You are previewing Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition.
O'Reilly logo
Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition

Book Description

An instant success among newcomers, longtime Apple® fans and serious Unix® users alike, the Mac OS® X operating system combines stability, simplicity and elegance, and a stunning user interface. What more could Mac users want or need? The answer, of course, is Mac OS X Panther--a sleek and powerful overhaul of Mac OS X that promises to revitalize your Mac with improved views of the system, significant improvements to favorite applications, and numerous added conveniences. As with its predecessor, Jaguar, Mac OS X Panther offers plenty of new territory to explore. To show the way, O'Reilly's latest Nutshell book, Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition offers all audiences--both longtime Mac users and hardcore Unix users--the most complete guide to this remarkable operating system. The latest edition of this all-purpose reference leads power users through the newly changed landscape of Mac OS X. Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition provides details about the user-interface elements, system and network administration, and scripting and development. If you want to probe more deeply into the BSD Unix side of Mac OS X, there's a section that delves "under the hood." The book also includes the most complete Unix command reference found in print--with each command and option painstakingly tested and checked against Panther. Even the manpages that ship with the system can't compete in accuracy! Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition offers a thorough treatment of Mac OS X Panther, from its BSD Unix foundation to the finer points of its user interface. It familiarizes readers with the Finder™ and the Dock, file management, system configuration, network administration issues, and more, including a clear picture of what's new Other topics covered in the book include:

  • Filesystem overview

  • Running Java® applications

  • System and Network Administration

  • Directory Services and NetInfo

  • Scripting on Mac OS X Panther

  • Using CVS

  • Unix Command Reference

  • An overview of the Apple® X11 distribution

  • Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition is the indispensable guide for anyone who wants to know Mac OS X Panther inside and out.

    Table of Contents

