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Mastering Autodesk® 3ds Max® Design 2010

Book Description

The only comprehensive tutorial/reference exclusively devoted to Autodesk's robust architectural visualization software

3ds Max Design is a powerful real-time 3D design, modeling, and animation tool for architectural visualizations. This book covers all the software's crucial features, including how to simulate and analyze sun, sky, and artificial light-crucial factors for sustainable design-and how to define and assign realistic materials and work with AutoCAD and Revit files.

You'll quickly learn how to get the most from this powerful software's 3D modeling, animation, and rendering capabilities. McFarland is an Autodesk Authorized Author with professional experience in creating complex visualizations for a large property development company. His real-world focus means workflows and instructions are professional and proven, and projects will include those that pros work on every day.

  • Uses actual examples from the author's experience, including retail spaces, small offices, residential developments, and more

  • Concise explanations, focused examples, step-by-step instructions, and hands-on tutorials teach the basics and fine points of the software

  • Covers all the essential features, such as how to simulate and analyze sun, sky, and artificial light

  • Demonstrates efficient use of the interface; how to work with Revit and AutoCAD files; using data, scene management, and solid modeling tools; rendering real-world surfaces; and setting up animated walkthroughs

Mastering 3ds Max Design 2010 provides a practical education in using this powerful architectural visualization tool.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Dear Reader,
  3. Acknowledgments
  4. About the Authors
  5. Introduction
    1. How to Use This Book
    2. What You'll Find
    3. System Requirements
    4. What's on the Book's Website
  6. 1. Getting to Know 3ds Max Design 2010
    1. 1.1. Introducing the New 3ds Max Design 2010 Features
    2. 1.2. Getting Started
    3. 1.3. Touring the Interface
      1. 1.3.1. The Menu Bar
      2. 1.3.2. The Quick Access Toolbar
      3. 1.3.3. The Information Center Toolbar
      4. 1.3.4. The Main Toolbar
      5. 1.3.5. Docked and Floating Toolbars
      6. 1.3.6. Toolbar Flyouts
      7. 1.3.7. The Viewports
      8. 1.3.8. Tools for Working with the Viewports
      9. 1.3.9. Getting to Know the Command Panel
      10. 1.3.10. Understanding 3ds Max's Tools
        1. 1.3.10.1. Getting to Know Scrolling Panels and Rollouts
        2. 1.3.10.2. Creating Objects and Setting Their Parameters
    4. 1.4. Working with Objects
      1. 1.4.1. Selecting and Moving Objects
      2. 1.4.2. Rotating and Scaling Objects
      3. 1.4.3. Copying an Object
      4. 1.4.4. Selecting Multiple Objects
      5. 1.4.5. Naming Selection Sets
      6. 1.4.6. Editing Named Selection Sets
    5. 1.5. Getting the View You Want
      1. 1.5.1. Understanding the Perspective Viewing Tools
        1. 1.5.1.1. Panning and Zooming Your View
        2. 1.5.1.2. Saving a View You Like
        3. 1.5.1.3. Changing Your Viewing Angle
        4. 1.5.1.4. Using the ViewCube
      2. 1.5.2. Using Multiple Viewports
