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Machine Design

Book Description

Machine Design is a text on the design of machine elements for engineering undergraduates of mechanical, production and industrial disciplines. The book provides a comprehensive survey of machine elements and their analytical design methods. Besides explaining the fundamentals of the tools and techniques necessary to facilitate design calculations, the text includes extensive data on various aspects of machine elements, manufacturing considerations and materials. The extensive pedagogical features make the text student friendly and provide pointers for fast recapitulation.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Brief Contents
  4. Contents
  5. About the Author
  6. Preface
  7. Reviewers
  8. Part I - General Topics
    1. 1 - Introduction
      1. 1-1 - Introduction
      2. 1-2 - Conceptual Design
      3. 1-3 - Analysis
      4. 1-4 - Factor of Safety
      5. 1-5 - Product Liability
      6. 1-6 - Preliminary Design
      7. 1-7 - Computer Graphics and Computer Aided Design
      8. 1-8 - Tolerances
      9. 1-9 - Breakeven Point
      10. 1-10 - System Evaluation
      11. 1-11 - Units
    2. 2 - Engineering Materials
      1. 2-1 - Introduction
      2. 2-2 - Carbon Steels
      3. 2-3 - IS Designation of Low and Medium Alloy Steels
      4. 2-4 - Iron–Carbon Equilibrium Diagram
      5. 2-5 - Effect of Alloying Elements in Steels
      6. 2-6 - Stainless Steels
      7. 2-7 - Cast Steel
      8. 2-8 - Wrought Steel
      9. 2-9 - Cold-Rolled Steel
      10. 2-10 - Tool Steels
      11. 2-11 - Cast Irons
      12. 2-12 - Copper and its Alloy
      13. 2-13 - Aluminium and its Alloys
      14. 2-14 - Titanium
      15. 2-15 - Magnesium
      16. 2-16 - Bearing Alloys
      17. 2-17 - Superalloys
      18. 2-18 - Forming Tools
      19. 2-19 - High-Speed Cutting Tools
      20. 2-20 - Plastics
    3. 3 - Mechanics of Solids
      1. 3-1 - Introduction
      2. 3-2 - Normal and Shear Stresses
      3. 3-3 - Stress Concentration in Members Under Axial Force
      4. 3-4 - Factor of Safety
      5. 3-5 - Composite Bar
      6. 3-6 - Principal Stresses and Strains
      7. 3-7 - Thin Shells
      8. 3-8 - Thick Shells
      9. 3-9 - Hub and Shaft Assembly
      10. 3-10 - Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams
      11. 3-11 - Theory of Simple Bending
      12. 3-12 - Combined Bending and Direct Stresses
      13. 3-13 - Deflection in Beams
      14. 3-14 - Torsion
      15. 3-15 - Theories of Failure
      16. 3-16 - Rotating Rings and Discs
      17. 3-17 - Bending of Curved Bars
    4. 4 - Manufacturing Considerations
      1. 4-1 - Introduction
      2. 4-2 - Design for Machining
      3. 4-3 - Design of Castings
      4. 4-4 - Design of Forgings
      5. 4-5 - Design of Weldments
      6. 4-6 - Tolerances
      7. 4-7 - Basis for Limit Systems
      8. 4-8 - IS System for Limits and Fits
      9. 4-9 - Types of Industrial Fits
      10. 4-10 - Surface Finish
    5. 5 - Introduction to Pressure Vessels
      1. 5-1 - Introduction
      2. 5-2 - Stress in Pressure Vessels
      3. 5-3 - Stress Analysis
      4. 5-4 - Failure Theory
      5. 5-5 - Failure in Pressure Vessels
      6. 5-6 - Loadings
      7. 5-7 - Different Classes of Stress
      8. 5-8 - Special Problems
      9. 5-9 - Relative Thicknesses of Walls
      10. 5-10 - Vibrations in Vessels
      11. 5-11 - Thermal Stresses in Vessels
      12. 5-12 - Discontinuity Stresses
      13. 5-13 - Fatigue Failure
      14. 5-14 - Different Types of Circular Heads
      15. 5-15 - Thick Shells
