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Mac OS X Tiger in a Nutshell by Jason McIntosh, Chuck Toporek, Chris Stone, Andy Lester

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Beginner's Guide

If you're just beginning to work on a Unix system, the abundance of commands might prove daunting. To help orient you, the following lists present a small sampling of commands on various topics.

Communication

Command

Use

ftp

File transfer protocol.

login

Sign on to Unix.

mailx

Read or send mail.

rlogin

Sign on to remote Unix.

talk

Write to other terminals.

telnet

Connect to another system.

vacation

Respond to mail automatically.

Comparisons

Command

Use

cmp

Compare two files, byte by byte.

comm

Compare items in two sorted files.

diff

Compare two files, line by line.

diff3

Compare three files.

sdiff

Compare two files, side by side.

File Management

Command

Use

cat

Concatenate files or display them.

cd

Change directory.

chmod

Change access modes on files.

cp

Copy files.

csplit

Break files at specific locations.

file

Determine a file's type.

head

Show the first few lines of a file.

ln

Create filename aliases.

ls

List files or directories.

mkdir

Create a directory.

more

Display files by screenful.

mv

Move or rename files or directories.

pwd

Print working directory.

rcp

Copy files to remote system.

rm

Remove files.

rmdir

Remove directories.

split

Split files evenly.

tail

Show the last few lines of a file.

wc

Count lines, words, and characters.

Printing

Command

Use

at_cho_prn

Allows you to choose an AppleTalk printer.

cancel

Cancel a printer request.

Enscript

Converts text files to PostScript.

lp

Send to the printer.

lpoptions

Display a list of printer options and defaults.

lprm

Cancel a print request.

lpstat

Get printer status.

pr

Format and paginate for printing .

Programming

Command

Use

cc

C compiler.

ctags

C function references (for vi).

ld

Loader.

lex

Lexical analyzer generator.

make

Execute commands in a specified order.

od

Dump input in various formats.

strip

Remove data from an object file.

yacc

Parser generator. Can be used with lex.

Searching

Command

Use

egrep

Extended version of grep .

fgrep

Search files for literal words.

find

Search the system for filenames.

grep

Search files for text patterns.

strings

Search binary files for text patterns.

Shell Programming

Command

Use

echo

Repeat command-line arguments on the output.

expr

Perform arithmetic and comparisons.

printf

Format and print command-line arguments.

sleep

Pause during processing.

test

Test a condition.

Storage

Command

Use

compress

Compress files to free up space.

cpio

Copy archives in or out.

gunzip

Expand compressed (.gz and .Z) files (preferred).

gzcat

Display contents of compressed files (may be linked to zcat ).

gzip

Compress files to free up space (preferred).

tar

Tape archiver.

uncompress

Expand compressed (.Z) files.

zcat

Display contents of compressed files.

System Status

Command

Use

at

Execute commands later.

atq

Show jobs queued by at.

atrm

Remove job queued by at.

chgrp

Change file group.

chown

Change file owner.

crontab

Automate commands.

date

Display or set date.

df

Show free disk space.

du

Show disk usage.

env

Show environment variables.

finger

Display information about users.

kill

Terminate a running command.

printenv

Show environment variables.

ps

Show processes.

stty

Set or display terminal settings.

who

Show who is logged in.

Text Processing

Command

Use

col

Process control characters.

cut

Select columns for display.

emacs

Work environment with powerful text editing capabilities.

ex

Line editor underlying vi .

expand

Convert tabs to spaces.

fmt

Produce roughly uniform line lengths.

fold

Break lines.

groff

Format troff input.

join

Merge different columns into a database.

paste

Merge columns or switch order.

rev

Print lines in reverse.

sed

Noninteractive text editor.

sort

Sort or merge files.

tr

Translate (redefine) characters.

uniq

Find repeated or unique lines in a file.

vi

Visual text editor.

xargs

Process many arguments in manageable portions.

Miscellaneous

Command

Use

banner

Make posters from words.

bc

Arbitrary precision calculator.

cal

Display calendar.

clear

Clear the screen.

man

Get information on a command.

nice

Reduce a job's priority.

nohup

Preserve a running job after logging out.

passwd

Set your login password.

script

Produce a transcript of your login session.

su

Become a superuser.

tee

Simultaneously store output in file and send to screen.

which

Print pathname of a command.

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