      3. 1.5.3. Changing the Viewport Display and Configuration
    6. 1.6. Working with the Custom UI and Defaults Switcher
    7. 1.7. The Bottom Line
  7. 2. Introducing 3ds Max Objects
    1. 2.1. Understanding Standard Primitives
      1. 2.1.1. Adjusting an Object's Parameters
      2. 2.1.2. Accessing Parameters
      3. 2.1.3. Introducing the Standard Primitive Objects
    2. 2.2. Modeling Standard Primitives with Modifiers
      1. 2.2.1. Adding a Modifier
      2. 2.2.2. Accessing Modifier Parameters
      3. 2.2.3. Placing Modifiers Where You Want Them
      4. 2.2.4. Using the Modifier Stack Tools
    3. 2.3. How 3ds Max Sees Objects
    4. 2.4. Making Clones That Share Properties
      1. 2.4.1. Creating an Instance Clone
      2. 2.4.2. Creating a Reference Clone
      3. 2.4.3. Scaling and Rotating Objects with Transform Tools
      4. 2.4.4. Making a Clone Unique
      5. 2.4.5. Cloning a Modifier
    5. 2.5. Introducing Extended Primitives
      1. 2.5.1. Modeling a Couch
    6. 2.6. Working with Groups
      1. 2.6.1. Grouping the Components of the Couch
      2. 2.6.2. Working Within Groups
      3. 2.6.3. Disassembling Groups
    7. 2.7. The Bottom Line
  8. 3. Creating Shapes with Splines
    1. 3.1. Drawing with Splines
      1. 3.1.1. Drawing Straight-Line Segments
      2. 3.1.2. Constraining Lines Vertically and Horizontally
      3. 3.1.3. Drawing Curves
      4. 3.1.4. Lathing a Spline
    2. 3.2. Modifying a Shape Using Sub-object Levels
      1. 3.2.1. Adjusting the Lathe Axis
      2. 3.2.2. Flipping Surface Normals
      3. 3.2.3. Smoothing Spline Corners
      4. 3.2.4. Adjusting Tangent Handles
      5. 3.2.5. Creating Thickness with a Spline
    3. 3.3. Outlining and Extruding Splines
      1. 3.3.1. Drawing Accurate Line Splines
      2. 3.3.2. Giving Walls Thickness
      3. 3.3.3. Using Grids and Snaps to Align Objects Accurately
      4. 3.3.4. Adjusting a Wall Location
    4. 3.4. Combining and Extruding Primitive Splines
      1. 3.4.1. Combining Splines
    5. 3.5. Joining Closed Splines with Boolean Tools
    6. 3.6. Creating a Solid Form with Splines
    7. 3.7. Introducing the Spline Types
    8. 3.8. Editing Splines
    9. 3.9. Placing and Beveling Text
    10. 3.10. The Bottom Line
  9. 4. Editing Meshes and Creating Complex Objects
    1. 4.1. Creating Openings in a Wall with Boolean Operations
      1. 4.1.1. Hiding Shapes That Get in the Way
      2. 4.1.2. Creating the Shape of the Opening
      3. 4.1.3. Subtracting the Opening from the Wall
      4. 4.1.4. Creating Multiple Openings in a Single Wall
      5. 4.1.5. Making Changes to the Opening
    2. 4.2. Tracing a Sketch
      1. 4.2.1. Using a Bitmap Image
      2. 4.2.2. Scaling the Image Plane to the Model's Size
      3. 4.2.3. Tracing the Image
      4. 4.2.4. Building Objects from Traced Lines
        1. 4.2.4.1. Creating the Void Outline
        2. 4.2.4.2. Forming the Wall Void
        3. 4.2.4.3. Adding a Skew to the Void Object
        4. 4.2.4.4. Aligning the Skew Modifier to the Object
        5. 4.2.4.5. Locking Object Transforms
        6. 4.2.4.6. Using See-Through Mode
    3. 4.3. Editing Meshes
      1. 4.3.1. Creating a Tapered Wall
      2. 4.3.2. Converting the Spline to a Mesh
