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Managing Quality

Book Description

Managing Quality, Fifth Edition is an essential resource for students and practitioners alike.

  • This popular and highly successful introduction to Quality Management has been fully revised and updated to reflect recent developments in the field

  • Includes new chapters on Improvement Approaches, Six Sigma, and new challenges in Quality Management

  • Combines the latest information on the ISO 9000 quality management system series standards with up-to-date tools, techniques and quality systems

  • Material has been re-ordered and changes to terminology have been made to bring the book completely up to date

  • Provides a popular resource for students, academics, and business practitioners alike

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Standards
    1. British Standards
    2. International Standards
  3. Abbreviations
  4. Contributors
    1. The editors
    2. The contributors
  5. Preface
  6. 1. The Development, Introduction and Sustaining of Total Quality Management (TQM)
    1. 1. TQM: An Overview
      1. 1.1. Introduction
      2. 1.2. What is Quality?
        1. 1.2.1. Qualitative
        2. 1.2.2. Quantitative
        3. 1.2.3. Uniformity of the product characteristics or delivery of a service around a nominal or target value
        4. 1.2.4. Conformance to agreed and fully understood requirements
        5. 1.2.5. Fitness for purpose/use
        6. 1.2.6. Satisfying customer expectations and understanding their needs and future requirements
      3. 1.3. Why is Quality Important?
        1. 1.3.1. Public perceptions of product and service quality
        2. 1.3.2. Views and roles of senior management
        3. 1.3.3. Quality is not negotiable
        4. 1.3.4. Quality is all-pervasive
        5. 1.3.5. Quality increases productivity
        6. 1.3.6. Quality leads to better performance in the marketplace
        7. 1.3.7. Quality means improved business performance
        8. 1.3.8. The cost of non-quality is high
        9. 1.3.9. Customer is king
        10. 1.3.10. Quality is a way of life
      4. 1.4. The Evolution of Quality Management
        1. 1.4.1. Inspection
        2. 1.4.2. Quality control
          1. 1.4.2.1. What is detection?
        3. 1.4.3. Quality assurance
          1. 1.4.3.1. What is prevention?
        4. 1.4.4. Total quality management
      5. 1.5. The Key Elements of TQM
        1. 1.5.1. Commitment and leadership of the chief executive officer
        2. 1.5.2. Planning and organization
        3. 1.5.3. Using tools and techniques
        4. 1.5.4. Education and training
        5. 1.5.5. Involvement
        6. 1.5.6. Teamwork
        7. 1.5.7. Measurement and feedback
        8. 1.5.8. Ensuring that the culture is conducive to continuous improvement activity
      6. 1.6. Summary: Developing TQM
        1. 1.6.1. Organizing
        2. 1.6.2. Systems and techniques
        3. 1.6.3. Measurement and feedback
        4. 1.6.4. Changing the culture
    2. 2. The Role of Management in TQM
      1. 2.1. Introduction
      2. 2.2. The Need for Senior Managers to Get Involved in TQM
      3. 2.3. What Senior Managers Need to Know about TQM
      4. 2.4. What Senior Managers Need to Do about TQM
      5. 2.5. The Role of Middle Managers
      6. 2.6. The Role of First-Line Managers
      7. 2.7. Summary
    3. 3. The Received Wisdom on TQM
      1. 3.1. Introduction
      2. 3.2. Crosby (1926–2001)
      3. 3.3. Deming (1900–1993)
      4. 3.4. Feigenbaum (b. 1922)
      5. 3.5. Juran (b. 1904)
      6. 3.6. Are the Approaches of these Gurus Different?
