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Mastering Virtual Teams: Strategies, Tools, and Techniques That Succeed, Third Edition

Book Description

This third edition of the best-selling resource Mastering Virtual Teams offers a toolkit for leaders and members of virtual teams. The revised and expanded edition includes a CD-ROM with useful resources that allow virtual teams to access and use the book's checklists, assessments, and other practical tools quickly and easily. Deborah L. Durate and Nancy Tennant Snyder include updated guidelines, strategies, and best practices for working effectively with virtual teams across time and distance to see a project through. The useful tools, exercises, and real-life examples show how anyone can master the unique dynamics of virtual team participation in an environment where the old rules no longer apply.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. Checklists
  3. Checklists and Tables on the CD-ROM
  4. Preface
    1. Who Will Benefit from This Book
    2. How to Use This Book
    3. New to the Third Edition
    4. Acknowledgments
  5. The Authors
  6. One. Understanding Virtual Teams
    1. One. Critical Success Factors for Virtual Teams
      1. Types of Virtual Teams
        1. Networked Teams
        2. Parallel Teams
        3. Project or Product Development Teams
        4. Work, Functional, or Production Teams
        5. Service Teams
        6. Management Teams
        7. Action Teams
      2. The Complexity of the Virtual Environment
      3. Critical Success Factors for Virtual Teams
        1. Human Resource Policies
          1. Career Development Systems
          2. Rewarding Cross-Boundary Work and Results
          3. Providing Resources and Support for Working Virtually
        2. Training and On-the-Job Education and Development
        3. Standard Organizational and Team Processes
        4. Electronic Collaboration and Communication Technology
        5. Organizational Culture
        6. Leadership
        7. Team Leader Competencies
        8. Team Member Competencies
      4. Points to Remember
    2. Two. Crossing Technical Boundaries
      1. Factors That Affect the Use of Technology
        1. Two Primary Factors
          1. Social Presence
          2. Information Richness
        2. Using the Factors
        3. Other Factors in Technology Selection
          1. Permanence
          2. Symbolic Meaning
          3. Experience and Familiarity with Virtual Operations
          4. Time Constraints
          5. Organizational and Functional Cultures
          6. Access to Technological Training and Support
      2. Technology: Electronic Options
        1. Synchronous Groupware
          1. Desktop and Real-Time Data Conferencing
          2. Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS)
          3. Electronic Display
          4. Videoconferencing
        2. Asynchronous Groupware
          1. E-Mail
          2. Personal Computing Devices
          3. Group Calendars and Schedules
          4. Bulletin Boards and Web Pages
          5. Non-Real-Time Database Sharing and Conferencing
          6. Workflow Applications
      3. Near Virtual Disaster
      4. Cases in Virtual Collaboration
        1. The Government Research Team
          1. Lessons Learned
        2. The Certification Process Team
          1. Lessons Learned
        3. The Leadership Research Team
          1. Lessons Learned
      5. Points to Remember
    3. Three. Crossing Cultural Boundaries
      1. Defining Culture
      2. Three Categories of Culture
        1. National Culture
          1. Power Distance
          2. Uncertainty Avoidance
          3. Individualism–Collectivism
          4. Masculinity–Femininity
          5. Long Term–Short Term
          6. Context
        2. Organizational Culture
        3. Functional Culture
      3. Using Culture as a Competitive Advantage
      4. Business Practices
      5. Business Ethics
      6. Near Virtual Disaster
      7. Points to Remember
  7. Two. Creating Virtual Teams
    1. Four. Myths and Realities of Leading Virtual Teams
      1. Myths Regarding Virtual Teams
        1. Myth 1: Virtual Team Members Don’t Need Attention
        2. Competence 1: Performance Management and Coaching
          1. Managing Team Performance
          2. Managing Individual Performance and Coaching
          3. Managing Compensation
        3. Developmental Actions
        4. Myth 2: The Added Complexity of Using Technology to Mediate Communication and Collaboration over Time, Distance, and Organizations Is Greatly Exaggerated
        5. Competence 2: Appropriate Use of Information Technology
          1. Matching Technology to the Task and the Type of Team
          2. Matching Technology to the Team’s Life Cycle
          3. Matching Technology to the Team Members’ Situations
          4. Humility and Skepticism
        6. Developmental Actions
        7. Myth 3: The Leader of a Cross-Cultural Virtual Team Needs to Speak Several Languages, Have Lived in Other Countries, or Have Worked in Different Functions
        8. Competence 3: Managing Across Cultures
        9. Developmental Actions
        10. Myth 4: When You Can’t See People on a Regular Basis, It Is Difficult to Help Them with Current Assignments and Career Progression
        11. Competence 4: Aiding in Team Members’ Career Development and Transition
        12. Developmental Actions
        13. Myth 5: Building Trust Is Unimportant in Virtual Teamwork
        14. Competence 5: Building and Maintaining Trust
        15. Developmental Actions
        16. Myth 6: Networking Matters Less in a Virtual Environment; It Is Only About Results
        17. Competence 6: Networking
