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Manual of Photography, 9th Edition

Book Description

The Manual of Photography is the standard work for anyone who is serious about photography - professional photographers and lab technicians or managers, as well as students and enthusiastic amateurs who want to become more technically competent. The authors provide comprehensive and accessible coverage of the techniques and technologies of photography.

The Manual has aided many thousands of photographers in their careers. The ninth edition now brings this text into a third century, as the first edition dates from 1890.

Major new updates for the ninth edition include:

Coverage of digital techniques - more emphasis on electronic and hybrid media
Greater coverage of colour measurement, specification and reproduction - illustrated with a new colour plate section

Dealing with the fundamental principles as well as the practices of photography and imaging, the Manual topics ranging from optics to camera types and features, to colour photography and digital image processing and manipulation.

The authors write in a reader-friendly style, using many explanatory illustrations and dividing topics into clear sections.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the first edition of The Ilford Manual of Photography (1890)
  7. Preface to the ninth edition
  8. 1. Imaging systems
    1. The production of images
    2. Photographic and digital imaging
    3. General characteristics of reproduction systems
    4. Imaging chains
    5. The reproduction of tone and colour
    6. Image quality expectations
  9. 2. Fundamentals of light and vision
    1. Light waves and particles
    2. Optics
    3. The electromagnetic spectrum
    4. The eye and vision
  10. 3. Photographic light sources
    1. Characteristics of light sources
    2. Light output
    3. Daylight
    4. Tungsten-filament lamps
    5. Tungsten-halogen lamps
    6. Fluorescent lamps
    7. Metal-halide lamps
    8. Pulsed xenon lamps
    9. Expendable flashbulbs
    10. Electronic flash
    11. Other sources
  11. 4. The geometry of image formation
    1. Interaction of light with matter
    2. Image formation
    3. The simple lens
    4. Image formation by a compound lens
    5. Graphical construction of images
    6. The lens conjugate equation
    7. Field angle of view
    8. Covering power of a lens
    9. Geometric distortion
    10. Depth of field
    11. Depth of field equations
    12. Depth of focus
    13. Perspective
  12. 5. The photometry of image formation
    1. Stops and pupils
    2. Aperture
    3. Mechanical vignetting
    4. Image illumination
    5. Image illuminance with wide-angle lenses
    6. Exposure compensation for close-up photography
    7. Light losses and lens transmission
    8. Flare and its effects
    9. T-numbers
    10. Anti-reflection coatings
  13. 6. Optical aberrations and lens performance
    1. Introduction
    2. Axial chromatic aberration
    3. Lateral chromatic aberration
    4. Spherical aberration
    5. Coma
    6. Curvature of field
    7. Astigmatism
    8. Curvilinear distortion
    9. Diffraction
    10. Resolution and resolving power
    11. Modulation transfer function
  14. 7. Camera lenses
    1. Simple lenses
    2. Compound lenses
    3. Development of the photographic lens
    4. Modern camera lenses
    5. Wide-angle lenses
    6. Long-focus lenses
    7. Zoom and varifocal lenses
    8. Macro lenses
    9. Teleconverters
    10. Optical attachments
    11. Special effects
  15. 8. Types of camera
    1. Survey of development
    2. Camera types
    3. Special purpose cameras
    4. Automatic cameras
    5. Digital cameras
    6. Architecture of the digital camera
  16. 9. Camera features
    1. Shutter systems
    2. The iris diaphragm
    3. Viewfinder systems
    4. Flash synchronization
    5. Focusing systems
    6. Autofocus systems
    7. Exposure metering systems
    8. Battery power
    9. Data imprinting
  17. 10. Camera movements
    1. Introduction
    2. Translational movements
    3. Rotational movements
    4. Lens covering power
    5. Control of image sharpness
    6. Limits to lens tilt
    7. Control of image shape
    8. Perspective control lenses
    9. Shift cameras
  18. 11. Optical filters
    1. Optical filters
    2. Filter sizes
    3. Filters and focusing
    4. Colour filters for black-and-white photography
    5. Colour filters for colour photography
    6. Special filters
    7. Polarizing filters
    8. Filters for darkroom use
  19. 12. Sensitive materials and image sensors
    1. Latent image formation in silver halides
    2. Image formation by charge-coupled devices
    3. Production of light-sensitive materials and sensors
    4. Sizes and formats of photographic and electronic sensors and media
  20. 13. Spectral sensitivity of photographic materials
    1. Response of photographic materials to short-wave radiation
    2. Response of photographic materials to visible radiation
    3. Spectral sensitization
    4. Orthochromatic materials
    5. Panchromatic materials
    6. Extended sensitivity materials
    7. Infrared materials
    8. Other uses of dye sensitization
    9. Determination of the colour sensitivity of an unknown material
    10. Wedge spectrograms
    11. Spectral sensitivity of digital cameras
  21. 14. Principles of colour photography
    1. Colour matching
    2. The first colour photograph
    3. Additive colour photography
    4. Subtractive colour photography
    5. Additive processes
    6. Subtractive processes
    7. Integral tripacks
  22. 15. Sensitometry
    1. The subject
    2. Exposure
    3. Density
    4. Effect of light scatter in a negative
