You are previewing Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids.
O'Reilly logo
Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids

Book Description

The field of matter transport is central to understanding the processing of materials and their subsequent mechanical properties. While thermodynamics determines the final state of a material system, it is the kinetics of mass transport that governs how it gets there. This book, first published in 2000, gives a solid grounding in the principles of matter transport and their application to a range of engineering problems. The author develops a unified treatment of mass transport applicable to both solids and liquids. Traditionally matter transport in fluids is considered as an extension of heat transfer and can appear to have little relationship to diffusion in solids. This unified approach clearly makes the connection between these important fields. This book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students of materials science and engineering and related disciplines. It contains numerous worked examples and unsolved problems. The material can be covered in a one semester course.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. Principal symbols
  8. Part A: Overview
    1. 1. Introduction to mass transport mechanism
      1. 1.1 Mass transport processes
      2. 1.2 Statement of Fick’s First Law
      3. 1.3 Mechanisms of diffusion
      4. 1.4 Diffusion in solids
        1. 1.4.1 Interstitial diffusion
        2. 1.4.2 Vacancy diffusion
        3. 1.4.3 Diffusion in alloys
        4. 1.4.4 Diffusion in compounds
      5. 1.5 Diffusion in liquids
      6. 1.6 Diffusion in gases
      7. 1.7 Diffusion data
      8. 1.8 Mass transport by convection
      9. 1.9 Further reading
      10. 1.10  Problems to chapter 1
  9. Part B: Solid-state diffusion in dilute alloys
    1. 2. Steady-state diffusion
      1. 2.1 Fick’s First Law
      2. 2.2 Applications to steady-state problems
        1. 2.2.1 Measurement of the diffusion coefficient
        2. 2.2.2 Permeability of gases through a solid
        3. 2.2.3 Diffusion in parallel through a composite solid
      3. 2.3 Growth of surface layers-pseudo steady state
        1. 2.3.1 Growth of oxide films
        2. 2.3.2 Slip casting
      4. 2.4 Further reading
      5. 2.5 Problems to chapter 2
    2. 3. Transient diffusion problems
      1. 3.1 Fick’s Second Law
      2. 3.2 Solutions to Fick’s Second Law
        1. 3.2.1 Introduction
        2. 3.2.2 Approaches to solving transient diffusion problems
      3. 3.3 Solutions to Fick’s Second Law at short time (far from equilibrium)
        1. 3.3.1 Plane initial source
        2. 3.3.2 Diffusion from a distributed source
        3. 3.3.3 Diffusion from a surface at fixed concentration
        4. 3.3.4 Diffusion between two solids with different initial solute concentration
      4. 3.4 The nominal diffusion distance
      5. 3.5 Solution methods for Fick’s Second Law at longer time (near equilibrium)
        1. 3.5.1 Diffusion in a slab from a plane initial source
        2. 3.5.2 Use of image sources
        3. 3.5.3 General solutions to Fick’s Second Law
      6. 3.6 Standard solutions to long-time transient diffusion problems
        1. 3.6.1 Uniform initial concentration C[sub(i)] and fixed surface concentration C[sub(s)]
        2. 3.6.2 Uniform initial concentration C[sub(i)] with fixed surface flux J[sup(*)]
        3. 3.6.3 Uniform initial concentration but different boundary conditions
        4. 3.6.4 Diffusion through a hollow cylinder or sphere
        5. 3.6.5 Other solutions
      7. 3.7 Further reading
      8. 3.8 Problems to chapter 3
    3. 4. Applications to problems in materials engineering
      1. 4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.2 Boundary conditions