    1. Mac OS X Panther in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition
      1. Preface
        1. The Layers of Mac OS X
        2. Audience for This Book
          1. Who This Book Is for
          2. Who This Book Isn’t for
        3. How This Book Is Organized
        4. Conventions Used in This Book
        5. Comments and Questions
        6. Acknowledgments
          1. Acknowledgments for Chuck Toporek
          2. Acknowledgments for Chris Stone
          3. Acknowledgments for Jason McIntosh (from the First Edition)
      2. I. Lay of the Land
        1. 1. Using Mac OS X
          1. Starting Up and Logging In
          2. Startup and Shutdown Keys
          3. The Mac Desktop
          4. The Menu Bar
            1. Menu Basics
              1. Commands
              2. Submenus
            2. Contextual Menus
            3. The Apple Menu
              1. Force-quitting applications
              2. Force-quitting the Finder
            4. The Application Menu
            5. Standard Application Menus
            6. Menu Extras
            7. The Accounts Menu
          5. The Application Switcher
          6. Exposé
          7. The Dock
            1. Application Icons
              1. Adding and removing applications from the Dock
            2. Dock Menus
            3. Disk, Folder, and File Icons
            4. Minimized Windows
            5. The Finder
            6. The Divider
            7. Trash
              1. Deleting files
              2. Unmounting disks
            8. Dock Shortcuts
          8. Windows
            1. Window Controls
            2. Document Windows
            3. Toolbars
            4. Window Types
              1. Dialogs: windows and sheets
              2. Drawers
              3. Interleaving windows
          9. Opening and Saving Documents
            1. The Open Window
            2. The Save Sheet
          10. Services
          11. Logging Out and Shutting Down
        2. 2. Using the Finder
          1. Finder Overview
            1. The Finder Toolbar
            2. Customizing the Toolbar
            3. The Finder’s Sidebar
            4. Resizing the Sidebar
          2. Finder Views
            1. Icon View
              1. Icon View’s options
            2. List View
              1. Sorting a List View
              2. List View’s options
              3. Arranging columns in List View
            3. Column View
              1. Column View’s options
              2. Resizing column widths
            4. Finder Preferences
              1. General preferences
              2. Labels preferences
              3. Sidebar preferences
              4. Advanced preferences
          3. Relaunching the Finder
          4. Menus and Keyboard Shortcuts
            1. The Finder’s Application Menu
            2. The File Menu
            3. The Edit Menu
            4. The View Menu
            5. The Go Menu
            6. The Window Menu
            7. The Help Menu
            8. Basic Keyboard Shortcuts
            9. Keyboard Navigation
              1. Selecting icons
              2. Opening icons and navigating folders
          5. Searching for and Locating Files
            1. Searching from the Finder
            2. Finding Files by Content
            3. Finding Files with the Terminal
              1. The locate command
              2. Searching file content with grep
              3. find
          6. File Types
            1. Applications
            2. Documents
            3. Type and Creator Codes
          7. Folders
          8. Bundles
          9. Aliases
          10. Moving and Copying Files and Folders
            1. Renaming Objects
            2. Filename Rules
            3. Moving Objects to the Trash
          11. The Get Info Window
        3. 3. Mac OS 9, Mac OS X, and Classic
          1. Changes to Mac OS X from Mac OS 9
            1. The Apple Menu
            2. Think System Preferences, Not Control Panels
            3. Other Missing Items
          2. What Is Classic?
          3. Starting Classic
          4. Controlling Classic
          5. Managing Classic Applications
            1. Classic Applications and Memory
          6. Using Classic Applications
            1. Classic’s Menu Bar
            2. Classic Application Windows
            3. The Dock and Classic
            4. Force-Quitting Classic Applications
          7. Printing from Classic
          8. Dual-Booting with Mac OS 9
        4. 4. System Preferences
          1. Using System Preferences
          2. The System Preference Panels
            1. Personal
              1. Appearance
              2. Desktop & Screen Saver
              3. Dock
              4. Exposé
              5. International
              6. Security
            2. Hardware
              1. CDs & DVDs
              2. Displays
              3. Energy Saver
              4. Keyboard & Mouse
              5. Print & Fax
              6. Sound
              7. Bluetooth
              8. Ink
            3. Internet & Network
              1. .Mac
              2. Network
              3. QuickTime
              4. Sharing
            4. System
              1. Accounts
              2. Classic
              3. Date & Time
              4. Software Update
              5. Speech
              6. Startup Disk
              7. Universal Access
          3. Speech Recognition and Speakable Commands
            1. Activating Speech Recognition
            2. Speakable Items
            3. Customizing Speakable Items
          4. Adding Panes to System Preferences
        5. 5. Applications and Utilities
          1. Applications
            1. Utilities
          2. Installing Applications
            1. Software Installers
              1. Uninstalling applications
              2. The authentication lock
            2. Installing Mac OS 9 Applications