      7. 3.7. Imai (b. 1930)
      8. 3.8. Ishikawa (1915–1989)
      9. 3.9. Shingo (1909–1990)
      10. 3.10. Taguchi (b. 1924)
      11. 3.11. Japanese-Style Total Quality
      12. 3.12. Summary
    4. 4. The Introduction of TQM
      1. 4.1. Introduction
      2. 4.2. Change and Continuous Improvement
      3. 4.3. Forces for Change
        1. 4.3.1. The chief executive officer
        2. 4.3.2. Competition
        3. 4.3.3. Demanding customers
        4. 4.3.4. 'Fresh-start' situations
      4. 4.4. How Do Companies Get Started?
      5. 4.5. Approaches to TQM
        1. 4.5.1. Applying the wisdom of the quality management experts
        2. 4.5.2. Applying a consultancy package
        3. 4.5.3. Frameworks and models
        4. 4.5.4. Developing a tailor-made organizational route map
        5. 4.5.5. Self-assessment
      6. 4.6. Summary
    5. 5. A Framework for the Introduction of TQM
      1. 5.1. Introduction
      2. 5.2. Organizing
      3. 5.3. Systems and Techniques
      4. 5.4. Measurement and Feedback
      5. 5.5. Changing the Culture
      6. 5.6. Use of the Framework
      7. 5.7. Summary and Outcomes
    6. 6. Levels of TQM Adoption
      1. 6.1. Introduction
      2. 6.2. Level 1 – Uncommitted
      3. 6.3. Level 2 – Drifters
      4. 6.4. Level 3 – Tool-Pushers
      5. 6.5. Level 4 – Improvers
      6. 6.6. Level 5 – Award-Winners
      7. 6.7. Level 6 – World-Class
      8. 6.8. Summary
    7. 7. Sustaining TQM
      1. 7.1. Introduction
      2. 7.2. TQM Sustaining Audit Tool: Development and Methodology
      3. 7.3. Category 1 – Internal/External Environment
        1. 7.3.1. External environment
          1. 7.3.1.1. Competitors
          2. 7.3.1.2. Employee resourcing, development and retention
        2. 7.3.2. Internal environment
          1. 7.3.2.1. Customer focus
          2. 7.3.2.2. Investment
          3. 7.3.2.3. The 'fear' factor
      4. 7.4. Category 2 – Management Style
        1. 7.4.1. Industrial relations
        2. 7.4.2. Management–worker relationship
      5. 7.5. Category 3 – Policies
        1. 7.5.1. Human resources
        2. 7.5.2. Production
        3. 7.5.3. Maintenance
      6. 7.6. Category 4 – Organization Structure
        1. 7.6.1. Positioning of the quality function
        2. 7.6.2. Departmental, functional and shift boundaries
        3. 7.6.3. Communication
        4. 7.6.4. Job flexibility and cover
        5. 7.6.5. Supervisory structure
      7. 7.7. Category 5 – Process of Change
        1. 7.7.1. Improvement infrastructure
        2. 7.7.2. Education and training
        3. 7.7.3. Teams and teamwork
        4. 7.7.4. Procedures
        5. 7.7.5. Quality management system
        6. 7.7.6. Quality management tools and techniques
        7. 7.7.7. Confidence in management
      8. 7.8. Summary
  7. 2. The Business Context of TQM
    1. 8. Policy Deployment
      1. 8.1. Introduction
      2. 8.2. Definitions: Policy Deployment
      3. 8.3. What is Policy Deployment?
      4. 8.4. What Policy Deployment is Not
        1. 8.4.1.