    5. Callier coefficient
    6. Density in practice
    7. The characteristic (H and D) curve
    8. Main regions of the negative characteristic curve
    9. Variation of the characteristic curve with the material
    10. Variation of the characteristic curve with development
    11. Gamma-time curve
    12. Variation of gamma with wavelength
    13. Placing of the subject on the characteristic curve
    14. Average gradient and G
    15. Contrast index
    16. Effect of variation in development on the negative
    17. Effect of variation in exposure on the negative
    18. Exposure latitude
    19. The response curve of a photographic paper
    20. Maximum black
    21. Exposure range of a paper
    22. Variation of the print curve with the type of emulsion
    23. Variation of the print curve with development
    24. Requirements in a print
    25. Paper contrast
    26. The problem of the subject of high contrast
    27. Tone reproduction
    28. Reciprocity law failure
    29. Sensitometric practice
    30. Sensitometers
    31. Densitometers
    32. Elementary sensitometry
    33. Sensitometry of a digital camera
  23. 16. The reproduction of colour
    1. Colours of the rainbow
    2. Colours of natural objects
    3. Effect of the light source on the appearance of colours
    4. Response of the eye to colours
    5. Primary and complementary colours
    6. Complementary pairs of colours
    7. Low light levels
    8. Black-and-white processes
    9. Colour processes
    10. Formation of subtractive image dyes
    11. Colour sensitometry
    12. Imperfections of colour processes
    13. Correction of deficiencies of the subtractive system
    14. Masking of colour materials
    15. Problems of duplication
    16. The chemistry of colour image formation
    17. Chromogenic processes
    18. Silver-dye-bleach process
    19. Instant colour processes
    20. Alternative method for instant photography
  24. 17. Photographic processing
    1. Developers and development
    2. Developing agents
    3. Preservatives
    4. Alkalis
    5. Restrainers (anti-foggants)
    6. Miscellaneous additions to developers
    7. Superadditivity (synergesis)
    8. Monochrome developer formulae in general use
    9. Changes in a developer with use
    10. Replenishment
    11. Preparing developers
    12. Techniques of development
    13. Obtaining the required degree of development
    14. Quality control
    15. Processing following development
    16. Rinse and stop baths
    17. Fixers
    18. Silver recovery
    19. Bleaching of silver images
    20. Washing
    21. Tests for permanence
    22. Drying
  25. 18. Speed of materials, sensors and systems
    1. Speed of photographic media
    2. Methods of expressing speed
    3. Speed systems and standards
    4. ISO speed ratings for colour materials
    5. Speed of digital systems
    6. Speed ratings in practice
  26. 19. Camera exposure determination
    1. Camera exposure
    2. Optimum exposure criteria
    3. Exposure latitude
    4. Subject luminance ratio
    5. Development variations
    6. Exposure determination
    7. Practical exposure tests
    8. Light measurement
    9. Exposure meter calibration
    10. Exposure values
    11. Incident light measurements
    12. Exposure meters in practice
    13. Photometry units
    14. Spot meters
    15. In-camera metering systems
    16. Electronic flash exposure metering
    17. Automatic electronic flash
  27. 20. Hard copy output media
    1. Hard copy output
    2. Photographic papers
    3. Type of silver halide emulsion
    4. Paper contrast
    5. Paper surface
    6. Paper base
    7. Colour photographic papers
    8. Processing photographic paper
    9. Pictrography and Pictrostat
    10. Dry Silver materials
    11. Cylithographic materials/Cycolor
    12. Thermal imaging materials
    13. Materials for ink-jet printing
  28. 21. Production of hard copy
    1. Photographic printing and enlarging
    2. Types of enlargers
    3. Light sources for enlarging and printing
    4. Lenses for enlargers
    5. Ancillary equipment
    6. Exposure determination
    7. Conventional image manipulation
    8. Colour printing
    9. Colour enlarger design
    10. Types of colour enlarger
    11. Methods of evaluating colour negatives for printing
    12. Digital output
    13. Evaluating the results
  29. 22. Life expectancy of imaging media
    1. Life expectancy of photographic media
    2. Processing conditions
    3. Storage conditions
    4. Atmospheric gases
    5. Toning
    6. Light fading
    7. Life expectancy of digital media
  30. 23. Colour matters
    1. Specification by sample
    2. The physical specification of colour
    3. Specification of colour by synthesis
    4. Colour gamuts
    5. Summing up
  31. 24. Theory of image formation
    1. Sinusoidal waves
    2. Images and sine waves
    3. Imaging sinusoidal patterns
    4. Fourier theory of image formation
    5. Measuring modulation transfer functions (MTF)
    6. Discrete transforms and sampling
    7. The MTF for a CCD imaging array
    8. Image quality and MTF
  32. 25. Images and information
    1. Image noise
    2. Photographic noise
    3. Quantifying image noise
    4. Practical considerations for the autocorrelation function and the noise power spectrum
    5. Signal-to-noise ratio
    6. Detective quantum efficiency (DQE)
    7. Information theory
  33. 26. Digital image processing and manipulation
    1. Linear spatial filtering (convolution)
    2. Frequency domain filtering
    3. Non-linear filtering
    4. Statistical operations (point, grey-level operations)
    5. Image restoration
    6. Edge detection and segmentation
    7. Image data compression
  34. Index