            3. Disk Images
            4. File Compression
            5. Cleaning Up
        6. 6. Task and Setting Index
          1. Accessibility
          2. Accounts and User Management
          3. AirPort
          4. AppleScript
          5. Background Images
          6. Classic
          7. Colors
          8. Date and Time
          9. Disks
          10. Display
          11. The Dock
          12. Faxes
          13. Files and Folders
          14. Finder
          15. Fonts and Font Management
          16. Groups
          17. Internet, Web, and Email
          18. .Mac
          19. Menu Extras
          20. Mice, Trackpads, and Scrollwheel Mice
          21. Modems and Dial-Up Networking
          22. Networking
          23. Printer Configuration and Printing
          24. Screensavers
          25. Screenshots
          26. Searching for and Locating Files
          27. Security
          28. System Information
          29. System Status
          30. Terminal Settings
          31. Troubleshooting and Maintenance
          32. Windows
      3. II. System and Network Administration
        1. 7. Filesystem Overview
          1. Mac OS X Filesystems
            1. Differences Between HFS+ and UFS
            2. File Forks
              1. Attribute forks
            3. Journaling
            4. Other Supported Filesystem Formats
          2. Filesystem Organization
            1. Domains
            2. Special Folders
              1. User directories
              2. The Shared user directory
              3. The Library folder
          3. Hidden Files
            1. Seeing Hidden Files
            2. Dotfiles
            3. Exploring root
              1. Hidden Mac OS 9 files
              2. Hidden Darwin files
          4. The File Permissions System
            1. Owners and Groups
            2. Viewing and Modifying File Permissions
        2. 8. Networking
          1. Networking Basics
            1. The Network Pane
              1. Choosing network interfaces
              2. Configuring TCP/IP
              3. Other configurations
              4. Locations
              5. Adding and using locations
              6. Editing and removing locations
            2. Connecting Through Dialup
              1. Configuring the PPP tab
              2. Configuring Internet Connect
          2. Accessing Network Disks
            1. Browsing Network File Servers
            2. Using Connect to Server
              1. Connecting to AFP shares
              2. Connecting to SMB/CIFS shares
              3. Mounting WebDAV sites
              4. NFS
              5. FTP
            3. Mounting Disks Through the Terminal
          3. Web Browsing
            1. Alternative Browsers
            2. Changing the Default Browser
            3. Browsing in the Terminal
          4. Using FTP
            1. Passive FTP Mode
          5. Remote Logins
          6. Virtual Private Networking
          7. Rendezvous
        3. 9. Printer Configuration and Printing
          1. How Printing Works
          2. The Print Dialog
            1. Saving Your Printing Settings
            2. Application-Specific Print Options
            3. Preview
            4. Save as PDF
            5. Fax
            6. PDF Workflow
            7. The Simplified Print Sheet
          3. Printer Setup Utility
            1. The Printer List
              1. Adding and configuring printers
              2. Modifying list entries
              3. Fax List
            2. Printer Queues
            3. Printer Pools
            4. Desktop Printers
          4. Page Setup
          5. Print & Fax Preferences
          6. ColorSync
            1. How ColorSync Works
            2. Using ColorSync
            3. ColorSync Utility
            4. Quartz Filters
            5. ColorSync Scripts
          7. PostScript Converter
          8. Alternative Printer Interfaces
            1. Web-Based Print Administration
            2. Command-Line Tools
          9. Printer Sharing
            1. Printer Sharing Through the Sharing Pane
          10. Configuring CUPS
            1. Sharing Through cupsd.conf
          11. Printer Drivers
            1. Gimp-Print
        4. 10. System Administration Overview
          1. Acting as Root
            1. Using sudo
            2. The root User Account
          2. Managing Users and Groups
            1. Managing Users Through the Accounts Pane
              1. Account configuration
              2. Limitations
            2. Nonhuman User Accounts
            3. Managing Groups
            4. Fast User Switching
          3. Network Administration
            1. Overview of TCP/IP
              1. IP addresses
              2. Gateways and routing
            2. Configuring TCP/IP
              1. ifconfig
            3. Troubleshooting TCP/IP
              1. More about port scanning
          4. NFS
            1. Mounting NFS
              1. Static NFS mounting
              2. NFS through automount
              3. Daemons
              4. Exporting filesystems
              5. NFS and network security
            2. Mac OS X’s Firewall
              1. Using the ipfw command
              2. Through the Sharing pane
              3. Internet sharing
              4. Sharing over AirPort
          5. Single-User Mode
            1. Booting into Single-User Mode
            2. Exiting Single-User Mode
          6. cron Tasks
        5. 11. Directory Services
          1. Understanding Directory Services
          2. Programming with Directory Services
            1. Working with Passwords
          3. Configuring Directory Services
          4. NetInfo Manager
          5. Directory Services Utilities
          6. Managing Groups
            1. Creating a Group with niload
            2. Creating a Group with dscl
            3. Adding Users to a Group
            4. Listing Groups with nidump