          1. 8.4.1.1. Hoshin myths
          2. 8.4.1.2. Hoshin management myths
      5. 8.5. The Policy Deployment Process
        1. 8.5.1. Five- to ten-year vision
        2. 8.5.2. Mid-term three- to five-year objectives
        3. 8.5.3. Annual plan and objectives
        4. 8.5.4. Deployment/roll down to departments
        5. 8.5.5. Execution
        6. 8.5.6. Progress review (monthly and quarterly)
        7. 8.5.7. Annual review
          1. 8.5.7.1. Hoshin plan summary
          2. 8.5.7.2. Hoshin action plan
          3. 8.5.7.3. Hoshin implementation plan
          4. 8.5.7.4. Hoshin implementation review
        8. 8.5.8. Visible display
      6. 8.6. A Check-Reflect-Improve-Scrutinize-Pass (CRISP) Approach to Policy Deployment
      7. 8.7. Summary
    2. 9. Quality Costing
      1. 9.1. Introduction
      2. 9.2. Definition and Categorization of Quality Costs
      3. 9.3. Collecting Quality Costs
        1. 9.3.1. Purpose
        2. 9.3.2. Strategies
        3. 9.3.3. Scope
        4. 9.3.4. Cost collection
      4. 9.4. Some Cost Aspects of Manufacturing Industry
        1. 9.4.1. Hidden in-house quality costs
        2. 9.4.2. Scrap and rework
        3. 9.4.3. Appraisal costs
        4. 9.4.4. Warranty costs
      5. 9.5. Reporting Quality Costs
      6. 9.6. Uses of Quality Costs
      7. 9.7. Summary
    3. 10. Managing People
      1. 10.1. Introduction
      2. 10.2. QM: The HR Concerns
      3. 10.3. The Two Sides of QM
      4. 10.4. QM and the Management of People
      5. 10.5. HR Policies and Practices
      6. 10.6. Employee Involvement
      7. 10.7. Organizational Culture
      8. 10.8. Diversity
      9. 10.9. Training and Education
      10. 10.10. Selection
      11. 10.11. Appraisal
      12. 10.12. Pay
      13. 10.13. Employee Well-Being
        1. 10.13.1. Labour turnover
      14. 10.14. Industrial Relations
      15. 10.15. Employment Security
      16. 10.16. Integration
      17. 10.17. Summary
    4. 11. Managing Service Quality
      1. 11.1. Introduction
      2. 11.2. The Service Environment
        1. 11.2.1. The benefits of good service
      3. 11.3. Defining Service Quality
        1. 11.3.1.
          1. 11.3.1.1. Gap 1. Consumer expectations-management perceptions of consumer expectations
          2. 11.3.1.2. Gap 2. Management perceptions of consumer expectations-service quality specifications actually set
          3. 11.3.1.3. Gap 3. Service quality specifications-actual service delivery
          4. 11.3.1.4. Gap 4. Actual service delivery–external communications about the service
        2. 11.3.2. Dimensions of service
        3. 11.3.3. Zones of tolerance
        4. 11.3.4. Measurement of service quality
      4. 11.4. The Role of Personnel in Service Delivery
        1. 11.4.1. Internal marketing
        2. 11.4.2. Personnel policies
      5. 11.5. Service Delivery
        1. 11.5.1. Monitoring service quality
        2. 11.5.2. Service failure
        3. 11.5.3. Service recovery
      6. 11.6. Summary
    5. 12. Supplier Development
      1. 12.1. Introduction
      2. 12.2. Long-Term Issues of Partnership
      3. 12.3. Barriers to Developing Partnerships
        1. 12.3.1. Poor communication and feedback
        2. 12.3.2. Supplier complacency
        3. 12.3.3. Misguided supplier improvement objectives
        4. 12.3.4. Lack of customer credibility
        5. 12.3.5. Misconceptions regarding purchasing power
      4. 12.4. Conditions of Partnership
      5. 12.5. The Issues to be Considered in Partnership
      6. 12.6. The Process of Partnership
      7. 12.7. Potential Difficulties of Operating Partnerships
      8. 12.8. Summary
  8. 3. Quality Management Systems, Tools and Techniques
    1. 13. Quality Management Systems
      1. 13.1. Introduction
      2. 13.2. What is Quality Assurance?
      3. 13.3. What is a Quality Management System?
