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Maintainable JavaScript

Cover of Maintainable JavaScript by Nicholas C. Zakas Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Maintainable JavaScript
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. Introduction
  4. Preface
    1. Conventions Used in This Book
    2. Using Code Examples
    3. Safari® Books Online
    4. How to Contact Us
  5. I. Style Guidelines
    1. 1. Basic Formatting
      1. Indentation Levels
      2. Statement Termination
      3. Line Length
      4. Line Breaking
      5. Blank Lines
      6. Naming
      7. Literal Values
    2. 2. Comments
      1. Single-Line Comments
      2. Multiline Comments
      3. Using Comments
      4. Documentation Comments
    3. 3. Statements and Expressions
      1. Brace Alignment
      2. Block Statement Spacing
      3. The switch Statement
      4. The with Statement
      5. The for Loop
      6. The for-in Loop
    4. 4. Variables, Functions, and Operators
      1. Variable Declarations
      2. Function Declarations
      3. Function Call Spacing
      4. Immediate Function Invocation
      5. Equality
      6. eval()
      7. Primitive Wrapper Types
  6. II. Programming Practices
    1. 5. Loose Coupling of UI Layers
      1. What Is Loose Coupling?
      2. Keep JavaScript Out of CSS
      3. Keep CSS Out of JavaScript
      4. Keep JavaScript Out of HTML
      5. Keep HTML Out of JavaScript
    2. 6. Avoid Globals
      1. The Problems with Globals
      2. Accidental Globals
      3. The One-Global Approach
      4. The Zero-Global Approach
    3. 7. Event Handling
      1. Classic Usage
      2. Rule #1: Separate Application Logic
      3. Rule #2: Don’t Pass the Event Object Around
    4. 8. Avoid Null Comparisons
      1. Detecting Primitive Values
      2. Detecting Reference Values
      3. Detecting Properties
    5. 9. Separate Configuration Data from Code
      1. What Is Configuration Data?
      2. Externalizing Configuration Data
      3. Storing Configuration Data
    6. 10. Throw Your Own Errors
      1. The Nature of Errors
      2. Throwing Errors in JavaScript
      3. Advantages of Throwing Errors
      4. When to Throw Errors
      5. The try-catch Statement
      6. Error Types
    7. 11. Don’t Modify Objects You Don’t Own
      1. What Do You Own?
      2. The Rules
      3. Better Approaches
      4. A Note on Polyfills
      5. Preventing Modification
    8. 12. Browser Detection
      1. User-Agent Detection
      2. Feature Detection
      3. Avoid Feature Inference
      4. Avoid Browser Inference
      5. What Should You Use?
  7. III. Automation
    1. 13. File and Directory Structure
      1. Best Practices
      2. Basic Layout
    2. 14. Ant
      1. Installation
      2. The Build File
      3. Running the Build
      4. Target Dependencies
      5. Properties
      6. Buildr
    3. 15. Validation
      1. Finding Files
      2. The Task
      3. Improving the Target
      4. Other Improvements
      5. Buildr Task
    4. 16. Concatenation and Baking
      1. The Task
      2. Line Endings
      3. Headers and Footers
      4. Baking Files
    5. 17. Minification and Compression
      1. Minification
      2. Compression
    6. 18. Documentation
      1. JSDoc Toolkit
      2. YUI Doc
    7. 19. Automated Testing
      1. YUI Test Selenium Driver
      2. Yeti
      3. PhantomJS
      4. JsTestDriver
    8. 20. Putting It Together
      1. Missing Pieces
      2. Planning the Build
      3. Using a CI System
  8. A. JavaScript Style Guide
    1. Indentation
    2. Line Length
    3. Primitive Literals
    4. Operator Spacing
    5. Parentheses Spacing
    6. Object Literals
    7. Comments
      1. Single-Line Comments
      2. Multiline Comments
      3. Comment Annotations
    8. Variable Declarations
    9. Function Declarations
    10. Naming
    11. Strict Mode
    12. Assignments
    13. Equality Operators
    14. Ternary Operator
    15. Statements
      1. Simple Statements
      2. return Statement
      3. Compound Statements
      4. if Statement
      5. for Statement
      6. while Statement
      7. do Statement
      8. switch Statement
      9. try Statement
    16. White Space
    17. Things to Avoid
  9. B. JavaScript Tools
    1. Build Tools
    2. Documentation Generators
    3. Linting Tools
    4. Minification Tools
    5. Testing Tools
  10. Index
  11. About the Author
  12. Colophon
  13. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  14. Copyright
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Chapter 14. Ant

The choice of a build tool is usually based on the tools familiar to the developers who will be using it. My personal favorite tool for JavaScript build systems is Ant. Ant was originally created as a build tool for Java projects, but its easy XML syntax and built-in tasks make it an excellent choice for JavaScript as well. In an informal survey I conducted prior to writing this book, Ant was by far the most frequently cited build tool used for JavaScript, despite the recent introduction of newer build tools. If you find that Ant doesn’t quite work for you, several alternatives are listed in Appendix B.

This book focuses on JavaScript build systems using Ant, but all of the tools and techniques discussed can be applied to other build systems as well.

Installation

Ant requires Java to run, so make sure that you have Java installed on your system. If you’re using Mac OS X, then Ant is already installed by default; for Ubuntu, run sudo apt-get install ant to install Ant. For other operating systems, following the instructions at http://ant.apache.org/manual/install.html.

The Build File

The main build file for Ant is build.xml. When Ant runs on the command line, it looks for this file in the current directory, so it’s best to place build.xml in the root directory of your project. You needn’t keep all of the build-related information in this file, but build.xml must be present for Ant to work.

As you might expect, build.xml is an XML file containing instructions on how to perform ...

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