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Make: More Electronics

Book Description

Want to learn even more about electronics in a fun, hands-on way? If you finished the projects in Make: Electronics, or if you're already familiar with the material in that book, you're ready for Make: More Electronics. Right away, you'll start working on real projects, and you'll explore all the key components and essential principles through the book's collection of experiments. You'll build the circuits first, then learn the theory behind them!

This book picks up where Make: Electronics left off: you'll learn about comparators, light sensors, higher-level logic chips, multiplexers, shift registers, encoders, decoders, magnetic sensors, audio amplification, randomicity, as well as positive and negative feedback. With step-by-step instructions, and hundreds of color photographs and illustrations, this book will help you use -- and understand -- intermediate to advanced electronics concepts and techniques.

Table of Contents

  1. Dedication
  2. Acknowledgments
  3. Preface
    1. What You Need
    2. How to Use This Book
      1. Schematics
      2. Dimensions
      3. Math
      4. Organization
    3. If Something Doesn’t Work
    4. Writer-Reader Communication
      1. Me Informing You
      2. You Informing Me
      3. You Asking Me
    5. Before You Write
    6. Going Further
    7. Safari® Books Online
  4. Setup
    1. Power Source
      1. Regulation
    2. Boarding School
      1. Wiring
      2. Grabbing
    3. Component Storage
      1. Verifying
  5. 1. Experiment 1: Sticky Resistance
    1. A Glue-Based Amplifier
      1. What’s Happening
      2. Symbology
    2. Warning: Nonstandard Leads
    3. Background: Conductors and Insulators
    4. Make Even More
  6. 2. Experiment 2: Getting Some Numbers
    1. Requirements
    2. Transistor Behavior
      1. Warning: Meter at Risk!
      2. Abbreviations and Datasheets
      3. What About the Voltage?
      4. Quick Facts About Voltage
    3. Make Even More: Old-School Metering
    4. Quick Facts about Transistors
    5. Answers to Voltage Divider Examples
  7. 3. Experiment 3: From Light to Sound
    1. Photosensitive Audio Pitch
  8. 4. Experiment 4: Measuring Light
    1. Using Phototransistors
    2. Quick Facts About Phototransistors
      1. Background: Photons and Electrons
    3. Quick Facts About the 555
      1. Quick Facts About CMOS Versus Bipolar
  9. 5. Experiment 5: That Whooping Sound
    1. Make Even More
  10. 6. Experiment 6: Easy On, Easy Off
    1. Making Comparisons
      1. Quick Facts About Comparators
    2. Feedback
    3. Hysteresis
    4. The Symbol
      1. Quick Facts About Plus and Minus
    5. The Output
      1. More Quick Facts About Comparators
    6. Inside the Chip
    7. The Circuit Redrawn
      1. Warning: Inverted Comparators
    8. Comparisons with a Microcontroller
    9. Make Even More: A Laser-Based Security System
  11. 7. Experiment 7: It’s Chronophotonic!
    1. Warning: Avoid Dangerous Voltage
    2. The Circuit Basics
      1. Step Two
      2. Circuit Testing
      3. Relay Details
    3. The Coupling Capacitor
    4. Cracking a Clock
      1. Warning: No AC-Powered Clocks!
      2. Looking Inside
      3. Clock Voltage
      4. How It Beeps
    5. Using the Beeps
      1. Hooking Up the Clock
    6. How It Ought to Work
    7. Testing
      1. Connecting Relay to Lamp
      2. Warning: AC Precautions
    8. Make Even More
    9. What’s Next?
  12. 8. Experiment 8: Adventures in Audio
    1. Amping Up
      1. Introducing the Electret
    2. Can You Hear Me?
    3. Background: Microphone Miscellany
      1. Ups and Downs of Sound
  13. 9. Experiment 9: From Millivolts to Volts
    1. Putting a Cap on It
    2. Introducing the Op-Amp
      1. What’s the Difference?
      2. A Perfect Pair
      3. Measuring the Output
  14. 10. Experiment 10: From Sound to Light
    1. An LED-Transistor Combination
  15. 11. Experiment 11: The Need for Negativity
    1. Messing with Measurement
    2. DC Amplification
      1. The Ins and Outs of Amplification
      2. Electronic Ritalin
      3. Gain
    3. Background: Negative Origins
      1. Pushing the Limits
    4. No Pain, No Gain!
      1. Phase 1: Output Voltages
      2. Phase 2: Input Voltages
