11.1. What Is Naming All About: What a Name Server Does for You
    2. 11.2. Name Resolution in Perspective: Introduction to WINS, Net BIOS, DNS, and Winsock
      1. 11.2.1. The Old: WINS, NetBIOS, and LMHOSTS
      2. 11.2.2. The New: Domain Naming System (DNS)
      3. 11.2.3. Two Different Lineages, Two Different Names
      4. 11.2.4. Application Program Interface = Modularity
  15. 12. Old Names: Understanding NetBIOS, WINS, and NetBIOS over TCP/IP
    1. 12.1. NetBIOS and Winsock
      1. 12.1.1. Handling Legacy and NetBIOS Names: The Windows Internet Name Service
      2. 12.1.2. NetBIOS atop TCP/IP (NBT)
      3. 12.1.3. Name Resolution before WINS: LMHOSTS
      4. 12.1.4. Introducing LMHOSTS
    2. 12.2. WINS: A NetBIOS Name Service for Windows
      1. 12.2.1. WINS Needs NT or Later Server
      2. 12.2.2. WINS Holds Name Registrations
      3. 12.2.3. WINS Client Failure Modes
      4. 12.2.4. It's My Name, but for How Long?
      5. 12.2.5. Installing WINS
      6. 12.2.6. Configuring a WINS Server
      7. 12.2.7. Designing a Multi-WINS Network
      8. 12.2.8. Adding the Second WINS Server
      9. 12.2.9. Keeping the Second Server Up-to-Date
      10. 12.2.10. Avoiding WINS Problems
      11. 12.2.11. Deleting, Tombstoning, and Purging WINS Records
      12. 12.2.12. WINS Proxy Agents
    3. 12.3. Name Resolution in More Detail
      1. 12.3.1. Review: Winsock versus NBT
      2. 12.3.2. DNS/Winsock Name Resolution
      3. 12.3.3. Controlling WINS versus DNS Order in Winsock
      4. 12.3.4. NetBIOS Name Resolution Sequence
  16. 13. New Names: How DNS Works
    1. 13.1. What DNS Does
    2. 13.2. Anatomy of a DNS Name
      1. 13.2.1. DNS Labels 1: The Host Name
      2. 13.2.2. DNS Labels 2: DNS domains or Zones
      3. 13.2.3. DNS domains Versus Active Directory Names
    3. 13.3. DNS from the Client Side
      1. 13.3.1. Preferred and Alternate DNS Servers
      2. 13.3.2. Configuring Your DNS Client Software
      3. 13.3.3. Configuring Your DNS Domain Membership
      4. 13.3.4. Configuring the DNS Suffix Search List
      5. 13.3.5. Caching Query Results
      6. 13.3.6. Caching Negative Query Results
    4. 13.4. Setting Up a Simple DNS Server
      1. 13.4.1. Find Your IP Addresses
      2. 13.4.2. Installing the DNS Server Software
      3. 13.4.3. Point the DNS Client to the DNS Server
      4. 13.4.4. Try Your DNS Server Out
      5. 13.4.5. Meet a Better DNS Tool: NSLOOKUP
      6. 13.4.6. Troubleshooting the Simple DNS Server
      7. 13.4.7. We Just Built a "Caching-Only" DNS Server
    5. 13.5. DNS Concepts: "The Hierarchy"
      1. 13.5.1. Introducing the Hierarchy: Back to Left-to-Right
      2. 13.5.2. Why Build the DNS Hierarchy This Way?
      3. 13.5.3. The Root, Top-Level, Second-Level, and Child domains
    6. 13.6. Building a More Complex DNS Server
      1. 13.6.1. Connect and Name the Systems
      2. 13.6.2. Set Up the IP Addresses and Preferred DNS Servers
      3. 13.6.3. Open the Firewalls to Allow Pings
      4. 13.6.4. Test Connectivity
      5. 13.6.5. Install DNS Suffixes
      6. 13.6.6. Make Winserver a DNS Server
      7. 13.6.7. Creating bigfirm.com: The Birth of a Domain
    7. 13.7. Configuring Your Zone with DNS Records
      1. 13.7.1. Adding Hosts to a Zone: "A" Records
      2. 13.7.2. Setting Up Reverse Lookups
      3. 13.7.3. Reading NS and SOA DNS Records
      4. 13.7.4. Working with A Records and Understanding Glue Records
      5. 13.7.5. Seeing All of the Records: The Zone Files Themselves
      6. 13.7.6. Giving a Host Multiple Names with CNAMEs
      7. 13.7.7. Identify Your E-mail Servers with MX Records
      8. 13.7.8. Modifying Your Zone's SOA Record
    8. 13.8. Spreading the Work: Secondary DNS Servers
      1. 13.8.1. Secondary DNS Servers Hold Read-Only Zone Copies
      2. 13.8.2. How Primaries Keep Secondaries Up-to-Date
    9. 13.9. Delegating: Child domains/Subdomains
      1. 13.9.1. Revising Bigfirm
      2. 13.9.2. Time for a Subdomain: test.big.rm.com
    10. 13.10. Easier Record Maintenance: Dynamic DNS (DDNS)
      1. 13.10.1. Seeing DDNS Work
      2. 13.10.2. What DDNS Does, Under the Hood
      3. 13.10.3. Why You Need a Dynamic Reverse Lookup Zone
      4. 13.10.4. Keeping Your Systems from Registering PTRs
      5. 13.10.5. What Triggers DDNS Registrations?
      6. 13.10.6. Stopping All DDNS Registrations
      7. 13.10.7. Troubleshooting Failed DDNS Registrations
      8. 13.10.8. Keeping Your Zones Clean with DNS Scavenging
      9. 13.10.9. DDNS and Security
    11. 13.11. Tweaking DNS Performance
      1. 13.11.1. Cheap "Clusters": Building Fault Tolerance with Multiple A Records and Round-Robin DNS
    12. 13.12. dnscmd Cheat Sheet
  17. 14. Automatic IP Setup: DHCP Essentials
    1. 14.1. DHCP:Automatic TCP/IP Configuration
      1. 14.1.1. Simplifying TCP/IP Administration: BOOTP
      2. 14.1.2. DHCP: BOOTP Plus
      3. 14.1.3. Installing and Configuring DHCP Servers
      4. 14.1.4. Monitoring DHCP
      5. 14.1.5. Rebuilding a Damaged DHCP Server
      6. 14.1.6. DHCP on the Client Side
      7. 14.1.7. DHCP in Detail: How DHCP Works
      8. 14.1.8. Designing Multi-DHCP Networks
  18. 15. Things to Come: A Peek at Active Directory
    1. 15.1. Centralized User Accounts and Authorization
    2. 15.2. Group Policy Centralizes Management, Security, and Configuration
    3. 15.3. AD Provides a Central List of Resources
    4. 15.4. Your Data Follows You Around, and It's Easier to Secure