            5. Deleting a Group
          7. Managing Users and Passwords
            1. Creating a User with niload
            2. Creating a User with dscl
            3. Creating a User’s Home Directory
            4. Granting Administrative Privileges
            5. Modifying a User
            6. Listing Users with nidump
            7. Deleting a User
          8. Managing Hostnames and IP Addresses
            1. Creating a Host with niload
          9. Exporting Directories with NFS
          10. Flat Files and Their Directory Services Counterparts
          11. Restoring the Directory Services Database
        6. 12. Running Network Services
          1. Network Services Overview
          2. Running Services in Mac OS X
            1. Running Services Through the Sharing Pane
          3. Mail Services
            1. Mail Transport Agents (Postfix)
              1. Using Postfix
              2. Configuring a local mailer
              3. Configuring a mail server
            2. Mail Delivery Agents
          4. Web Services
            1. Apache Configuration
            2. Apache Modules
          5. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
            1. Enabling Anonymous FTP
          6. Remote Login Services
            1. The Secure Shell
            2. Telnet
            3. The Remote Shell
          7. File Sharing Services
          8. Daemon Management
            1. Bootstrap Daemons
            2. StartupItems
              1. Manually running StartupItems
              2. The /etc/hostconfig file
              3. StartupParameters.plist
            3. xinetd
        7. 13. Security Basics
          1. General Security
            1. Unix Features
            2. Default Security
            3. Software Update
          2. Authentication
            1. Long Passwords
            2. Keychain Access
              1. Menu extra
              2. Secure Notes
              3. Password Strength Indicator
            3. Open Firmware Password
            4. Kerberos and Single Sign-on
            5. Auto Login
          3. Filesystem Security
            1. FileVault
            2. Encrypted Images
            3. Secure Deletions
          4. Physical Security
            1. Log Out on Idle
            2. Screen Locking
      4. III. Scripting and Development
        1. 14. AppleScript
          1. The Script Menu Extra
          2. Programming AppleScript
            1. About Apple Events
            2. The Five-Minute Guide to AppleScript
              1. AppleScript syntax summary
              2. Extending AppleScript
          3. Script Editor
            1. Creating, Compiling, and Running AppleScripts
            2. Recording AppleScripts
            3. Saving AppleScripts
            4. Testing AppleScripts
          4. Folder Actions
          5. AppleScript Studio
          6. Scripting the Terminal
          7. AppleScript Resources
        2. 15. Xcode Tools
          1. Getting the Xcode Tools
          2. The Developer Folder
          3. Developer Applications
          4. Xcode
            1. Built-in Documentation
              1. Manual pages
            2. Project Types
              1. Document-based applications
            3. Building Projects
              1. Targets
              2. Build phases
            4. Using the Debugger
          5. Programming Languages
          6. Interface Builder
          7. Libraries and Frameworks
            1. Frameworks
          8. The Info.plist File
        3. 16. Java on Mac OS X
          1. Java Tools and Applications
            1. /Applications/Utilities
            2. /Developer
            3. /Library/Java/Home
          2. Running Mac-Friendly Java Programs
            1. Desktop Java Applications
            2. Java Applets
            3. Java Web Start Applications
          3. Running Generic Java Applications
            1. Running from jar Files
            2. Running from class Files
            3. Running from a Shell Script
          4. Java on the Command Line
            1. Class Paths
            2. Other Command-Line Tools
          5. Customizing Java Applications
        4. 17. CVS
          1. Basic Concepts
            1. Locking and Merging
            2. Conflicts and Merging
            3. Tagging
            4. Branching
          2. CVS Command Format
          3. Common Global Options
          4. Gotchas
          5. CVS Administrator Reference
            1. Creating a Repository
              1. Setting up the password server with inetd
              2. Setting up the password server with xinetd
            2. Security Issues
            3. Repository Structure
              1. The CVSROOT directory
              2. The checkoutlist file
              3. The commitinfo file
              4. The config file
              5. The cvsignore file
              6. The cvswrappers file
              7. The history file
              8. The loginfo file
              9. The modules file
              10. The notify file
              11. The passwd file
              12. The rcsinfo file
              13. The readers file
              14. The taginfo file
              15. The users file
              16. The verifymsg file
              17. The writers file
            4. Hacking the Repository
              1. Restructuring a project
              2. Obsolete and temporary files
            5. Importing
              1. Importing code snapshots
              2. Importing from RCS
              3. Importing from SCCS
              4. Importing from PVCS
            6. Using an Interim Shared Sandbox
            7. Global Server Option
            8. Administrator Commands
              1. admin
              2. init
              3. kserver
              4. pserver
              5. server
          6. CVS User Reference
            1. Repository Locators