      16. 5-16 - Gasketed Joints
      17. 5-17 - Vessel Supports
      18. 5-18 - Wind and Seismic Forces
    6. 6 - Levers
      1. 6-1 - Introduction
      2. 6-2 - Bell Crank Lever
      3. 6-3 - Lever Safety Valve of a Boiler
      4. 6-4 - Cranked Lever
      5. 6-5 - Hand Lever
      6. 6-6 - Foot Lever
      7. 6-7 - Rocker Arm
    7. 7 - Struts and Columns
      1. 7-1 - Introduction
      2. 7-2 - Euler's Theory of Buckling for Long Columns
      3. 7-3 - Limitations of Euler's Theory of Buckling
      4. 7-4 - Rankine–Gordon Formula
      5. 7-5 - Johnson's Parabolic Formula
      6. 7-6 - Eccentric Loading of Long Columns
      7. 7-7 - Perry's Formula
      8. 7-8 - Lateral Loading of Struts
      9. 7-9 - Design of Push Rod
      10. 7-10 - Piston Rod in Steam Engine
    8. 8 - Springs
      1. 8-1 - Introduction
      2. 8-2 - Stresses Developed in Wire Section of a Helical Spring
      3. 8-3 - Axial Deflection in Helical Spring
      4. 8-4 - Extension Springs
      5. 8-5 - Stresses in a Hook of Helical Spring
      6. 8-6 - Compression Springs
      7. 8-7 - Stability of Compression Spring
      8. 8-8 - Spring Materials
      9. 8-9 - Design of Helical Spring Against Static Load
      10. 8-10 - Helical Coil Torsion Springs
      11. 8-11 - Carriage/Leaf Springs
      12. 8-12 - Nipping of Leaves
      13. 8-13 - Spring Surge
      14. 8-14 - Fatigue Loading of a Spring
  9. Part II - Joints
    1. 9 - Threaded Fasteners
      1. 9-1 - Introduction
      2. 9-2 - ISO Metric Threads
      3. 9-3 - Bolt Strength
      4. 9-4 - Nuts
      5. 9-5 - Washers
      6. 9-6 - Bolts of Uniform Strength
      7. 9-7 - Eye Bolts
      8. 9-8 - Initial Tightening Torque on Nut
      9. 9-9 - Threaded Fasteners Joint
      10. 9-10 - Manufacturing Methods for Screws
      11. 9-11 - Different types of Screws
      12. 9-12 - Eccentric Load of Bolts in Bending
      13. 9-13 - Fluctuating Loads on Bolted Assembly
    2. 10 - Pipes and Pipe Joints
      1. 10-1 - Introduction
      2. 10-2 - Pipe Design
      3. 10-3 - Threaded Pipe Joints
      4. 10-4 - Standard Pipe Threads
      5. 10-5 - Socket and Spigot Joint
      6. 10-6 - Expansion Joints
      7. 10-7 - Flanges Joined with Pipes
      8. 10-8 - Pipe Joints for High Fluid Pressures
      9. 10-9 - Class-B Pipe Joints
      10. 10-10 - Square Flange Pipe Joint
      11. 10-11 - Circular Flange Pipes
    3. 11 - Riveted Joints
      1. 11-1 - Introduction
      2. 11-2 - Process of Riveting
      3. 11-3 - Types of Rivet Heads
      4. 11-4 - Types of Riveted Joints
      5. 11-5 - Caulking and Fullering
      6. 11-6 - Double-Cover Butt Joint
      7. 11-7 - Multiple Riveted Joints
      8. 11-8 - Riveted Joints of Uniform Strength
      9. 11-9 - Eccentric Loading of Rivets
      10. 11-10 - Riveted Joints in Boiler Drums
    4. 12 - Welded Joints
      1. 12-1 - Introduction
      2. 12-2 - Welding Processes
      3. 12-3 - Types of Welded Joints
      4. 12-4 - Planes of Maximum Shear Stress in Fillet Welds
      5. 12-5 - Strength of Welded Joints
      6. 12-6 - Welded Joints Subjected to Twisting Moment
      7. 12-7 - Welded Joints Subjected to Bending Moment
      8. 12-8 - Fatigue Loading of Welded Joints
    5. 13 - Cotter and Knuckle Joints
      1. 13-1 - Introduction
      2. 13-2 - Socket and Spigot Joint
      3. 13-3 - Sleeve and Cotter Joint
      4. 13-4 - Gib and Cotter Joint
      5. 13-5 - Cotter in Foundation Bolt
      6. 13-6 - Knuckle Joint
  10. Part III - Power Transmission
    1. 14 - Keys and Couplings
      1. 14-1 - Introduction
      2. 14-2 - Keys and Keyways