        1. 4.3.2.1. Editing the Edge of a Mesh
      3. 4.3.3. Moving a Single Mesh Vertex
        1. 4.3.3.1. Flattening a Surface
      4. 4.3.4. Tapering the Top of the Wall
    4. 4.4. Using Instanced Clones to Create Symmetrical Forms
      1. 4.4.1. Adding a User Grid to Aid Tracing
      2. 4.4.2. Building the Tower Walls
      3. 4.4.3. Adding the Vaulted Ceiling
      4. 4.4.4. Creating the Smaller Towers
      5. 4.4.5. Drawing the Remaining Walls
    5. 4.5. Attaching Objects to a Mesh
    6. 4.6. Smoothing Meshes
      1. 4.6.1. Smoothing within a Mesh
      2. 4.6.2. The Smooth Modifier
    7. 4.7. Creating Objects Using Box Modeling
      1. 4.7.1. Preparing a Box for Box Modeling
        1. 4.7.1.1. Adjusting the Vertices
        2. 4.7.1.2. Extruding Polys
        3. 4.7.1.3. Hinging Polys
        4. 4.7.1.4. Insetting Polys
      2. 4.7.2. Using the Transform Toolbox
    8. 4.8. Creating Clones with Array and Snapshot
      1. 4.8.1. Creating a Column Grid With Array
      2. 4.8.2. Creating a Multitransform Polar Array
      3. 4.8.3. Creating Multiple Clones Using Snapshot
    9. 4.9. The Bottom Line
  10. 5. Creating AEC Objects
    1. 5.1. Creating a Parametric Wall
      1. 5.1.1. Creating a Parametric Wall
      2. 5.1.2. Adjusting the Wall's Parameters
    2. 5.2. Adding Doors and Windows to Walls
      1. 5.2.1. Changing the Door's Parameters
      2. 5.2.2. Adding Doors to Existing Openings
      3. 5.2.3. Creating a Parametric Window
    3. 5.3. Changing Elevations with Stairs
    4. 5.4. Setting Boundaries with Railings
    5. 5.5. Adding Foliage to a Scene
    6. 5.6. The Bottom Line
  11. 6. Organizing and Editing Objects
    1. 6.1. Naming Objects
      1. 6.1.1. Renaming the Ceiling Fixtures
    2. 6.2. Organizing Objects by Layers
      1. 6.2.1. Setting Up Layers
      2. 6.2.2. Assigning Objects to Layers
      3. 6.2.3. Assigning Color to Layers
      4. 6.2.4. Understanding the Icons in the Layer Dialog Box
    3. 6.3. Lofting an Object
      1. 6.3.1. Setting Up the Shapes to Form the Pedestal
      2. 6.3.2. Lofting an Object
      3. 6.3.3. Using Different Shapes along the Loft Path
        1. 6.3.3.1. Holding One Cross Section
        2. 6.3.3.2. Completing the Loft Cross Sections
      4. 6.3.4. Fine-Tuning a Loft Object
        1. 6.3.4.1. Using Loft Deformations
        2. 6.3.4.2. Adjusting the Density of the Loft
      5. 6.3.5. Using the Instance Clones to Edit the Loft
    4. 6.4. Using the Noise Modifier
      1. 6.4.1. Modeling with Soft Selection
        1. 6.4.1.1. Completing the Planter with the Symmetry Modifier
    5. 6.5. Extruding with the Sweep Modifier
    6. 6.6. Aligning Objects
    7. 6.7. The Bottom Line
  12. 7. Light and Shadow
    1. 7.1. Lighting Your Model
      1. 7.1.1. Understanding the Types of Lights
      2. 7.1.2. Adding a Spotlight to Simulate the Sun
      3. 7.1.3. Moving a Light
      4. 7.1.4. Editing a Spotlight
      5. 7.1.5. Changing the Light Type
    2. 7.2. Rendering a View
    3. 7.3. Ambient Light
      1. 7.3.1. Faking Radiosity
      2. 7.3.2. Adding a Highlight with an Omni Light
      3. 7.3.3. Looking at Omni Light Options
    4. 7.4. Adding Shadow Effects
      1. 7.4.1. Softening Shadow Edges
      2. 7.4.2. Understanding Shadow Maps
