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Management Practices in High-Tech Environments

Book Description

"The concept of innovation management and learning organizations concepts strongly emphasize the high role of human/intellectual capital in the company and the crucial function of knowledge in modern society. However, there is often a paradox between managerial language and actual practice in many organizations: on one hand, knowledge-workers are perceived as the most valued members of organizations while, on the other, they are being manipulated and "engineered"-commonly driven to burn-out, and deprived of family life.

All this leads to the emergence of new organizational phenomena that, up to now, have been insufficiently analyzed and described. Management Practices in High-Tech Environments studies this issue thoroughly from an international, comparative, cross-cultural perspective, presenting cutting-edge research on management practices in American, European, Asian and Middle-Eastern high-tech companies, with particular focus on fieldwork-driven, but reflective, contributions."

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Preface
    1. INTRODUCING MANAGEMENT TO HIGH-TECH
      1. The Idea
      2. High-Tech Management
      3. Structure of the Book
    2. REFERENCES
  3. Acknowledgment
  4. I. The High-Tech Workplace
    1. I. "Boundary-Spanning" Practices and Paradoxes Related to Trust Among People and Machines in a High-Tech Oil and Gas Environment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. BOUNDARY-SPANNING AND TRUST IN INTERORGANIZATIONAL COORDINATION AND COLLABORATION
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. THE CASE: STATOIL SUBSEA OIL AND GAS OPERATIONS
        1. The Participants in the Setting
      5. THE MAINTENANCE OF TRUST, SECS’ STRATEGIES AND BOUNDARY-SPANNING WORK TO DELIVER AVAILABILITY OF SUBSEA SYSTEMS
      6. TRUST AND THE MANAGEMENT OF PARADOXES AS A BOUNDARY-SPANNING ACTIVITY IN HIGH-TECH ENVIRONMENTS
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. KEY TERMS
    2. II. The Information Society: A Global Discourse and its Local Translation into Regional Organizational Practices
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE INFORMATION SOCIETY: TWO EPISTEMIC APPROACHES
      3. BACKGROUND TO THE KISTA CASE STUDY
      4. KISTA SCIENCE CITY: THE SWEDISH TRANSLATION OF A GLOBAL DISCOURSE
      5. "SCIENCE CITY": AN ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEM
      6. SILENCING
      7. TRANSFORMING "THE OTHER"
      8. SEGREGATED (TECHNO-) ECONOMIC RELATIONS
      9. DISCUSSION
        1. Categorical Pairs
        2. Multiculturalism
        3. Silence
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    3. III. High-Tech Workers, Management Strategy, and Globalization
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. GLOBALIZATION AND HIGH-TECH PRODUCTION CYCLES
      4. COST CUTTING LABOR STRATEGIES: CONTINGENCY, IMPORTING LABOR, AND EXPORTING WORK
      5. ACCOMMODATION AND RESISTANCE
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
      8. ENDNOTES
    4. IV. Language Norms and Debate in Triple Helix Organizations
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
        1. Argumentation
        2. Culture and Innovation
        3. Subcultures and Innovation
      3. METHODOLOGY
      4. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
        1. Argumentation as an Occupational Norm
        2. Research Hierarchies and Argumentation
        3. Research Hierarchies, Argumentation and Violated Expectations
        4. Cross-Functional Team Leadership, Participation, and Argumentation
        5. Participation in Argumentation and Occupational Subcultural Boundaries
        6. Occupation Specific Argumentation as a Barrier to Commercialization
      5. CONCLUSION
        1. How Can Research and Commercial Groups Talk to Each Other?
      6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      7. NOTE
      8. REFERENCES
  5. II. The Knowledge Worker
    1. V. High-Tech Meets End-User
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN
      3. STUDYING ONE PROJECT
      4. DESIGNING WITH/FOR POLICE OFFICERSc
      5. DESIGNING WITH/FOR INFORMAL CARERSD
      6. GATHERING KNOWLEDGE
      7. MAKING DECISIONS
      8. SELF AND OTHER
      9. SPEAKING ABOUT ETHICS
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    2. VI. Professional Dimension of IT Specialists’ Social Role
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. SOCIAL ROLE OF IT PROFESSIONALS
        1. Societal Dimension
        2. Professional Dimension
        3. Organizational Dimension
      3. NOTES FROM THE FIELD
        1. Ethical Code and Profession’s Definitions
        2. Education
        3. Professional Career Criteria
      4. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE FIELD MATERIAL
      5. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      6. ENDNOTES
    3. VII. Employee Turnover in the Business Process Outsourcing Industry in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. THE BPO SECTOR IN INDIA
