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Macintosh Terminal Pocket Guide

Cover of Macintosh Terminal Pocket Guide by Daniel J. Barrett Published by O'Reilly Media, Inc.
  1. Macintosh Terminal Pocket Guide
  2. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  3. 1. The Macintosh Terminal
    1. What’s in This Book?
      1. What’s the Terminal?
      2. What’s a Command?
      3. Ten Commands to Try
      4. Reading This Book
    2. Running the Terminal
    3. The Filesystem
      1. Structure of the Filesystem
      2. Navigating the Filesystem
      3. Home Directories in the Filesystem
      4. System Directories in the Filesystem
      5. File Protections
    4. The Shell
      1. The Shell Versus Programs
      2. Selected Features of the bash Shell
      3. Shell Job Control
      4. Killing a Command in Progress
      5. Terminating a Shell
      6. Tailoring Shell Behavior
  4. 2. Commands
    1. Basic File Operations
      1. ls
      2. cp
      3. mv
      4. rm
      5. ln
    2. Directory Operations
      1. cd
      2. pwd
      3. basename
      4. dirname
      5. mkdir
      6. rmdir
    3. File Viewing
      1. cat
      2. less
      3. head
      4. tail
      5. nl
      6. strings
      7. od
      8. xxd
    4. File Creation and Editing
      1. Creating a File Quickly
      2. Your Default Editor
    5. File Properties
      1. stat
      2. wc
      3. du
      4. file
      5. touch
      6. chown
      7. chgrp
      8. chmod
      9. umask
      10. xattr
    6. File Text Manipulation
      1. grep
      2. egrep
      3. fgrep
      4. cut
      5. paste
      6. tr
      7. sort
      8. uniq
      9. tee
    7. File Location
      1. find
      2. xargs
      3. locate
      4. which
      5. type
      6. whereis
    8. File Compression and Packaging
      1. gzip
      2. bzip2
      3. compress
      4. zip
      5. tar
    9. File Comparison
      1. diff
      2. comm
      3. cmp
      4. md5
    10. Printing
      1. lpr
      2. lpq
      3. lprm
    11. Disks and Filesystems
      1. df
      2. diskutil
      3. mount
      4. fsck_hfs
      5. hdiutil
      6. tmutil
      7. sync
      8. rsync
    12. Viewing Processes
      1. ps
      2. uptime
      3. w
      4. top
    13. Controlling Processes
      1. open
      2. kill
      3. nice
      4. renice
      5. shutdown
    14. Scheduling Jobs
      1. sleep
      2. at
      3. crontab
      4. launchctl
    15. Users and Their Environment
      1. logname
      2. whoami
      3. id
      4. who
      5. users
      6. last
      7. finger
      8. chfn
      9. passwd
      10. chsh
      11. dscl
      12. printenv
    16. Becoming the Superuser
    17. Group Management
      1. groups
      2. dscl
    18. Host Information
      1. uname
      2. sw_vers
      3. hostname
      4. scutil
      5. ifconfig
      6. ipconfig
    19. Host Location
      1. host
      2. whois
      3. ping
      4. traceroute
    20. Network Connections
      1. ssh
      2. telnet
      3. scp
      4. sftp
      5. ftp
    21. Email Commands
      1. mail
      2. mailq
    22. Web Commands
      1. curl
      2. wget
    23. Messaging
      1. talk
      2. write
      3. mesg
      4. tty
    24. Screen Output
      1. echo
      2. printf
      3. pbcopy
      4. pbpaste
      5. yes
      6. clear
    25. Math and Calculations
      1. expr
      2. dc
      3. seq
    26. Dates and Times
      1. cal
      2. date
  5. 3. Advanced Topics
    1. Running a Shell Remotely
      1. Enabling remote logins
      2. Logging in remotely with SSH
      3. SSH roadblocks
    2. Installing Software with a Package Manager
      1. Obtaining an Apple Developer ID
      2. Installing Xcode
      3. Installing Command Line Tools for Xcode
      4. Installing the Homebrew Package Manager
      5. Using Homebrew
      6. Installing from TAR Files
    3. Programming with Shell Scripts
      1. Creating and Running Shell Scripts
      2. Whitespace and Linebreaks
      3. Variables
      4. Input and Output
      5. Booleans and Return Codes
      6. Conditionals
      7. Loops
      8. Break and Continue
      9. Command-Line Arguments
      10. Exiting with a Return Code
      11. Beyond Shell Scripting
    4. Getting Help
    5. Final Words
      1. Acknowledgments
  6. Index
  7. About the Author
  8. SPECIAL OFFER: Upgrade this ebook with O’Reilly
  9. Copyright
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Reading This Book

You don’t have to read this book from start to finish: much of it is a reference for daily work. A typical pattern might be:

  1. Look in the Table of Contents to find a general topic (say, viewing files).

  2. The section for that topic (File Viewing) begins with a list of relevant commands (cat, tail, etc.).

  3. Read about the command you want (e.g., tail).

We’ll describe many commands in this book. Each description begins with a standard heading about the command; Figure 1-2 shows one for the ls (list files) command. This heading demonstrates the general usage in a simple format:

ls [options] [files]

which means you’d type “ls” followed, if you choose, by options and then filenames. You wouldn’t type the square brackets “[” and “]”: they just indicate their contents are optional; and words in italics mean you have to fill in your own specific values, like names of actual files. You may see a vertical bar between options or arguments, perhaps grouped by parentheses:

(file | directory)

This indicates choice: you may supply either a filename or directory name as an argument.

The standard heading in Figure 1-2 also lists six properties of the command printed in black (meaning the property is supported by the command) or gray (unsupported):

Standard command heading

Figure 1-2. Standard command heading

stdin

This means the command reads from your keyboard, which goes by the name “standard input” (stdin).

stdout

The command ...

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