            2. Configuring CVS
            3. Creating a Sandbox
            4. Sandbox Structure
              1. .cvsignore files
              2. .cvswrappers files
              3. CVS directories
            5. Client Global Options
            6. Common Client Options
              1. Date formats
              2. Keyword substitutions
            7. User Commands
              1. add
              2. annotate
              3. checkout
              4. commit
              5. diff
              6. edit
              7. editors
              8. export
              9. help
              10. history
              11. import
              12. log
              13. login
              14. logout
              15. rannotate
              16. rdiff
              17. release
              18. remove
              19. rlog
              20. rtag
              21. status
              22. tag
              23. unedit
              24. update
              25. version
              26. watch
              27. watchers
      5. IV. Under Mac OS X’s Hood
        1. 18. Using the Terminal
          1. Using the Terminal
            1. Terminal Preferences
              1. Setting a default shell
              2. The Terminal Inspector
            2. Saving and Loading Terminals
            3. Connect to Server
            4. Secure Keyboard Entry
            5. Focus Follows Mouse
            6. Split-View Scrollback
          2. Process Management
            1. Seeing processes
              1. Sending signals with kill and killall
            2. xterm
            3. Mac OS X’s Console Mode
        2. 19. Shell Overview
          1. Introduction to the Shell
          2. Shell Flavors
          3. Common Features
          4. Differing Features
        3. 20. bash: The Bourne-Again Shell
          1. Invoking the Shell
            1. Options
            2. Arguments
          2. Syntax
            1. Special Files
            2. Filename Metacharacters
              1. Examples
            3. Command-Line Editing
            4. Quoting
              1. Examples
            5. Command Forms
              1. Examples
            6. Redirection Forms
              1. Examples
          3. Variables
            1. Variable Substitution
            2. Built-in Shell Variables
          4. Arithmetic Expressions
            1. Operators
            2. Examples
          5. Command History
            1. Line-Edit Mode
            2. The fc Command
              1. Examples
            3. Command Substitution
            4. Variables in Prompt
          6. Job Control
          7. Built-in Commands
            1. #
            2. #!
            3. :
            4. .
            5. alias
            6. bg
            7. bind
            8. break
            9. builtin
            10. case
            11. cd
            12. command
            13. compgen
            14. complete
            15. continue
            16. declare
            17. dirs
            18. disown
            19. echo
            20. enable
            21. eval
            22. exec
            23. exit
            24. export
            25. fc
            26. fg
            27. for
            28. function
            29. getopts
            30. hash
            31. help
            32. history
            33. if
            34. jobs
            35. kill
            36. let
            37. local
            38. logout
            39. popd
            40. printf
            41. pushd
            42. pwd
            43. read
            44. readonly
            45. return
            46. select
            47. set
            48. shift
            49. shopt
            50. source
            51. suspend
            52. test
            53. times
            54. trap
            55. type
            56. typeset
            57. ulimit
            58. umask
            59. unalias
            60. unset
            61. until
            62. wait
            63. while
        4. 21. tcsh: An Extended C Shell
          1. Overview of Features
          2. Invoking the Shell
            1. Options
            2. Arguments
          3. Syntax
            1. Special Files
            2. Filename Metacharacters
              1. Examples
            3. Quoting
              1. Examples
            4. Command Forms
              1. Examples
            5. Redirection Forms
              1. Simple redirection
              2. Multiple redirection
              3. Examples
          4. Variables
            1. Variable Substitution
              1. Examples
            2. Variable Modifiers
              1. Examples using pathname modifiers
              2. Examples using quoting modifiers
            3. Predefined Shell Variables
            4. Formatting for the Prompt Variable
            5. Sample .tcshrc File
            6. Environment Variables
          5. Expressions
            1. Operators
              1. Assignment operators
              2. Arithmetic operators
              3. Bitwise and logical operators
              4. Comparison operators
              5. File inquiry operators
            2. Examples
          6. Command History
            1. Command Substitution
            2. Command Substitution Examples
            3. Word Substitution
            4. Word Substitution Examples
            5. History Modifiers
              1. Printing, substitution, and quoting
              2. Truncation
            6. History Modifier Examples
            7. Special Aliases
          7. Command-Line Manipulation
            1. Completion
            2. Related Shell Variables
            3. Related Command-Line Editor Commands
            4. Related Shell Built-ins
            5. Command-Line Editing
              1. Emacs mode
              2. vi mode
          8. Job Control
          9. Built-in Commands
            1. @
            2. #
            3. #!