      4. THE TURNOVER PROBLEM
      5. CAUSES OF TURNOVER
        1. Job Related Reasons
        2. Demographic Profile of Workers
        3. Psycho-Social Factors
      6. HUMAN RESOURCE POLICIES TO REDUCE TURNOVER
      7. TRADITIONAL STRATEGIES
        1. Increasing Career Opportunities
        2. Providing Educational Opportunities
        3. Leadership Development
        4. Employee Stock Option Plans
        5. Job Enrichment
      8. NEWER APPROACHES
        1. Developing a Fun Culture
        2. Developing Family Friendly Practices
      9. DISCUSSION
      10. CONCLUSION
      11. REFERENCES
      12. ENDNOTES
    4. VIII. Old and New Timings in a High – Tech Firm
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. LITERATURE REVIEW
        1. The Key Role of High-Tech Engineers as Knowledge Workers
        2. Existential Insecurity and Time
        3. Power Relations, Knowledge, and Time
      4. RESEARCHING TECHCO
      5. CASE STUDY
        1. Techco: A Break with the past
        2. Measures Adopted By Techco: Centralization of Very Senior Management in the U.S.
        3. Moves to an Increased Stress on Patenting
        4. Forced Ranking
        5. Rationality of the Present vs. the "Messiness" of the Past: Portfolio Management
        6. Life/Death/Survival at Work
        7. Tactics Employed by Engineers in the Face of Management Action
      6. SUMMARY
      7. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    5. IX. Trustworthiness as an Impression
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. METHOD
      4. TRUST IN MARKET RELATIONSHIPS
        1. Trust as a Leap of Faith
        2. Market Relationships Based on Trust
        3. Self-presentation in Market Relations
      5. THE ROLE OF TRUST (FIELD STUDY)
      6. VERIFICATION OF TRUSTWORTHINESS (FIELD STUDY)
        1. Knowledge
        2. Corporate Procurement Policies
        3. The opinion in the community
        4. Formal Recommendations
      7. DISCUSSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTE
  6. III. Workplace Relations and Power
    1. X. Social Relations and Knowledge Management Theory and Practice
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. WHAT IS KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT?
        1. Pooling Knowledge: A Necessary precondition of KM
        2. Pooling Knowledge: An Old and New Phenomenon
      3. KM AS A SOCIAL PHENOMENON
        1. Hot Questions Raised by ICT Assisted Knowledge-pooling
        2. Relative Failure of Knowledge-Pooling Practices
        3. Explanations of KM Implementation Experts
        4. Three Main Insatisfaction Sources Grounded in Sociology
      4. QUALIFIED PROFESSIONALS AND KM
        1. Alternative Hypothesis Concerning their Lack of Cooperation
        2. Importance of Assets on Job Market
        3. Importance of Professional Discretion
        4. Legal Protection Won’t do Them Much Good
        5. These Professionals are not Organized
        6. Conclusions of Study of Communities of Practice
      5. CONCLUSION
      6. REFERENCES
        1. KEY TERMS
      7. ENDNOTES
    2. XI. "We Make Magic Here": Exploring Social and Cultural Practices Within a Global Software Organization in India
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
        1. Culture and Organizations
      4. THE CONTEXT: THE INDIAN IT INDUSTRY AND CASE DESCRIPTION
      5. CASE ANALYSIS
        1. Organizational Culture
          1. Office Décor
          2. Organizational Identification Practices
          3. Family Feeling at Work
        2. Cultures of Work
          1. Diverse Cultures of Software Work
          2. Social Networks
          3. Consequences of Long Hours of Work
          4. Payoff for Work
        3. Cross-Cultural Working
          1. Cross-Cultural Training
          2. Cultural Identification Practices
          3. Religious Festivals at Customer Sites
        4. "Primordial" Cultures: Caste, Region, and Religion
          1. Caste
          2. Regional Ties
          3. Religion at the Workplace
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    3. XII. Outsourcing in High-Tech Corporations: Voices of Dissent, Resistance, and Complicity in a Computer Programming Community
