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Manufacturing Automation, Second Edition

Book Description

Metal cutting is widely used in producing manufactured products. The technology has advanced considerably along with new materials, computers and sensors. This new edition considers the scientific principles of metal cutting and their practical application to manufacturing problems. It begins with metal cutting mechanics, principles of vibration and experimental modal analysis applied to solving shop floor problems. There is in-depth coverage of chatter vibrations, a problem experienced daily by manufacturing engineers. Programming, design and automation of CNC (computer numerical control) machine tools, NC (numerical control) programming and CAD/CAM technology are discussed. The text also covers the selection of drive actuators, feedback sensors, modelling and control of feed drives, the design of real time trajectory generation and interpolation algorithms and CNC-oriented error analysis in detail. Each chapter includes examples drawn from industry, design projects and homework problems. This is ideal for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and also practising engineers.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface
  7. 1. Introduction
  8. 2. Mechanics of Metal Cutting
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Mechanics of Orthogonal Cutting
    3. 2.3 Mechanistic Modeling of Cutting Forces
    4. 2.4 Theoretical Prediction of Shear Angle
    5. 2.5 Mechanics of Oblique Cutting
      1. 2.5.1 Oblique Cutting Geometry
      2. 2.5.2 Solution of Oblique Cutting Parameters
      3. 2.5.3 Prediction of Cutting Forces
    6. 2.6 Mechanics of Turning Processes
    7. 2.7 Mechanics of Milling Processes
      1. 2.7.1 Mechanics of Helical End Mills
    8. 2.8 Analytical Modeling of End Milling Forces
      1. 2.8.1 Mechanistic Identification of Cutting Constants in Milling
    9. 2.9 Mechanics of Drilling
    10. 2.10 Tool Wear and Tool Breakage
      1. 2.10.1 Tool Wear
      2. 2.10.2 Tool Breakage
    11. 2.11 Problems
  9. 3. Structural Dynamics of Machines
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Machine Tool Structures
    3. 3.3 Dimensional Form Errors in Machining
      1. 3.3.1 Form Errors in Cylindrical Turning
      2. 3.3.2 Boring Bar
      3. 3.3.3 Form Errors in End Milling
    4. 3.4 Structural Vibrations in Machining
      1. 3.4.1 Fundamentals of Free and Forced Vibrations
      2. 3.4.2 Oriented Frequency Response Function
      3. 3.4.3 Design and Measurement Coordinate Systems
      4. 3.4.4 Analytical Modal Analysis for Multi–Degree-of-Freedom Systems
      5. 3.4.5 Relative Frequency Response Function between Tool and Workpiece
    5. 3.5 Modal Testing of Machine Structures
      1. 3.5.1 Theory of Frequency Response Testing
      2. 3.5.2 Experimental Procedures in Modal Testing
    6. 3.6 Experimental Modal Analysis for Multi–Degree-of-Freedom Systems
    7. 3.7 Identification of Modal Parameters
      1. 3.7.1 Global Nonlinear Optimization of Modal Parameter Identification
    8. 3.8 Receptance Coupling of End Mills to Spindle-Tool Holder Assembly
      1. 3.8.1 Experimental Procedure
    9. 3.9 Problems
  10. 4. Machine Tool Vibrations
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Stability of Regenerative Chatter Vibrations in Orthogonal Cutting
      1. 4.2.1 Stability of Orthogonal Cutting
      2. 4.2.2 Dimensionless Analysis of Stability Lobes in Orthogonal Cutting
      3. 4.2.3 Chatter Stability of Orthogonal Cutting with Process Damping
    3. 4.3 Chatter Stability of Turning Operations
    4. 4.4 Chatter Stability of Turning Systems with Process Damping