        18. Developmental Actions
        19. Myth 7: Every Aspect of Virtual Teams Should Be Planned, Organized, and Controlled So That There Are No Surprises
        20. Competence 7: Developing and Adapting Standard Team Processes
        21. Developmental Actions
      2. Evaluating Competence for Selection and Development
      3. Developing Expertise
      4. Near Virtual Disaster
      5. Points to Remember
    2. Five. Starting a Virtual Team
      1. Step 1: Identify Team Sponsors, Stakeholders, and Champions
        1. Sponsors
        2. Stakeholders
        3. Champions
      2. Step 2: Developing a Team Charter
      3. Step 3: Selecting Team Members
      4. Step 4: Contacting Team Members
      5. Step 5: Conducting a Team Orientation Session
        1. Face-to-Face Meeting
        2. The Agenda
          1. Orientation to the Team’s Task
          2. Development of Team Norms
          3. Development of Technology Plans
          4. Development of Communication Plans
          5. Team Building
      6. Step 6: Developing Team Processes
      7. Steps for Existing Teams
      8. Time Frame for the Orientation Process
      9. Near Virtual Disaster
      10. Points to Remember
    3. Six. Team Member Roles and Competencies
      1. Balancing Coordination and Collaboration
        1. Coordination and Collaboration Roles
        2. Autonomy Roles
      2. Roles and the Impact of Culture
      3. Virtual Team Members’ Areas of Competence
        1. Project Management
        2. Networking
        3. Use of Technology
        4. Self-Management
        5. Spanning Boundaries
        6. Interpersonal Awareness
      4. Assessing and Developing Team Member Competence
      5. Near Virtual Disaster
      6. Points to Remember
    4. Seven. Building Trust in Virtual Teams
      1. Three Factors in Building “Instant” Trust in a Virtual Environment
        1. Performance Competence
          1. Reputation for Performance and Results
          2. Follow-Through
          3. Obtaining Resources
        2. Integrity
          1. Standing Behind the Team and All Its Members
          2. Communication
        3. Concern for the Well-Being of Others
          1. Creating an Environment of Inclusion
          2. Transitioning Team Members
          3. Impact on Others
          4. Commitment to the Task and Its Outcome
        4. Using the Three Trust-Building Factors
      2. Trust Radius
      3. Trust in a Multicultural Context
        1. Power Distance
        2. Uncertainty Avoidance
        3. Individualism–Collectivism
        4. Long-Term Versus Short-Term Perspective
        5. High Context Versus Low Context
      4. The Impact of Technology
      5. Virtual Near Disaster
      6. Points to Remember
  8. Three. Mastering Virtual Teams
    1. Eight. Virtual Team Meetings
      1. Who Does What in a Virtual Meeting: Four Roles
        1. Owner
        2. Participant
        3. Facilitator
        4. Technology
      2. What Is Done in a Virtual Meeting: Three Activities
        1. Selecting the Technology and Type of Interaction
        2. Planning for “People Issues”
          1. Selecting the Participants
          2. Scheduling the Meeting
          3. Dealing with Meeting Logistics
        3. Developing an Agenda and Facilitating the Use of Technology
          1. What Is Known
          2. Planning the Agenda and Linking Technology to Specific Agenda Items
          3. Using Technology to Maximize the Contribution of Every Team Member
          4. Using Agenda Topics and Subtopics to Manage Interaction
          5. Achieving a Balance Between Formality and Informality
          6. Varying Interaction Styles
          7. Actively Facilitating Meetings
          8. Adopting Best Practices for Meetings Using Different Technological Techniques
      3. Near Virtual Disaster
      4. Points to Remember
    2. Nine. Virtual Team Dynamics
      1. Technical and Adaptive Environments
      2. Traditional Models of Team Development
      3. A New Model of Team Development
        1. Task Dynamics
        2. Social Dynamics
      4. Three Factors That Affect Virtual Team Dynamics
        1. Time
        2. Environmental Influences
          1. Embeddedness
          2. Nature of the Task
          3. Impact of Technology
        3. Team Composition
          1. Cultural Differences
          2. Differences in Functional Background
          3. Team Size
      5. Measuring Team Performance
        1. Signs of Problems or Unexploited Opportunities
        2. Criteria of Effectiveness
        3. Final Criteria of Effectiveness
      6. Virtual Interventions
      7. Adjournment Dynamics
      8. Near Virtual Disaster
      9. Points to Remember
    3. Ten. Working Adaptively
      1. Eight Principles of Working in an Adaptive Environment
        1. Get on the Balcony
        2. Identify the Adaptive Challenge
        3. Regulate Distress
        4. Maintain Disciplined Attention
        5. Rely on Distributed Intelligence
        6. Encourage Leadership by All Members
        7. Encourage Robust Communication
        8. Create a Learning Obligation
      2. The Tent Exercise
      3. Virtual Tent Experiences
      4. The Acausal World
      5. Points to Remember
    4. Notes
      1. Chapter One
      2. Chapter Two
      3. Chapter Three
      4. Chapter Four
      5. Chapter Five
      6. Chapter Six
      7. Chapter Seven
      8. Chapter Eight
      9. Chapter Nine
      10. Chapter Ten
    5. Further Reading
    6. How to Use the Accompanying CD-ROM
      1. System Requirements
      2. Using the CD with Windows
      3. Using the CD with a Mac
      4. To Download Documents
      5. In Case of Trouble