- Forming processes are used to shape a material into useful products. The material is permanently deformed during such processes.
- Forming processes are performed in cold or hot state.
- Cold working processes are performed below the recrystallization temperature of a metal, preferably at room temperature.
- Hot working processes are performed above the recrystallization temperature of a metal.
- The recrystallization temperature of a metal is approximately one-half of its melting temperature on absolute scale.
- During hot working, grain structure of a metal is refined and lower energy and less deformation forces are required.
- During cold working, grains are distorted and greater deformation forces and higher energy are ...
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