      3. 7.4.3. Using Ray-Traced Shadows
      4. 7.4.4. Using Advanced Ray Traced Shadows and Area Shadows
        1. 7.4.4.1. Blurring Shadow Edges
        2. 7.4.4.2. Controlling Shadow Sharpness Over Distance
    5. 7.5. Playing in the Shadows
      1. 7.5.1. Using Two Suns
      2. 7.5.2. Adding a Second Sun
      3. 7.5.3. Using Unseen Objects to Cast Shadows
      4. 7.5.4. Using a Clone to Cast Shadows
    6. 7.6. Using the Light Lister
    7. 7.7. Using Scene States
    8. 7.8. The Bottom Line
  13. 8. Enhancing Models with Materials
    1. 8.1. Understanding Bitmap Texture Maps
      1. 8.1.1. Diffuse Color Maps
        1. 8.1.1.1. Diffuse Maps
        2. 8.1.1.2. Specular Color Maps
        3. 8.1.1.3. Specular Level Maps
        4. 8.1.1.4. Glossiness/Shininess Maps
        5. 8.1.1.5. Self-Illumination/Luminance Maps
        6. 8.1.1.6. Filter Color Maps
        7. 8.1.1.7. Opacity/Transparency Maps
        8. 8.1.1.8. Bump Maps
        9. 8.1.1.9. Reflection Maps
        10. 8.1.1.10. Refraction/Index of Refraction Maps
        11. 8.1.1.11. Displacement Maps
      2. 8.1.2. Surface Properties
      3. 8.1.3. The Physical Qualities Rollout
      4. 8.1.4. The Special Effects Rollout
    2. 8.2. Adding Materials to Objects
      1. 8.2.1. Adding a Map Path to Help 3ds Max Find Bitmaps
    3. 8.3. Understanding Material Libraries
    4. 8.4. Editing Materials
      1. 8.4.1. Using Bump Maps
      2. 8.4.2. Creating a New Material
      3. 8.4.3. Adding Material Mapping Coordinates
    5. 8.5. Understanding Mapping Coordinates
      1. 8.5.1. What Happens When You Add the Mapping Coordinates
      2. 8.5.2. Adjusting the UVW Mapping Gizmo
        1. 8.5.2.1. Controlling the Tiling Effect
        2. 8.5.2.2. Understanding the Different Types of Mapping
    6. 8.6. Using the Standard Material
    7. 8.7. Map Scalar Modifiers
    8. 8.8. Adding Entourage
      1. 8.8.1. Hiding Unwanted Surfaces with Opacity Maps
      2. 8.8.2. Adjusting an Object to a Bitmap Shape
    9. 8.9. Assigning Materials to Parts of an Object
      1. 8.9.1. Creating a Multi/Sub-Object Material
      2. 8.9.2. Applying a Submaterial to an Object's Surface
    10. 8.10. Exploring the ProMaterials
      1. 8.10.1. Adjust the ProMaterial Parameters
      2. 8.10.2. Using the Material Explorer
    11. 8.11. The Material Utilities
    12. 8.12. Modeling with Displacement Maps
      1. 8.12.1. Using the Displace Modifier
      2. 8.12.2. Using the Material Editor to Create Displaced Geometry
      3. 8.12.3. Converting a Displacement Map into an Editable Mesh
      4. 8.12.4. Creating an Editable Mesh from a Displacement Map
    13. 8.13. The Bottom Line
  14. 9. Using the 3ds Max Camera
    1. 9.1. Understanding the 3ds Max Camera
      1. 9.1.1. Adding a Camera
        1. 9.1.1.1. Adjusting the Camera Location
        2. 9.1.1.2. Adjusting the Target
      2. 9.1.2. 3ds Max 2010 Viewport Improvements
      3. 9.1.3. Editing the Camera Location with the Viewport Tools
        1. 9.1.3.1. Using the Dolly Camera and Field-of-View Tools
        2. 9.1.3.2. Trucking Your Camera View
        3. 9.1.3.3. Walking Through Your Scene
        4. 9.1.3.4. Rotating the Camera
    2. 9.2. Setting Up an Interior View
    3. 9.3. Creating an Environment