    4. 5. Applications involving gas–solid reactions
      1. 5.1 Introduction
      2. 5.2 Simple gas–solid reactions
      3. 5.3 Reactions involving gas mixtures
      4. 5.4 Semiconductor doping
      5. 5.5 Gas/solid interfaces without local equilibrium
      6. 5.6 Further reading
      7. 5.7 Problems to chapter 5
    5. 6. Heat treatment of binary alloys
      1. 6.1 Introduction
      2. 6.2 Changing temperature within a two-phase field
        1. 6.2.1 Solution valid at short time
        2. 6.2.2 Solution valid at long time
      3. 6.3 Particle dissolution
        1. 6.3.1 Dissolution of plates
        2. 6.3.2 Dissolution of spherical particles
      4. 6.4 Growth of second-phase particles by solute rejection
        1. 6.4.1 Planar growth
        2. 6.4.2 Precipitation of spherical particles
      5. 6.5 Cooperative growth processes
      6. 6.6 Further reading
      7. 6.7 Problems to chapter 6
  10. Part C: Mass transport in concentrated alloys and fluids
    1. 7. Diffusion in concentrated alloys and fluids
      1. 7.1 Concept of counter diffusion
      2. 7.2 Kirkendall effect in solids
        1. 7.2.1 Interdiffusion coefficient
        2. 7.2.2 Diffusion couples
      3. 7.3 Solid-state diffusion couples involving immiscible phases
        1. 7.3.1 Simple diffusion couples for immiscible solids with no intermediate phases
        2. 7.3.2 Couples with intermediate phases
      4. 7.4 Diffusion in quiescent fluids
        1. 7.4.1 Simple evaporation
        2. 7.4.2 Evaporation involving reactions at a front
        3. 7.4.3 Particle condensation during evaporation
      5. 7.5 Near-surface internal precipitation in alloys
      6. 7.6 Further reading
      7. 7.7 Problems to chapter 7
    2. 8. Mass transport in the presence of convection
      1. 8.1 Transient diffusion in fluids
      2. 8.2 Mass transport at a flowing interface
      3. 8.3 Mass transfer coefficient
        1. 8.3.1 Mass transfer to spheres
        2. 8.3.2 Mass transfer coefficient for other geometries
      4. 8.4 Models for mass transfer
        1. 8.4.1 Stagnant film model
        2. 8.4.2 Higbie penetration model
        3. 8.4.3 Application to modelling evaporation from molten metal
      5. 8.5 Quiescent systems containing internal reactions
      6. 8.6 Further reading
      7. 8.7 Problems to chapter 8
    3. 9. Advanced topics
      1. 9.1 Overall mass balance
      2. 9.2 Multi-phase resistances
      3. 9.3 Topochemical reaction kinetics
        1. 9.3.1 Reduction of oxide pellets
        2. 9.3.2 Gas diffusivity in porous solids
      4. 9.4 Further reading
      5. 9.5 Problems to chapter 9
  11. Part D: Alternative driving forces for diffusion
    1. 10. General driving force for diffusion
      1. 10.1 Theory
      2. 10.2 Diffusion due to an electrical field
      3. 10.3 Diffusion due to mechanical stress
        1. 10.3.1 Vacancy diffusion due to local forces
        2. 10.3.2 Application to diffusion creep
      4. 10.4 Diffusion due to surface curvature
      5. 10.5 Diffusion due to an activity gradient
        1. 10.5.1 Application to ‘uphill’ diffusion
      6. 10.6 Further reading
      7. 10.7 Problems to chapter 10
  12. Appendices
    1. A. Mathematical methods for the solution of Fick’s Second Law
      1. A.1 Separation of variables method
      2. A.2 Laplace transform method
    2. B. Selected diffusion data
      1. B.1 Self-diffusivity of the elements
      2. B.2 Solute diffusivity in compounds
      3. B.3 Solute diffusivity in alloys
    3. C. Selected binary and pseudo-binary phase diagrams
    4. D. Solving problems by developing conceptual models
      1. D.1 Introduction
      2. D.2 General method (to be adapted for particular cases)
      3. D.3 Example
      4. D.4 Problems on modelling
    5. E. Useful fundamental constants and conversions
  13. Index