      3. Phase 3: Graphing It
      4. Phase 4: The Gain
      5. Is It Right?
    5. Splitting the Difference
    6. The Basics
      1. Basic with No Split
    7. Quick Facts About Op-Amps
  16. 12. Experiment 12: A Functional Amplifier
    1. Introducing the 386 Chip
      1. The Amplification Circuit
      2. Troubleshooting the Amplifier
  17. 13. Experiment 13: No Loud Speaking!
    1. Background: The Widlar Story
    2. Step by Step
      1. Sensing
      2. Will It Really Work?
      3. Background: Voltage Translation
      4. Noise Protest, Continued
      5. Power Problems
      6. Fail?
      7. Just One More Little Thing
  18. 14. Experiment 14: A Successful Protest
    1. Timing is Everything
      1. Revision Summary
      2. The Noise Test
      3. Make Even More
    2. Can You Do it with a Microcontroller?
    3. What’s Next?
  19. 15. Experiment 15: It’s All So Logical!
    1. Experiment 15: Telepathy Test
      1. Background: ESP
      2. The Setup
      3. Quick Facts about Logic Chips
      4. ESP Logic
      5. Building It
      6. Making it Better
  20. 16. Experiment 16: Enhanced ESP
    1. Are You Ready?
      1. Cheating Revealed
      2. Failure Indicated
    2. Conflicts
      1. The Untangling
      2. Translating the Chart
    3. Optimizing
      1. Building It
      2. Details
      3. The Digital Difference
      4. Making it Even Better
      5. Not So Simple?
      6. Could We Use a Microcontroller?
  21. 17. Experiment 17: Let’s Rock!
    1. Background: Probability
      1. Background: Game Theory
    2. The Logic
      1. Who’s On?
    3. Who’s Cheating?
      1. Background: Gate Arrays
  22. 18. Experiment 18: Time to Switch
    1. Background: An XNOR Made from Light Switches
      1. Back to the Rock
      2. Showing Which Button
      3. Cheat-Proofing
      4. Fit to be Tied
      5. Wiring It
      6. Cheat-Proofed Wiring
      7. Conclusion
  23. 19. Experiment 19: Decoding Telepathy
    1. Decoder Testing
      1. Remembering Binary
      2. Boarding It
      3. Decoder Pinouts
  24. 20. Experiment 20: Decoding Rock-Paper-Scissors
    1. The Logic
      1. The Specification
      2. An Unobtainable Or
      3. Saved by NOR
      4. Boarding the Simplified Scheme
      5. Make Even More
      6. Undecoding
  25. 21. Experiment 21: The Hot Slot
    1. Muxing It
      1. Jumping and Roaming
      2. Quick Facts About Muxes
      3. Mux Pinouts
      4. Mux Applications
      5. Analog vs. Digital Mux
      6. Quick Facts About Mux Variants
    2. Game Design
      1. Slot Counting
      2. Circuit Design
    3. Slot Design
      1. Hot Slot Testing
    4. Who Wins?
      1. The Payoff
      2. Understanding the Odds
      3. Background: Alternative Game Arrays
    5. And a Microcontroller?
  26. 22. Experiment 22: Logically Audible
    1. Background: Neither Here nor Theremin
    2. Logical Audio
      1. Audible XOR
      2. All Mixed Up
  27. 23. Experiment 23: A Puzzling Project
    1. Background: The British King of Puzzles
    2. Moving Counters
      1. The Logical Grid
      2. Using Logic
      3. Switching Ovid
      4. Making Even More
      5. Answer to the Puzzle
  28. 24. Experiment 24: Adding it Up
    1. The Five Rules of Binary
      1. From Bits to States
      2. Background: The NAND Alternative
    2. Your Own Little Adder
      1. Breadboard Addition
  29. 25. Experiment 25: Enhancing your Adder
    1. Return of the Decoder
    2. DIPping In
      1. Introducing an Encoder
      2. Other Encoder Features
      3. Background: The Power of Binary
      4. Background: Encode your Own
    3. Make Even More: Other Input Options
      1. Can We Switch It?
    4. Make Even More: Switched Binary Adder
      1. Making a Table
      2. Switch Specification
    5. Make Even More: Other Possibilities
  30. 26. Experiment 26: Running Rings
    1. Ring Demo
      1. Warning: Timer Incompatibilities
      2. Annoying Pin Sequence
      3. Quick Facts About Headers
      4. Quick Facts About Ring Counters
    2. Making a Game of it
      1. Additional Features
      2. Playability
    3. Make Even More
    4. And a Microcontroller?
  31. 27. Experiment 27: Shifting Bits
    1. No Bouncing!
      1. Specifics
    2. A Bit-Shifting Demo
      1. Quick Facts About Shift Registers
      2. Pinouts
    3. Background: Bit Streams