      4. 13.4. The Development of Quality Management System Standards
        1. 13.4.1. Government initiatives
        2. 13.4.2. Acceptance of the ISO 9001 series of standards
      5. 13.5. The ISO 9000 Series of Standards: An Overview
        1. 13.5.1. Introduction
        2. 13.5.2. Functions of the standards and their various parts
        3. 13.5.3. Principal elements of ISO 9001
      6. 13.6. Implementation Guidelines for ISO 9001
      7. 13.7. Quality Management System Assessment and Registration
      8. 13.8. ISO 9000 Series Registration: A Model for Small Companies
        1. 13.8.1. Motivation
        2. 13.8.2. Information
        3. 13.8.3. Resources
        4. 13.8.4. Planning
      9. 13.9. Benefits and Limitations of the ISO 9000 Series of Standards
      10. 13.10. Summary
    2. 14. Integrated Management Systems
      1. 14.1. Introduction
      2. 14.2. The Case for Integration and Some of the Problems
      3. 14.3. The ISO 9001/ISO 14001 Matrix
      4. 14.4. Interlinked Systems
      5. 14.5. The EFQM Model
      6. 14.6. A Comparative Analysis of the Current Integration Models
      7. 14.7. The Key Integration Issues
      8. 14.8. An Integrated Management Systems Model
      9. 14.9. Summary
    3. 15. Tools and Techniques: An Overview
      1. 15.1. Introduction
      2. 15.2. Selecting Tools and Techniques
      3. 15.3. Difficulties and Issues Relating to the Use of Tools and Techniques
      4. 15.4. Problem-Solving Methodology
      5. 15.5. Checklists
      6. 15.6. Flowcharts
      7. 15.7. Checksheets
      8. 15.8. Tally Charts and Histograms
      9. 15.9. Graphs
      10. 15.10. Pareto Analysis
      11. 15.11. Cause-and-Effect Diagrams
      12. 15.12. Brainstorming
      13. 15.13. Scatter Diagrams and Regression Analysis
      14. 15.14. The Seven Management Tools
        1. 15.14.1. Relations diagram method (relationship diagraph or linkage diagram)
        2. 15.14.2. Affinity diagram method (KJ – kawakita jiro – method)
        3. 15.14.3. Systematic diagram method (tree diagram)
        4. 15.14.4. Matrix diagram method
        5. 15.14.5. Matrix data-analysis method
        6. 15.14.6. Process decision programme chart (PDPC) method
        7. 15.14.7. Arrow diagram method
      15. 15.15. Housekeeping
      16. 15.16. Departmental Purpose Analysis
      17. 15.17. Mistake-Proofing
      18. 15.18. Total Productive Maintenance
      19. 15.19. Summary
    4. 16. Quality Function Deployment
      1. 16.1. Introduction
      2. 16.2. Understanding Customer Needs
      3. 16.3. The QFD Road: The Main Steps
        1. 16.3.1. Stage 1: Product planning
          1. 16.3.1.1. The project
          2. 16.3.1.2. Customer needs
          3. 16.3.1.3. Customer priorities and competitive comparisons and planned improvements
          4. 16.3.1.4. Design features or requirements
          5. 16.3.1.5. The central relationship matrix: the whats vs. the hows
          6. 16.3.1.6. Relative weights of importance
          7. 16.3.1.7. Design feature interactions: the hows vs. the hows
          8. 16.3.1.8. Target values
          9. 16.3.1.9. Technical comparisons
          10. 16.3.1.10. Service information and special requirements
      4. 16.4. Deploying Customer Needs into Product and Process Definition
        1. 16.4.1. Stage 2: Product design, concurrent to a degree with Stages 3 and 4
        2. 16.4.2. Stage 3: Process design, concurrent to a degree with Stages 2 and 4
        3. 16.4.3. Stage 4: Manufacturing operating systems
      5. 16.5. The Benefits of the Four-Stage Approach
      6. 16.6. QFD and the Service Sector
      7. 16.7. Difficulties Associated with QFD
      8. 16.8. Implementation of QFD
      9. 16.9. Summary