      1. 9.3.1. Making Adjustments to the Background
    4. 9.4. Immersive Environments for Animation
      1. 9.4.1. Creating a Believable Background
      2. 9.4.2. Using a Texture Map and Hemisphere for the Sky
    5. 9.5. Using Render Types
    6. 9.6. Render Elements for Compositing
    7. 9.7. Matching Your Scene to a Background Image
      1. 9.7.1. Setting Up the Model and the Image
      2. 9.7.2. Adding the Background Image
      3. 9.7.3. Adding the Camera Match Points
      4. 9.7.4. Aligning the Camera Match Points to the Background Image
      5. 9.7.5. Fine-Tuning a Camera-Matched View
      6. 9.7.6. Matching the Design Image Quality to the Background
    8. 9.8. The Bottom Line
  15. 10. Working with External Files
    1. 10.1. Gaining Access to Materials and Objects from Other Files
    2. 10.2. Arranging Furniture with XRefs and the Asset Browser
    3. 10.3. Replacing Objects with Objects from an External File
      1. 10.3.1. Substituting Objects for Faster Viewport Performance
      2. 10.3.2. Importing Files with the Asset Browser
    4. 10.4. Arranging Furniture with XRef Scenes
    5. 10.5. Using the Rendered Frame Window
      1. 10.5.1. Printing Images
      2. 10.5.2. Opening Multiple RFWs for Comparisons
      3. 10.5.3. Zooming, Panning, and Controlling Channels in the RFW
      4. 10.5.4. Obtaining Colors from External Bitmap Files
    6. 10.6. Using the Asset Browser on the Internet
    7. 10.7. Tracking and Locating a Scene's Assets
    8. 10.8. Creating Panoramas
    9. 10.9. Publishing a DWF File
    10. 10.10. The Bottom Line
  16. 11. Using mental ray
    1. 11.1. Understanding mental ray
      1. 11.1.1. Setting Up mental ray
        1. 11.1.1.1. Verifying Your Preference Settings
        2. 11.1.1.2. Assigning the Renderer
      2. 11.1.2. The Material Editor and mental ray
        1. 11.1.2.1. Using 3ds Max Materials with mental ray
    2. 11.2. Using Photon Maps
      1. 11.2.1. Testing the Photon Map Effects
    3. 11.3. Final Gathering
      1. 11.3.1. Reviewing the Basic mental ray Workflow
    4. 11.4. Contour Renderings
    5. 11.5. Using the mr MultiMap Material
    6. 11.6. Skylight Global Illumination
      1. 11.6.1. Image-Based Lighting and Skylight
    7. 11.7. Using High Dynamic Range Images
    8. 11.8. Using mr Proxy Objects
    9. 11.9. Using Lighting Analysis
    10. 11.10. The Bottom Line
  17. 12. Understanding Animation
    1. 12.1. Understanding the World of Video Time
    2. 12.2. Creating a Quick-Study Animation
      1. 12.2.1. Adding Camera Motion
      2. 12.2.2. Adjusting the Camera Path
      3. 12.2.3. Viewing the Camera Trajectory
      4. 12.2.4. Controlling the Camera Trajectory Visibility
      5. 12.2.5. Creating a Preview Animation
    3. 12.3. Understanding Keyframes
    4. 12.4. Increasing the Number of Frames in an Animation Segment
    5. 12.5. Accelerating and Decelerating the Camera Motion Smoothly
    6. 12.6. Editing Keyframes
    7. 12.7. Adding More Frames for Additional Camera Motion
      1. 12.7.1. Adding Frames to the End of a Segment
      2. 12.7.2. Adjusting the Camera Motion Through a Keyframe
      3. 12.7.3. Compressing and Expanding Time
      4. 12.7.4. Adjusting the Camera Trajectory Using the Track View