      1. Modern Applications
  32. 28. Experiment 28: The Ching Thing
    1. Hexagrams
      1. The Display
      2. The Straight and Yarrow Path
      3. The Numbers
      4. Random Sampling
      5. The Look and Feel
      6. The Details
      7. Bars or LEDs
      8. Boarding the Ching Thing
      9. Assembly and Testing
      10. Ching Usage
    2. Packaging
  33. 29. Experiment 29: Common Sensors
    1. The Little Magnetic Switch
      1. Reed Test
      2. How it Works
    2. Level Sensor
      1. Fuel Gauge
      2. Quick Facts about Reed Switches
      3. Easy Substitution
      4. Installing a Reed Switch
    3. Background: Magnetic Polarity
      1. Background: Magnetic Types and Sources
      2. Magnetic Shapes
      3. Make Even More: A Rolling Ball Puzzle
      4. Make Even More: Eddy Currents
    4. Warning: Magnetic Hazards
  34. 30. Experiment 30: Hidden Detectors
    1. Hall Test
      1. Applications
    2. Quick Facts about Hall Sensors
      1. Hall Types
      2. Sensor Ideas
    3. Make Even More: Miniature Roll-the-Ball game
      1. Plastic Bending
      2. Rolling-Ball Electronics
  35. 31. Experiment 31: Electronic Optics
    1. Active Light Sensors
      1. Warning: Slow Sensor Death!
    2. The Numbers
      1. Infra-Red Sensor Test
      2. Infra-Red LED Test
      3. Phototransistor Test
      4. Logic Test
      5. Options
      6. Quick Facts about Transmissive Optical Sensors
    3. Better Slots
      1. Proof of Concept
      2. The Schematic
      3. The Breadboard
    4. The Slot Box
  36. 32. Experiment 32: Enhancing Ovid
    1. The Logic Option
      1. Switching it Around
      2. Magnetic Issues
    2. Make Even More: Microcontrolling It
  37. 33. Experiment 33: Reading Rotation
    1. Defining a Rotational Encoder
      1. Specification
      2. The Pulse Train
      3. Warning: Mediocre Encoders
    2. Inside the Encoder
      1. Encoder Usage
    3. It Can be Random
      1. Rotational Decider
      2. Rotational Equivocator
    4. Seriously Random
  38. 34. Experiment 34: Ambient Sensing
    1. One Timer Controlling Another
      1. Temperature Control
      2. Random Factors
      3. Automating the Randomizing Circuit
      4. Background: Lower Counting
      5. Speed Adjustment
    2. Quick Facts about Thermistors
      1. Making a Thermistor More Random
    3. Humidity Sensor
      1. Humidity Control
    4. Accelerometer
    5. Touch Sensor
    6. Empirical Issues
      1. How Random is Random?
  39. 35. Experiment 35: The LFSR
    1. Getting to Know your LFSR
      1. Quick Facts about a LFSR
      2. Bit-Shifting in Closeup
      3. The Problem with Zeroes
      4. The Need to be Nonrepeating
      5. Warning: XNOR Idiosyncracies
      6. Running the Test
      7. Ones and Zeroes
      8. The Problem of weighting
      9. Skipping 254
      10. Sharing the Clock Input
      11. Any Other Options?
    2. Seeding
    3. Make Even More: Other Games and Other Numbers
    4. Make Even More: Microcontroller Randomicity
  40. 36. Experiment 36: The One-Person Paranormal Paradigm
    1. The Last Logic Diagrams
      1. Looking at Part 2
      2. Input Logic
      3. The Ready Signal
      4. Random Seeding
      5. Two More XORs
      6. Timing is Everything
    2. Making Every Guess Count
      1. Schematic Part 2
      2. Testing the Tester
    3. How Unlikely is ESP?
      1. Powers of the Triangle
      2. John Walker’s Probabilities
  41. 37. Is that All?
  42. A. Bibliography
  43. 38. Shopping for Parts
    1. The Kit Option
    2. Sources
    3. Generic Components
      1. Resistors
      2. Capacitors
      3. LEDs
      4. Warning: Series Resistors
    4. Chip Family Basics
      1. Transistors
      2. Switches
      3. Power Supply, Breadboards, and Wiring
    5. Minimum Shopping: Experiments 1 through 14
    6. Minimum Shopping: Experiments 15 through 25
    7. Minimum Shopping: Experiments 26 through 36
    8. Moderate Shopping: Experiments 1 through 14
    9. Moderate Shopping: Experiments 15 through 25
    10. Moderate Shopping: Experiments 26 through 36
    11. Maximum Shopping, Experiments 1 through 14
    12. Maximum Shopping: Experiments 15 through 25
    13. Maximum Shopping: Experiments 26 through 36
    14. Incremental Shopping
  44. Index
  45. About the Author
  46. Colophon
  47. Copyright