    5. 17. Design of Experiments
      1. 17.1. Introduction
      2. 17.2. Methods of Experimentation
        1. 17.2.1. The trial-and-error and one-factor-at-a-time method
        2. 17.2.2. The full factorial method
        3. 17.2.3. The fractional factorial method
      3. 17.3. Taguchi: An Overview of his Approach
      4. 17.4. Achieving Robust Design: An Example from Tile Manufacturing
      5. 17.5. Steps in Experimental Design
        1. 17.5.1. Step 1: Define the project objectives
        2. 17.5.2. Step 2: Select critical characteristics
        3. 17.5.3. Step 3: Determine the issues that affect the critical characteristics
        4. 17.5.4. Step 4: Identify control factors and noise factors
        5. 17.5.5. Step 5: Select the control factors to be optimized during the experiment
        6. 17.5.6. Step 6: Choose the orthogonal array and assign factors to columns in the array
        7. 17.5.7. Step 7: Choose the levels of the control factors
        8. 17.5.8. Step 8: Choose sample size
        9. 17.5.9. Step 9: Organize the experiment and carry it out
        10. 17.5.10. Step 10: Analysing the data
        11. 17.5.11. Step 11: Predicting the result of the confirmation run
        12. 17.5.12. Step 12: Interpreting the confirmation run and deciding if the project is finished
      6. 17.6. Summary
    6. 18. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
      1. 18.1. Introduction
      2. 18.2. What is Failure Mode and Effects Analysis?
      3. 18.3. Development of a Design FMEA
      4. 18.4. Development of a Process FMEA
      5. 18.5. Analysis of Failure Data
      6. 18.6. Recommended Actions for Design and Process FMEA
      7. 18.7. Background to the Use of FMEA at Allied Signal Automotive
      8. 18.8. Developing the Use of FMEA at Allied Signal Automotive
        1. 18.8.1. Design FMEA
        2. 18.8.2. Process FMEA
      9. 18.9. Summary
    7. 19. Statistical Process Control
      1. 19.1. Introduction
      2. 19.2. What is Statistical Process Control?
      3. 19.3. The Development of Statistical Process Control
      4. 19.4. Some Basic Statistics: Averages and Measures of Dispersion
        1. 19.4.1. Measures of central tendency
        2. 19.4.2. Measures of dispersion
      5. 19.5. Variation and Process Improvement
        1. 19.5.1. What are special and common causes of variation?
      6. 19.6. Variable and Attribute Data
        1. 19.6.1. Variable (or measured) data
        2. 19.6.2. Attribute (or countable) data
      7. 19.7. Data-Collection
      8. 19.8. Construction of Control Charts Using Variables Data
      9. 19.9. Interpreting a Variables Control Chart
      10. 19.10. Construction of Control Charts Using Attribute Data
      11. 19.11. Construction and Interpretation of Control Charts: Dos and Don'ts
      12. 19.12. Process Capability
      13. 19.13. Implementation of SPC
        1. 19.13.1. Awareness
        2. 19.13.2. Selection of a statistical facilitator
        3. 19.13.3. Setting up a steering committee/arm for SPC
        4. 19.13.4. Selection of an area for a pilot programme
      14. 19.14. Difficulties Experienced in Introducing and Applying SPC
      15. 19.15. Summary
    8. 20. Six Sigma
      1. 20.1. Introduction
      2. 20.2. What Does Six Sigma Mean?
      3. 20.3. Six Sigma Prerequisites
      4. 20.4. Six Sigma Core Elements
      5. 20.5. Structured Problem-Solving Approaches
        1. 20.5.1. (a) Process improvement
        2. 20.5.2. (b) Process design/redesign
        3. 20.5.3. (c) Process management
      6. 20.6. Success of Six Sigma
      7. 20.7. Summary
    9. 21. Benchmarking
      1. 21.1. Introduction
      2. 21.2. Company Background
      3. 21.3. Why Benchmarking?