      5. 12.7.5. Increasing the Number of Frames Between Selected Keys
      6. 12.7.6. Speeding Up the Preview Rendering Time
    8. 12.8. Adding Frames to the Beginning of a Segment
    9. 12.9. Other Options for Previewing Your Motion
    10. 12.10. Moving the Camera Target over Time
    11. 12.11. Controlling Lights over Time
    12. 12.12. The Bottom Line
  18. 13. Creating Animations
    1. 13.1. Rendering the Animation
      1. 13.1.1. Creating a Study Animation
      2. 13.1.2. Creating a Quick Overall Study Animation
      3. 13.1.3. Adding a Moving Car
    2. 13.2. Automating Output of Multiple Still Images
      1. 13.2.1. Setting Up a Camera for Elevations
      2. 13.2.2. Setting Up the Four Elevations
    3. 13.3. Rendering a Shadow Study
      1. 13.3.1. Adjusting for True North
      2. 13.3.2. Changing from IES Sun to a Standard Light
    4. 13.4. Creating a Walkthrough
      1. 13.4.1. Fine-Tuning the Camera's Orientation
      2. 13.4.2. Adjusting the Camera's Timing
      3. 13.4.3. Adjusting the Path
    5. 13.5. The Animation File Output Options
      1. 13.5.1. True Color vs. 256 Colors
      2. 13.5.2. File Naming in Animations
      3. 13.5.3. Choosing an Image Size
      4. 13.5.4. The AVI Codecs
    6. 13.6. The Bottom Line
  19. 14. Atmospheres, Effects, reactor, and Particles
    1. 14.1. Adding Atmospheres Effects
      1. 14.1.1. Creating a Volume Light
      2. 14.1.2. Adjusting the Volume Light Parameters
      3. 14.1.3. Adding Fog
        1. 14.1.3.1. Adding Fog Atmospheric Effect
        2. 14.1.3.2. Assigning Patches of Opacity
        3. 14.1.3.3. Helping Your Fog Interact with the Horizon
      4. 14.1.4. Adding a Fire Effect
        1. 14.1.4.1. Adding a Light to the Scene
        2. 14.1.4.2. Animating the Scene
    2. 14.2. Using Hair and Fur to Add Grass
      1. 14.2.1. Adjusting the Hair and Fur Parameters
      2. 14.2.2. Refining the Ground with the Hair and Fur Parameters
    3. 14.3. Using reactor to Animate Objects
      1. 14.3.1. Assigning Properties to Simulation Objects
      2. 14.3.2. Assigning Simulation Objects to a Collection
      3. 14.3.3. Setting Up and Running the Simulation
      4. 14.3.4. Refining the Settings
    4. 14.4. Using Particle Systems
      1. 14.4.1. Creating the Initial Flow
      2. 14.4.2. Adding and Editing the Operators
      3. 14.4.3. Adding Materials and Space Warps
      4. 14.4.4. Adding Deflectors
    5. 14.5. The Bottom Line
  20. 15. Using Other Autodesk Applications with 3ds Max Design 2010
    1. 15.1. Creating Topography with Splines
      1. 15.1.1. Updating Changes from an AutoCAD File
      2. 15.1.2. Exploring Terrain Options
        1. 15.1.2.1. The Pick Operand Rollout
        2. 15.1.2.2. The Simplification Rollout
        3. 15.1.2.3. The Color by Elevation Rollout
    2. 15.2. Setting Up an AutoCAD Plan for 3ds Max
    3. 15.3. Importing AutoCAD Plans into 3ds Max Design
      1. 15.3.1. Extruding the Walls
      2. 15.3.2. Extruding Exterior Wall Headers
      3. 15.3.3. Extruding the Mullions
      4. 15.3.4. Creating Interior Wall Headers
      5. 15.3.5. Adding Glass
      6. 15.3.6. Creating a Floor with Openings
        1. 15.3.6.1. Importing the Second Floor
    4. 15.4. Exploring the File Link Manager
      1. 15.4.1. Editing Linked AutoCAD Files