      3. 14-3 - Design of Keys and Keyways
      4. 14-4 - Splines
      5. 14-5 - Special-Purpose Keys
      6. 14-6 - Couplings
      7. 14-7 - Sleeve or Muff Coupling
      8. 14-8 - Clamp Coupling
      9. 14-9 - Protected-Type Rigid Flange Coupling
      10. 14-10 - Marine-Flange Coupling
      11. 14-11 - Flexible Coupling (Bush-Pin Type)
      12. 14-12 - Special-Purpose Couplings
    2. 15 - Shafts
      1. 15-1 - Introduction
      2. 15-2 - Axial Location of Rotating Elements on Shaft
      3. 15-3 - Guidelines for Shaft Design
      4. 15-4 - Shaft Materials
      5. 15-5 - ASME Code
      6. 15-6 - Shaft Design
      7. 15-7 - Shaft Under Fatigue Loading
    3. 16 - Power Screws
      1. 16-1 - Introduction
      2. 16-2 - Different Types of Power Screw Threads
      3. 16-3 - Mechanics of the Power Screw
      4. 16-4 - Bench Vice
      5. 16-5 - Lead Screw of a Lathe
      6. 16-6 - Crosshead Lead Screw
      7. 16-7 - Ball Screw
      8. 16-8 - Stresses in a Power Screw
      9. 16-9 - Screw Clamp
      10. 16-10 - Flypress
    4. 17 - Sliding Contact Bearings
      1. 17-1 - Introduction
      2. 17-2 - Hydrodynamic Bearing
      3. 17-3 - Hydrostatic Bearing
      4. 17-4 - Boundary Lubrication
      5. 17-5 - Viscosity
      6. 17-6 - Petroff's Equation
      7. 17-7 - Hydrodynamic Theory
      8. 17-8 - Raimondi and Boyd Method
      9. 17-9 - Temperature Rise
      10. 17-10 - Stable Lubrication
      11. 17-11 - Viscous Flow Through a Rectangular Slot
      12. 17-12 - Hydrostatic Step Bearing
      13. 17-13 - Lubricants
      14. 17-14 - Types of Bushing
      15. 17-15 - Bearing Materials
      16. 17-16 - Bearing Design
    5. 18 - Rolling Bearings
      1. 18-1 - Introduction
      2. 18-2 - Failure of Rolling Bearing
      3. 18-3 - Basic Dynamic Load Rating
      4. 18-4 - Combined Radial and Thrust Loads
      5. 18-5 - Load Distribution on Balls (Striebeck'S Equation)
      6. 18-6 - Bearing Nomenclature
      7. 18-7 - Different Types of Ball Bearings
      8. 18-8 - Thrust Ball Bearings
      9. 18-9 - Angular Contact Bearings
      10. 18-10 - Roller Bearings
      11. 18-11 - Bearings with Higher than 90 Per Cent Reliability
      12. 18-12 - Load Factor
      13. 18-13 - Guidelines for Selection of Bearings
      14. 18-14 - Bearing Design for Cyclic Loads and Variable Speeds
      15. 18-15 - Axial Location of Rolling Bearings
    6. 19 - Flywheel
      1. 19-1 - Introduction
      2. 19-2 - Fluctuation of Energy
      3. 19-3 - Types of Flywheels
      4. 19-4 - Stresses in Flywheel Rim and Arms
      5. 19-5 - Stresses in Arms of a Flywheel
  11. Part IV - Friction Drive
    1. 20 - Flat Belt Drive
      1. 20-1 - Introduction
      2. 20-2 - Types of Belt Drive
      3. 20-3 - Belt Configurations
      4. 20-4 - Mechanics of Belt Drive
      5. 20-5 - Condition for Maximum Power Transmission
      6. 20-6 - Service Factor
      7. 20-7 - Length of Belts
      8. 20-8 - Adjustment of Initial Tension in Belt
      9. 20-9 - Dunlop Flat Belts
      10. 20-10 - Types of Belting
    2. 21 - V-Belt Drive
      1. 21-1 - Introduction
      2. 21-2 - Timing Belt
      3. 21-3 - Types of V-Belts
      4. 21-4 - Selection of a Standard V-Belt
    3. 22 - Friction Clutches
      1. 22-1 - Introduction
      2. 22-2 - Principle of Operation of Friction Clutches
      3. 22-3 - Clutch Materials
      4. 22-4 - Friction Lining Materials
      5. 22-5 - Single-Plate Disc Clutch
      6. 22-6 - Multi-Disc Clutch
      7. 22-7 - Cone Clutch
      8. 22-8 - Centrifugal Clutch
      9. 22-9 - Selection of Clutches
      10. 22-10 - Types of Clutches and their Applications