            4. :
            5. alias
            6. alloc
            7. bg
            8. bindkey
            9. break
            10. breaksw
            11. built-ins
            12. bye
            13. case
            14. cd
            15. chdir
            16. complete
            17. continue
            18. default
            19. dirs
            20. echo
            21. echotc
            22. else
            23. end
            24. endif
            25. endsw
            26. eval
            27. exec
            28. exit
            29. fg
            30. filetest
            31. foreach
            32. glob
            33. goto
            34. hashstat
            35. history
            36. hup
            37. if
            38. jobs
            39. kill
            40. limit
            41. log
            42. login
            43. logout
            44. ls-F
            45. newgrp
            46. nice
            47. nohup
            48. notify
            49. onintr
            50. popd
            51. printenv
            52. pushd
            53. rehash
            54. repeat
            55. sched
            56. set
            57. setenv
            58. settc
            59. setty
            60. shift
            61. source
            62. stop
            63. suspend
            64. switch
            65. telltc
            66. time
            67. umask
            68. unalias
            69. uncomplete
            70. unhash
            71. unlimit
            72. unset
            73. unsetenv
            74. wait
            75. watchlog
            76. where
            77. which
            78. while
        5. 22. Pattern Matching
          1. Filenames Versus Patterns
          2. Metacharacters, Listed by Unix Program
          3. Metacharacters
          4. Examples of Searching
            1. Examples of Searching and Replacing
        6. 23. The vi Editor
          1. Review of vi Operations
            1. Command Mode
            2. Insert Mode
            3. Syntax of vi Commands
              1. Examples
            4. Status-Line Commands
          2. vi Command-Line Options
          3. ex Command-Line Options
          4. Movement Commands
            1. Character
            2. Text
            3. Lines
            4. Screens
            5. Searches
              1. Line numbering
              2. Marking position
          5. Edit Commands
            1. Inserting New Text
            2. Changing and Deleting Text
          6. Saving and Exiting
          7. Accessing Multiple Files
          8. Window Commands
          9. Interacting with the Shell
          10. Macros
          11. Miscellaneous Commands
          12. Alphabetical List of Keys in Command Mode
          13. Syntax of ex Commands
            1. Options
            2. Addresses
            3. Address Symbols
          14. Alphabetical Summary of ex Commands
            1. abbrev
            2. append
            3. args
            4. cd
            5. bdelete
            6. buffer
            7. buffers
            8. center
            9. change
            10. close
            11. copy
            12. delete
            13. edit
            14. exusage
            15. file
            16. fold
            17. foldclose
            18. foldopen
            19. global
            20. help
            21. hide
            22. insert
            23. join
            24. jumps
            25. k
            26. list
            27. left
            28. map
            29. mark
            30. marks
            31. mkexrc
            32. move
            33. new
            34. next
            35. nohlsearch
            36. number
            37. open
            38. preserve
            39. previous
            40. print
            41. put
            42. qall
            43. quit
            44. read
            45. read
            46. recover
            47. redo
            48. resize
            49. rewind
            50. right
            51. sbuffer
            52. sbnext
            53. snext
            54. split
            55. sprevious
            56. script
            57. set
            58. shell
            59. source
            60. stop
            61. substitute
            62. suspend
            63. sview
            64. t
            65. tag
            66. tags
            67. unabbreviate
            68. undo
            69. unhide
            70. unmap
            71. v
            72. version
            73. vi
            74. view
            75. visual
            76. viusage
            77. vsplit
            78. wall
            79. wnext
            80. wq
            81. wqall
            82. write
            83. write
            84. X
            85. xit
            86. yank
            87. z
            88. !