      2. 15.4.2. Understanding the Block Node Hierarchy
      3. 15.4.3. Understanding the File Link Manager Options
        1. 15.4.3.1. The Attach Tab
        2. 15.4.3.2. The Files Tab
        3. 15.4.3.3. The Presets Tab
      4. 15.4.4. Understanding File Link Settings
        1. 15.4.4.1. The Basic Tab
        2. 15.4.4.2. The Advanced Tab
        3. 15.4.4.3. The Spline Rendering Tab
      5. 15.4.5. Using the Substitute Modifier with Linked Geometry
    5. 15.5. Importing a Truss
    6. 15.6. Importing Revit Files into 3ds Max
      1. 15.6.1. Export the Revit File
      2. 15.6.2. Link the Exported File in 3ds Max
    7. 15.7. The Bottom Line
  21. A. The Bottom Line
    1. A.1. Chapter 1: Getting to Know 3ds Max Design 2010
    2. A.2. Chapter 2: Introducing 3ds Max Objects
    3. A.3. Chapter 3: Creating Shapes with Splines
    4. A.4. Chapter 4: Editing Meshes and Creating Complex Objects
    5. A.5. Chapter 5: Creating AEC Objects
    6. A.6. Chapter 6: Organizing and Editing Objects
    7. A.7. Chapter 7: Light and Shadow
    8. A.8. Chapter 8: Enhancing Models with Materials
    9. A.9. Chapter 9: Using the 3ds Max Camera
    10. A.10. Chapter 10: Working With External Files
    11. A.11. Chapter 11: Using mental ray
    12. A.12. Chapter 12: Understanding Animation
    13. A.13. Chapter 13: Creating Animations
    14. A.14. Chapter 14: Atmospheres, Effects, Reactor, and Particles
    15. A.15. Chapter 15: Using other Autodesk Applications with 3ds Max Design
  22. B. Modifiers and Materials
    1. B.1. Modifiers
      1. B.1.1. Selection Modifiers
        1. B.1.1.1. Mesh Select
        2. B.1.1.2. Patch Select
        3. B.1.1.3. SplineSelect
        4. B.1.1.4. Poly Select
        5. B.1.1.5. Vol. Select
        6. B.1.1.6. NSurf Sel
      2. B.1.2. World-Space Modifiers
        1. B.1.2.1. Camera Map (WSM)
        2. B.1.2.2. Displace Mesh (WSM)
        3. B.1.2.3. Displace NURBS (WSM)
        4. B.1.2.4. Hair and Fur (WSM)
        5. B.1.2.5. LS Colors (WSM)
        6. B.1.2.6. MapScalar (WSM)
        7. B.1.2.7. PatchDeform (WSM)
        8. B.1.2.8. PathDeform (WSM)
        9. B.1.2.9. Subdivide (WSM)
        10. B.1.2.10. Surface Mapper (WSM)
        11. B.1.2.11. SurfDeform (WSM)
      3. B.1.3. Object-Space Modifiers
        1. B.1.3.1. Affect Region
        2. B.1.3.2. Automatic Flatten UVs
        3. B.1.3.3. Bend
        4. B.1.3.4. Bevel
        5. B.1.3.5. Bevel Profile
        6. B.1.3.6. Camera Correction Modifier
        7. B.1.3.7. Camera Map (OSM)
        8. B.1.3.8. Cap Holes
        9. B.1.3.9. Cloth
        10. B.1.3.10. CrossSection
        11. B.1.3.11. DeleteMesh
        12. B.1.3.12. DeletePatch
        13. B.1.3.13. DeleteSpline
        14. B.1.3.14. Disp Approx
        15. B.1.3.15. Displace
        16. B.1.3.16. Edit Mesh
        17. B.1.3.17. Edit Patch
        18. B.1.3.18. Edit Poly
        19. B.1.3.19. Edit Spline
        20. B.1.3.20. Extrude
        21. B.1.3.21. Face Extrude
        22. B.1.3.22. FFD (2 × 2 × 2, 3 × 3 × 3, 4 × 4 × 4)
        23. B.1.3.23. FFD (Box)
        24. B.1.3.24. FFD (Cyl)
        25. B.1.3.25. Fillet/Chamfer
        26. B.1.3.26. Garment Maker
        27. B.1.3.27. HSDS
        28. B.1.3.28. Lathe
        29. B.1.3.29. Lattice