      4. 21.4. Success Factors
      5. 21.5. Difficulties and Pitfalls
      6. 21.6. Key Lessons
        1. 21.6.1. Project sponsors
        2. 21.6.2. Team leaders
        3. 21.6.3. Team members
      7. 21.7. Summary
    10. 22. Business Process Re-engineering
      1. 22.1. Introduction
      2. 22.2. Approaches Used in BPR
        1. 22.2.1. Business process redesign
        2. 22.2.2. Business process re-engineering
      3. 22.3. The Principles of BPR
      4. 22.4. Risks and Benefits of BPR
      5. 22.5. Implementation of BPR
        1. 22.5.1. Project champion
        2. 22.5.2. Steering committee
        3. 22.5.3. Process design team
        4. 22.5.4. Process owner
        5. 22.5.5. Implementation team
      6. 22.6. BPR Methodology
        1. 22.6.1. Preparation
        2. 22.6.2. Innovation and design
        3. 22.6.3. Implementation
        4. 22.6.4. Assessment
      7. 22.7. Summary
    11. 23. Teams and Teamwork
      1. 23.1. Introduction
      2. 23.2. The Role of Teams in Continuous Improvement
      3. 23.3. Types of Teams
        1. 23.3.1. Project teams
        2. 23.3.2. Quality circles
        3. 23.3.3. Quality improvement teams
      4. 23.4. Differences between Teams
      5. 23.5. Commonalities between Teams
        1. 23.5.1. Team sponsor
        2. 23.5.2. Team facilitator
        3. 23.5.3. Team leader
        4. 23.5.4. Team member
      6. 23.6. Evaluation of Teams
      7. 23.7. Team Competition
      8. 23.8. Guidelines for Developing Effective Teams
      9. 23.9. Summary
    12. 24. Self-Assessment, Models and Quality Awards
      1. 24.1. Introduction
      2. 24.2. Quality, TQM and Excellence
      3. 24.3. Award Models
        1. 24.3.1. Deming Application Prize
        2. 24.3.2. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
        3. 24.3.3. The European Quality Award
      4. 24.4. The Self-Assessment Process
      5. 24.5. Success Factors for Self-Assessment
      6. 24.6. Difficulties with Self-Assessment
      7. 24.7. Summary
    13. 25. Improvement Approaches
      1. 25.1. Introduction
      2. 25.2. Five Modern Improvement Approaches
      3. 25.3. Approaches: Systematically Defined
      4. 25.4. Approach 1: Total Quality Management
      5. 25.5. Approach 2: Total Productive Maintenance
      6. 25.6. Approach 3: Lean Manufacturing
      7. 25.7. Approach 4: Business Process Re-engineering
      8. 25.8. Approach 5: Six Sigma
      9. 25.9. Analysis of the Approaches
      10. 25.10. Managerial Implications: Which Improvement Approach is Best?
      11. 25.11. Summary
  9. 4. TQM through Continuous Improvement
    1. 26. Managing Quality: New Challenges
      1. 26.1. Introduction
      2. 26.2. Developments
      3. 26.3. 'Old' Quality Management
      4. 26.4. 'New' Quality Management
        1. 26.4.1. Durability as a measure of quality
        2. 26.4.2. The impact of softer influences on customer satisfaction
        3. 26.4.3. The growing importance of software
        4. 26.4.4. The need for closer co-operation both internally between functions and externally between partners in the supply chain
      5. 26.5. Summary
    2. 27. Managing Quality: Epilogue
      1. 27.1. Introduction
      2. 27.2. The Importance of Quality
      3. 27.3. TQM: A Continuous Process
      4. 27.4. Measuring Progress towards TQM
      5. 27.5. TQM Issues which Need to be Considered in the Future
      6. 27.6. Summary