            89. =
            90. < >
            91. address
            92. Return
            93. @
            94. @@
            95. &
            96. ~
          15. vi Configuration
            1. The :set Command
            2. Options Used by :set
            3. Sample ~/.exrc File
        7. 24. The Emacs Editor
          1. Emacs Concepts
            1. Modes
            2. Buffer and Window
            3. Point and Mark
            4. Kill and Yank
          2. Typical Problems
          3. Notes on the Tables
            1. Absolutely Essential Commands
          4. Summary of Commands by Group
            1. File Handling Commands
            2. Cursor Movement Commands
            3. Deletion Commands
            4. Paragraphs and Regions
            5. Stopping and Undoing Commands
            6. Transposition Commands
            7. Capitalization Commands
            8. Incremental Search Commands
            9. Word Abbreviation Commands
            10. Buffer Manipulation Commands
            11. Window Commands
            12. Special Shell Mode Characters
            13. Indentation Commands
            14. Centering Commands
            15. Macro Commands
            16. Detail Information Help Commands
            17. Help Commands
          5. Summary of Commands by Key
            1. Control-Key Sequences
            2. Meta-Key Sequences
          6. Summary of Commands by Name
            1. Extending Emacs
            2. The .emacs File
            3. GUI Emacs
        8. 25. The Defaults System
          1. Property Lists
          2. Viewing and Editing Property Lists
            1. Using the Property List Editor
            2. The defaults Command
              1. defaults
        9. 26. The X Window System
          1. About Apple’s X11
          2. Installing X11
          3. Running X11
          4. Customizing X11
            1. Dotfiles, Desktops, and Window Managers
            2. X11 Preferences, Application Menu, and Dock Menu
              1. Input
              2. Output
              3. Security
              4. Customizing X11’s Applications menu
          5. X11-Based Applications and Libraries
            1. Aqua-X11 Interactions
          6. Connecting to Other X Window Systems
            1. osx2x
          7. Virtual Network Computer
            1. Launching VNC
              1. VNC and SSH
            2. Connecting to the Mac OS X VNC Server
        10. 27. Installing Unix Software
          1. Package Managers
            1. Fink
            2. GNU Mac OS X Packages
          2. Installing from Source
        11. 28. Unix Command Reference
          1. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
            1. ac
            2. appleping
            3. appletalk
            4. appletviewer
            5. apply
            6. apropos
            7. asr
            8. at
            9. at_cho_prn
            10. atlookup
            11. atprint
            12. atq
            13. atrm
            14. atstatus
            15. AuthorizationTrampoline
            16. autodiskmount
            17. automount
            18. banner
            19. basename
            20. batch
            21. bc
            22. biff
            23. bless
            24. cal
            25. calendar
            26. cancel
            27. cat
            28. CCLEngine
            29. cd9660.util
            30. certtool
            31. checkgid
            32. chflags
            33. chgrp
            34. chkpasswd
            35. chmod
            36. chown
            37. cksum
            38. clear
            39. cmp
            40. colcrt
            41. colrm
            42. column
            43. comm
            44. compress
            45. configd
            46. cp
            47. cpio
            48. CpMac
            49. create_nidb
            50. crontab
            51. curl
            52. cut
            53. date
            54. dc
            55. dd
            56. defaults
            57. df
            58. diff
            59. diff3
            60. dig
            61. DirectoryService
            62. dirname
            63. diskarbitrationd
            64. disktool
            65. diskutil
            66. ditto
            67. dmesg
            68. dnsquery
            69. drutil
            70. du
            71. dynamic_pager
            72. echo
            73. egrep
            74. enscript
            75. env
            76. expand
            77. expr
            78. false
            79. fdisk
            80. fetchmail
            81. fgrep
            82. file
            83. find
            84. fixmount
            85. fixPrecomps
            86. FixupResourceForks
            87. fmt
            88. fold
            89. fs_usage
            90. fsck
            91. fsck_hfs
            92. fsck_msdos
            93. fstat
            94. ftp
            95. gcc_select
            96. GetFileInfo
            97. gnutar
            98. grep
            99. gunzip
            100. gzcat
            101. gzip
            102. halt
            103. hdid
            104. hdiutil
            105. head
            106. hfs.util
            107. host
            108. hostinfo
            109. hostname
            110. hwprefs
            111. id