        30. B.1.3.30. LS Mesh
        31. B.1.3.31. MapScalar
        32. B.1.3.32. Material
        33. B.1.3.33. MaterialByElement
        34. B.1.3.34. Melt
        35. B.1.3.35. MeshSmooth
        36. B.1.3.36. Mirror
        37. B.1.3.37. MultiRes
        38. B.1.3.38. Noise
        39. B.1.3.39. Normal
        40. B.1.3.40. Normalize Spline
        41. B.1.3.41. Optimize
        42. B.1.3.42. PatchDeform
        43. B.1.3.43. PathDeform
        44. B.1.3.44. Preserve
        45. B.1.3.45. ProOptimizer
        46. B.1.3.46. Push
        47. B.1.3.47. Quadrify Mesh
        48. B.1.3.48. Relax
        49. B.1.3.49. Renderable Spline
        50. B.1.3.50. Ripple
        51. B.1.3.51. Shell
        52. B.1.3.52. Skew
        53. B.1.3.53. Slice
        54. B.1.3.54. Smooth
        55. B.1.3.55. Spherify
        56. B.1.3.56. Squeeze
        57. B.1.3.57. STL Check
        58. B.1.3.58. Stretch
        59. B.1.3.59. Subdivide
        60. B.1.3.60. Substitute
        61. B.1.3.61. Surface
        62. B.1.3.62. SurfDeform
        63. B.1.3.63. Sweep
        64. B.1.3.64. Symmetry
        65. B.1.3.65. Taper
        66. B.1.3.66. Tessellate
        67. B.1.3.67. Trim/Extend
        68. B.1.3.68. TurboSmooth
        69. B.1.3.69. Turn To Modifiers
        70. B.1.3.70. Twist
        71. B.1.3.71. Unwrap UVW
        72. B.1.3.72. UVW Map
        73. B.1.3.73. UVW Xform
        74. B.1.3.74. Wave
        75. B.1.3.75. XForm
    2. B.2. Materials and Maps
      1. B.2.1. Materials (Blue Spheres)
        1. B.2.1.1. None
        2. B.2.1.2. Advanced Lighting Override
        3. B.2.1.3. Architectural
        4. B.2.1.4. Blend
        5. B.2.1.5. Composite
        6. B.2.1.6. DirectX Shader
        7. B.2.1.7. Double Sided
        8. B.2.1.8. Ink 'n Paint
        9. B.2.1.9. Matte/Shadow
        10. B.2.1.10. Multi/Sub-Object
        11. B.2.1.11. Raytrace
        12. B.2.1.12. Shell Material
        13. B.2.1.13. Shellac
        14. B.2.1.14. Standard
        15. B.2.1.15. Top/Bottom
        16. B.2.1.16. XRef Material
      2. B.2.2. Maps (Green Parallelogram)
        1. B.2.2.1. None
        2. B.2.2.2. Bionatics Normal Map
        3. B.2.2.3. Bitmap
        4. B.2.2.4. BnxNormalMapTex
        5. B.2.2.5. Camera Map Per Pixel
        6. B.2.2.6. Cellular
        7. B.2.2.7. Checker
        8. B.2.2.8. Color Correction
        9. B.2.2.9. Combustion
        10. B.2.2.10. Composite
        11. B.2.2.11. Dent
        12. B.2.2.12. Falloff
        13. B.2.2.13. Flat Mirror
        14. B.2.2.14. Gradient
        15. B.2.2.15. Gradient Ramp
        16. B.2.2.16. Marble
        17. B.2.2.17. Mask
        18. B.2.2.18. Mix
        19. B.2.2.19. Noise
        20. B.2.2.20. Normal Bump
        21. B.2.2.21. Output
        22. B.2.2.22. Particle Age
        23. B.2.2.23. Particle MBlur
        24. B.2.2.24. Perlin Marble
        25. B.2.2.25. Raytrace
        26. B.2.2.26. Reflect/Refract
        27. B.2.2.27. RGB Multiply
        28. B.2.2.28. RGB Tint
        29. B.2.2.29. Smoke
        30. B.2.2.30. Speckle
        31. B.2.2.31. Splat
        32. B.2.2.32. Stucco
        33. B.2.2.33. Swirl
        34. B.2.2.34. Thin Wall Refraction
        35. B.2.2.35. Tiles
        36. B.2.2.36. Vertex Color
        37. B.2.2.37. Waves
        38. B.2.2.38. Wood