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. OUTSOURCING
      4. THE SLASHDOT COMMUNITY OF PROGRAMMERS
      5. SLASHDOT ADVICE: STRATEGIES OF DISSENT AND COMPLIANCE
        1. Train Your Replacements Badly
        2. Leave
          1. Just Leave
          2. Leave Making Sure you Have Money in the Bank
          3. Leave and Sue BoA for your Severance Pay
        3. Train the Replacements Well, Things Will Take Care of Themselves
        4. Regardless of Anything Else, Take Your Money to Another Bank
        5. Unite!
        6. Accept it
        7. Sabotage the System
      6. KNOWLEDGE AND POWER IN HIGH-TECH ENVIRONMENTS
        1. Not Argued, Just Stated
        2. Irreplaceable on a Large Scale
        3. Irreplaceable in the Company
      7. KNOWLEDGE AS IDENTITY OPPOSITION
        1. Managers
          1. Incompetent
          2. Greedy
          3. Foreign Programmers
          4. Low-Tech Workers
      8. CONCLUSION
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTE
    4. XIII. Power and Ethics in IS Evaluation
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. POWER IN INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVALUATION
      4. FOUCAULT ON POWER AND ETHICS
      5. ELEMENTS OF ANALYSIS TO INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVALUATION
      6. AN ILLUSTRATIVE CASE: INFORMATION SYSTEMS EVALUATION AT JAVERIANA UNIVERSITY
        1. Evaluation as Power Development
        2. Possibilities and Constraints for Action Within Power
        3. Power Influencing the Ethics of Evaluators
        4. Ethics Influencing Evaluation
      7. CONCLUDING REMARKS
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
    5. XIV. Critical Insights into NHS Information Systems Deployment
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. HEALTH INFORMATICS AND THE SYSTEMS APPROACH
        1. NPfIT And Related Challenges
        2. The Systems Approach
      4. STRATEGIC ASSUMPTION SURFACING AND TESTING (SAST)
        1. Group Formation
        2. Assumption Surfacing
          1. Group-1 Assumptions
          2. Group-2 Assumptions
        3. Dialectic Debate
        4. Synthesis
          1. Needs Assessment
          2. Stakeholder Analysis
          3. System Specification
          4. Context Analysis
          5. Risk Analysis
          6. Development & Implementation
          7. Cogenerative Learning
      5. WEAKNESSES OF THE APPROACH
      6. CONCLUSION
        1. Methodological
        2. Organizational
        3. Operational
      7. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      8. REFERENCES
      9. ENDNOTES
    6. XV. Managerial Image, Social Capital, and Risk in a Czech Engineering Enterprise
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. CONTEXT
      3. A FOLK MODEL OF RISK TO INDUSTRY
      4. CORRUPTION AND SOCIAL CAPITAL
      5. AVOIDING CORRUPTION AND MAINTAINING MANAGERIAL IMAGE
        1. Information Symmetry and Internal Transparency
        2. Culturally Appropriate Tropes
          1. "Family"
          2. Nationality and Europe
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  7. IV. Self Management
    1. XVI. Self–Entrepreneurial Careers: Current Management Practices in Swiss ICT Work
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SELF-ENTREPRENEURIAL CAREERS
      4. METHODOLOGY
      5. DIVERGENT CAREER MODELS IN ICT WORK IN SWITZERLAND
        1. Increasing Responsibility
        2. Positioning Oneself
      6. DISCUSSION
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      9. REFERENCES
      10. ENDNOTES
    2. XVII. Reflections on Organizing and Managing in Self-Managed Knowledge-Work Teams: A Constructionist Turn
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. PURPOSE
      4. INTELLECTUAL APPROACH
      5. THE BONA FIDE TEAMS AND THEIR WORK
      6. REFLECTIONS: CONSTRUCTIONIST PERSPECTIVES ON SELF-MANAGED KNOWLEDGE-WORK TEAMS
        1. Reflecting on Team Construction
        2. Reflecting on Convergence and Communion
        3. Reflecting on Collective Mind
        4. Reflecting on Self-Managing Roles and Behaviors
        5. Reflecting on Talk-Technology
        6. Reflecting on Team Cohesiveness as Heedful Technology
      7. CONCLUSION
      8. REFERENCES
    3. XVIII. The Entrepreneurial Constitution of High-Tech Work Environments
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. THE VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION
      3. CYBER-CULTURE AND THE BORDERLESS WORLD
      4. ENTREPRENEURS AS A RESOURCE IN THE VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION
      5. ENTREPRENEURING THE VIRTUAL ORGANIZATION
      6. THE ENTREPRENEUR AS A NET-BROKER
      7. THE NEW WAVE OF NET-RELATED ENTREPRENEURS
      8. THE CASE OF YOUTUBEC
      9. CONCLUSION
      10. REFERENCES
      11. ENDNOTES
    4. XIX. Identifying Flexibilities
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. "FLEXIBLE" WORK AND ITS CULTURAL CONTEXT
        1. Manipulative Hooks
        2. Uncertain Agency
      3. F-SECURE CORPORATION
      4. "FINNISH MANAGEMENT IS WONDERFUL"
      5. PROFESSIONAL AND MORAL DIMENSIONS OF WORK
      6. MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AT HYPE AND DOWNTURN
      7. THREATENED PROFESSIONAL IDENTITY
      8. PRAGMATISM
      9. HETEROGLOSSIA
      10. ACKNOWLEDGMENT
      11. ORAL REFERENCES
      12. REFERENCES
      13. ENDNOTES
    5. XX. Disciplining Innovation? Mobile Information Artefacts in a Telco Innovation Center
      1. ABSTRACT
      2. INTRODUCTION
      3. SOME PERTINENT POINTS FROM MANAGEMENT LITERATURE
        1. Resistance, Misbehavior, and Dissent
        2. Production and Consumption: Work and Life
        3. Line-, Peer-and Self-Management of Knowledge-Work
      4. BARGAINS OLD AND NEW
        1. Temptation
        2. Deception
        3. Destruction
      5. IMPLICATIONS FOR (UNDERSTANDING) THE MANAGEMENT OF KNOWLEDGE WORKERS
        1. Models of Adoption
        2. Phases of Information Artefact Production and Consumption
        3. Refining a Conceptual Framework
      6. CONCLUSION
      7. REFERENCES
  8. Compilation of References
  9. About the Contributors