      1. 4.4.1 Metal Cutting Forces
      2. 4.4.2 Process Damping Gains Contributed by Flank Wear
      3. 4.4.3 Stability Analysis
    5. 4.5 Experimental Validation
    6. 4.6 Analytical Prediction of Chatter Vibrations in Milling
      1. 4.6.1 Dynamic Milling Model
      2. 4.6.2 Zero-Order Solution of Chatter Stability in Milling
      3. 4.6.3 Multi-Frequency Solution of Chatter Stability in Milling
    7. 4.7 Chatter Stability of Drilling Operations
      1. 4.7.1 Dynamic Drilling Force Model
    8. 4.8 Frequency Domain Solution of Drilling Stability
    9. 4.9 Semidiscrete Time Domain Solution of Chatter Stability
      1. 4.9.1 Orthogonal Cutting
      2. 4.9.2 Discrete Time Domain Stability Solution in Milling
    10. 4.10 Problems
  11. 5. Technology of Manufacturing Automation
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Computer Numerically Controlled Unit
      1. 5.2.1 Organization of a CNC Unit
      2. 5.2.2 CNC Executive
      3. 5.2.3 CNC Machine Tool Axis Conventions
      4. 5.2.4 NC Part Program Structure
      5. 5.2.5 Main Preparatory Functions
    3. 5.3 Computer-Assisted NC Part Programming
      1. 5.3.1 Basics of Analytical Geometry
      2. 5.3.2 APT Part Programming Language
    4. 5.4 Trajectory Generation for Computer-Controlled Machines
      1. 5.4.1 Interpolation with Constant Displacement
      2. 5.4.2 Acceleration-Limited Velocity Profile Generation with Constant Interpolation Period
      3. 5.4.3 Jerk-Limited Velocity Profile Generation
    5. 5.5 Real-Time Interpolation Methods
      1. 5.5.1 Linear Interpolation Algorithm
      2. 5.5.2 Circular Interpolation Algorithm
      3. 5.5.3 Quintic Spline Interpolation within CNC Systems
    6. 5.6 Problems
  12. 6. Design and Analysis of CNC Systems
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Machine Tool Drives
      1. 6.2.1 Mechanical Components and Torque Requirements
      2. 6.2.2 Feedback Devices
      3. 6.2.3 Electrical Drives
      4. 6.2.4 Permanent Magnet Armature-Controlled dc Motors
      5. 6.2.5 Position Control Loop
    3. 6.3 Transfer Function of the Position Loop
    4. 6.4 State Space Model of Feed Drive Control Systems
    5. 6.5 Sliding Mode Controller
    6. 6.6 Active Damping of Feed Drives
    7. 6.7 Design of an Electrohydraulic CNC Press Brake
      1. 6.7.1 Hydraulic Press Brake System
      2. 6.7.2 Dynamic Model of Hydraulic Actuator Module
      3. 6.7.3 Identification of Electrohydraulic Drive Dynamics for Computer Control
      4. 6.7.4 Digital Position Control System Design
    8. 6.8 Problems
  13. 7. Sensor-Assisted Machining
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Intelligent Machining Module
      1. 7.2.1 Hardware Architecture
      2. 7.2.2 Software Architecture
      3. 7.2.3 Intelligent Machining Application
    3. 7.3 Adaptive Control of Peak Forces in Milling
      1. 7.3.1 Introduction
      2. 7.3.2 Discrete Transfer Function of the Milling Process System
      3. 7.3.3 Pole-Placement Control Algorithm
      4. 7.3.4 Adaptive Generalized Predictive Control of Milling Process
      5. 7.3.5 In-Process Detection of Tool Breakage
      6. 7.3.6 Chatter Detection and Suppression
    4. 7.4 Intelligent Pocketing with the IMM System
    5. 7.5 Problems
  14. Appendix A: Laplace and z Transforms
    1. A.1 Introduction
    2. A.2 Basic Definitions
    3. A.3 Partial Fraction Expansion Method
    4. A.4 Partial Fraction Expansion Method to Determine Inverse Laplace and z Transforms
  15. Appendix B: Off-Line and On-Line Parameter Estimation with Least Squares
    1. B.1 Off-Line Least-Squares Estimation
    2. B.2 Recursive Parameter Estimation Algorithm
  16. Bibliography
  17. Index