[ APPENDIX ONE ]
The Nature of Innovation Is Changing
Innovation can no longer be the preserve of the traditional notion of science- and technology-based invention or new knowledge creation. This model, dominant during the twentieth century, is being replaced by the concept of innovation as bringing together existing knowledge and combining it to create something new.1 When innovation was framed on the Edison or Marconi model of product invention, there was an underlying assumption that improvement equated to technology advancement.2
Today, innovation is about new services, value propositions, and business models. Pioneering medical services in India, for example, have radically reduced the costs and improved ...