            112. ifconfig
            113. info
            114. install
            115. installer
            116. ipconfig
            117. join
            118. jot
            119. kdump
            120. kdumpd
            121. kill
            122. killall
            123. ktrace
            124. kuncd
            125. languagesetup
            126. last
            127. leave
            128. less
            129. ln
            130. locate
            131. lock
            132. lockfile
            133. logger
            134. look
            135. lp
            136. lpc
            137. lpq
            138. lpr
            139. lprm
            140. lpstat
            141. ls
            142. lsbom
            143. lsof
            144. machine
            145. mailq
            146. mailstat
            147. makekey
            148. man
            149. md5
            150. mDNS
            151. mDNSResponder
            152. merge
            153. mkbom
            154. mkdir
            155. more
            156. mount
            157. mount_afp
            158. mount_cd9660
            159. mount_cddafs
            160. mount_devfs
            161. mount_fdesc
            162. mount_ftp
            163. mount_hfs
            164. mount_msdos
            165. mount_nfs
            166. mount_ntfs
            167. mount_smbfs
            168. mount_synthfs
            169. mount_udf
            170. mount_volfs
            171. mount_webdav
            172. msdos.util
            173. mv
            174. MvMac
            175. netstat
            176. nice
            177. nicl
            178. nidomain
            179. nidump
            180. nifind
            181. nigrep
            182. niload
            183. nireport
            184. niutil
            185. notifyd
            186. nslookup
            187. ntfs.util
            188. ntp-wait
            189. ntptimeset
            190. nvram
            191. od
            192. open
            193. opendiff
            194. open-x11
            195. osacompile
            196. osalang
            197. osascript
            198. passwd
            199. paste
            200. pax
            201. pbcopy
            202. pbpaste
            203. pdisk
            204. pdump
            205. periodic
            206. ping
            207. pl
            208. pmset
            209. postfix-watch
            210. pr
            211. printenv
            212. ps
            213. pwd
            214. rcp
            215. reboot
            216. register_mach_bootstrap_servers
            217. renice
            218. rev
            219. rlogin
            220. rm
            221. rmdir
            222. rsync
            223. say
            224. scp
            225. screencapture
            226. script
            227. scselect
            228. scutil
            229. sdiff
            230. SecurityServer
            231. sed
            232. service
            233. SetFile
            234. sftp
            235. showmount
            236. shutdown
            237. sips
            238. slogin
            239. slp_reg
            240. softwareupdate
            241. sort
            242. split
            243. SplitForks
            244. spray
            245. srm
            246. ssh
            247. strings
            248. stty
            249. su
            250. sudo
            251. sw_vers
            252. systemkeychain
            253. system_profiler
            254. SystemStarter
            255. tail
            256. talk
            257. tar
            258. tee
            259. telnet
            260. test
            261. tftp
            262. tiff2icns
            263. tiffutil
            264. time
            265. top
            266. touch
            267. tr
            268. traceroute
            269. true
            270. tset
            271. tty
            272. udf.util
            273. ufs.util
            274. umount
            275. uname
            276. uncompress
            277. unexpand
            278. uniq
            279. units
            280. unzip
            281. uptime
            282. users
            283. uudecode
            284. uuencode
            285. uuidgen
            286. vi
            287. view
            288. vm_stat
            289. vmmap
            290. vndevice
            291. vsdbutil
            292. w
            293. wall
            294. wc
            295. whatis
            296. whereis
            297. which
            298. who
            299. whoami
            300. whois
            301. write
            302. xargs
            303. yes
            304. zcat
            305. zcmp
            306. zdiff
            307. zgrep
            308. zip
            309. zprint
            310. zmore
            311. znew
      6. V. Appendixes
        1. A. Special Characters
        2. B. Resources
          1. Books
          2. Magazines
          3. Mailing Lists
            1. Apple-Run Mailing Lists
            2. Omni Group’s Mailing Lists
          4. Web Sites
            1. Apple Sites
            2. Developers
            3. Discussions and News
            4. Rumor Sites
            5. Software
            6. Tips, Tricks, Advice
      7. Index
      8. Colophon