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Mastering Kali Linux for Advanced Penetration Testing by Robert W. Beggs

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Port, operating system, and service discovery

Kali provides several different tools useful for identifying open ports, operating systems, and installed services on remote hosts. The majority of these functions can be completed using nmap. Although we will focus on examples using nmap, the underlying principles apply to the other tools as well.

Port scanning

Port scanning is the process of connecting to TCP and UDP ports to determine what services and applications are running on the target device. There are 65,535 ports each for both TCP and UDP on each system. Some ports are known to be associated with particular services (TCP 20 and 21 are the usual ports for the file transfer protocol service (FTP)). The first 1,024 are the well-known ports, and ...

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