    4. 23 - Brakes
      1. 23-1 - Introduction
      2. 23-2 - Brake Drum of a Hoisting Machinery
      3. 23-3 - Band Brakes
      4. 23-4 - Pivoted, External Shoe Drum Brake
      5. 23-5 - Double-Long Shoe Pivoted Brake
      6. 23-6 - Internal Expanding Shoe Brake
      7. 23-7 - Short Shoe Block Brake
      8. 23-8 - Double-Block Brakes
      9. 23-9 - Block Brake—Design Procedure
      10. 23-10 - Different Types of Brakes and Applications
      11. 23-11 - Caliper Disc Brake
    5. 24 - Rope Drive
      1. 24-1 - Introduction
      2. 24-2 - Length of Rope
      3. 24-3 - Designation of Wire Rope
      4. 24-4 - Factor of Safety
      5. 24-5 - Stresses in Hoisting Wire Ropes
  12. Part V - Gear Drive
    1. 25 - Gears
      1. 25-1 - Introduction
      2. 25-2 - Principle of Transmission and Conjugate Action
      3. 25-3 - Gear Materials
      4. 25-4 - Spur Gears
      5. 25-5 - Types of Gear Teeth
      6. 25-6 - Beam Strength of Spur Gear Tooth
      7. 25-7 - Effective Tooth Load
      8. 25-8 - Contact Stress and Surface Durability
      9. 25-9 - Professor Spotts's Equation
    2. 26 - Helical Gears
      1. 26-1 - Introduction
      2. 26-2 - Parameters of a Helical Gear
      3. 26-3 - Virtual Number of Teeth on Helical Gears
      4. 26-4 - Force Components on a Tooth of Helical Gear
      5. 26-5 - Different Strengths of Helical Gear Tooth
    3. 27 - Straight Bevel Gears
      1. 27-1 - Introduction
      2. 27-2 - Bevel Gear Basic Rack
      3. 27-3 - Spiral Bevel Gears
      4. 27-4 - Virtual Number of Teeth
      5. 27-5 - Force Analysis of Bevel Gears
      6. 27-6 - Beam Strength of Bevel Gear Tooth
      7. 27-7 - Wear Strength of Bevel Gear Tooth
      8. 27-8 - Effective Tooth Load on Bevel Gear
      9. 27-9 - Spotts's Equation for Dynamic Tooth Load
    4. 28 - Worm and Worm Wheel Set
      1. 28-1 - Introduction
      2. 28-2 - Parameters of Worm Gear Set
      3. 28-3 - Worm Gear Proportions
      4. 28-4 - Force Analysis in Worm and Wheel Set
      5. 28-5 - Effect of Rubbing Velocity on Friction in Worm Wheel Drive
      6. 28-6 - Materials
      7. 28-7 - Temperature Rise of Lubricating Oil
      8. 28-8 - Beam and Wear Strengths of Worm Wheel Set
    5. 29 - Gearbox
      1. 29-1 - Introduction
      2. 29-2 - Resistances to Vehicle Motion
      3. 29-3 - Types of Gearboxes
      4. 29-4 - Sliding-Mesh Gearbox
      5. 29-5 - Constant-Mesh Gearbox
      6. 29-6 - Synchromesh Gearbox
      7. 29-7 - Epicyclic Gearbox
      8. 29-8 - Wilson Gearbox
      9. 29-9 - Overdrive
      10. 29-10 - Five-Speed Sliding Mesh Gearbox
  13. Part VI - Miscellaneous Topics
    1. 30 - Chain Drive
      1. 30-1 - Introduction
      2. 30-2 - Different Types of Chains
      3. 30-3 - Roller Chain Drive
      4. 30-4 - Polygonal Effect in Chain Drive
      5. 30-5 - Service Factor
      6. 30-6 - Chain Selection
    2. 31 - Seals, Packings and Gaskets
      1. 31-1 - Introduction
      2. 31-2 - Gasket
      3. 31-3 - Gasketed Joints
      4. 31-4 - Gasket Materials and Contact Facings
      5. 31-5 - Stiffness of Members of Gasketed Joints
      6. 31-6 - Sealants
      7. 31-7 - End-Face Seals
      8. 31-8 - Radial Seals
      9. 31-9 - Split-Ring Seals
      10. 31-10 - Diaphragm Seal
      11. 31-11 - Labyrinth Seals
      12. 31-12 - Packings
  14. Part VII - Case Studies
    1. I - Parts of an IC Engine
    2. II - Crankshaft Design
    3. III - Design of Crane Hook and Thrust Bearing
    4. IV - Screw Clamp
    5. V - Design of a High-Speed Hoist
    6. VI - Impeller of a Centrifugal Pump
  15. Acknowledgements
  16. Copyright