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Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition

Book Description

The fourth edition of Ludwig’s Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume Three is a core reference for chemical, plant, and process engineers and provides an unrivalled reference on methods, process fundamentals, and supporting design data. New to this edition are expanded chapters on heat transfer plus additional chapters focused on the design of shell and tube heat exchangers, double pipe heat exchangers and air coolers. Heat tracer requirements for pipelines and heat loss from insulated pipelines are covered in this new edition, along with batch heating and cooking of process fluids, process integration, and industrial reactors. The book also looks at the troubleshooting of process equipment and corrosion and metallurgy.

      • Assists engineers in rapidly analyzing problems and finding effective design methods and mechanical specifications

        • Definitive guide to the selection and design of various equipment types, including heat exchanger sizing and compressor sizing, with established design codes

          • Batch heating and cooling of process fluids supported by Excel programs

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover image
    2. Title page
    3. Table of Contents
    4. Copyright
    5. Dedication
    6. Foreword
    7. Preface to the Fourth Edition
    8. Biography
    9. Acknowledgments
    10. Chapter 15. Heat Transfer
      1. Types of Heat Transfer Equipment Terminology
      2. Details of Exchange Equipment
      3. Tube Vibration
      4. Nozzle Connections to Shell and Heads
      5. Types of Heat Exchange Operations
      6. Temperature Difference: Two Fluid Transfer
      7. Temperature for Fluid Properties Evaluation – Caloric Temperature
      8. Pressure Drop, Δp
      9. Heat Balance
      10. Transfer Area
      11. Fouling of Tube Surface
      12. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients for Plain or Bare Tubes
      13. Approximate Values for Overall Heat Transfer Coefficients
      14. Film Coefficients with Fluids Outside Tubes Forced Convection
      15. Design and Rating of Heat Exchangers
      16. Plate and Frame Heat Exchangers
      17. Spiral Heat Exchangers
      18. Miscellaneous Special Application Heat Transfer Equipment
      19. Heat Loss for Bare Process Pipe
      20. Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers
      21. Rating Method for Air-Cooled Exchangers
      22. Two-Phase Flow Patterns
      23. Modes of Condensation
      24. Boiling and Vaporization
      25. Heat Transfer in Jacketed, Agitated Vessels/Kettles
      26. Falling Film Liquid Flow in Tubes
      27. Batch Heating and Cooling of Fluids
      28. Heat Exchanger Design With Computers
      29. Maintenance of Heat Exchangers
      30. General Symptoms in Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
      31. Case Studies of Heat Exchangers Explosion Hazards Incidents
    11. Chapter 16. Process Integration and Heat Exchanger Networks
      1. Introduction
      2. Heat Recovery Problem Identification
      3. Energy Targets
      4. The Heat Recovery Pinch and Its Significance
      5. A Targeting Procedure: The Problem Table Algorithm
      6. The Grand Composite Curve
      7. Placing Utilities Using the Grand Composite Curve
      8. Stream Matching at the Pinch
      9. The Pinch Design Approach to Inventing a Network
      10. Heat Exchanger Network Design (HEN)
      11. Design for Threshold Problems
      12. Heat Exchanger Area Targets
      13. HEN Simplification
      14. Number of Shells Target
      15. Implications for HEN Design
      16. Capital Cost Targets
      17. Energy Targeting
      18. Supertargeting or ΔTmin Optimization
      19. Summary: New Heat Exchanger Network Design
      20. Targeting and Design for Constrained Matches
      21. Targeting by Linear Programming
      22. Heat Engines and Heat Pumps for Optimum Integration
      23. Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer In Process Integration
      24. Total Site Analysis
      25. Applications of Process Integration
      26. Pitfalls in Process Integration
      27. Conclusions
      28. Industrial Applications, Case Studies and Examples
      29. Glossary of Terms
      30. Summary and Heuristics
      31. Nomenclature
    12. Chapter 17. Refrigeration Systems
      1. Capacity of Refrigerator
      2. The Carnot Refrigeration Cycle
      3. Performance of a Carnot Refrigerator
      4. Mechanical Refrigeration
      5. Types of Refrigeration Systems
      6. Terminology
      7. Selection of a Refrigeration System for a Given Temperature Level and Heat Load
      8. System Pressure Drop
      9. Absorption Refrigeration
      10. Mechanical Refrigeration
      11. Process Performance
      12. System Performance Comparison
      13. Hydrocarbon Refrigerants
      14. Refrigeration Stages
      15. Hydrocarbon Mixtures and Refrigerants
      16. Generalized Comments Regarding Refrigerants
      17. System Design and Selection
      18. Receiver
      19. Economizers
      20. Suction Gas Superheat
      21. Cascade Systems
      22. Compound Compression System
      23. Comparison of Effect of System Cycle and Expansion Valves on Required Horsepower
      24. Cryogenics
      25. Simulation of a Propane Refrigeration Loop
      26. Using Hysys Simulation Software Package
      27. Glossary of Terms
      28. Nomenclature
    13. Chapter 18. Compression Equipment (Including Fans)
      1. General Application Guide
      2. Specification Guides
      3. General Considerations for Any Type of Compressor Flow Conditions
      4. Reciprocating Compression
      5. Compressor Performance Characteristics
      6. Solution of Compression Problems Using Mollier Diagrams
      7. Cylinder Unloading
      8. Air Compressor Selection
      9. Energy Flow
      10. Constant-T System
      11. Polytropic System
      12. Constant S System
      13. Centrifugal Compressors
      14. Compressor Equations in SI Units
      15. Multicomponent Gas Streams
      16. Treatment of Compressor Fluids
      17. Centrifugal Compressor Performance in Process System
      18. Expansion Turbines
      19. Axial Compressor
      20. Liquid Ring Compressors
      21. Rotary Two-Impeller (Lobe) Blowers and Vacuum Pumps
      22. Rotary Axial Screw Blower and Vacuum Pumps
      23. Rotary Sliding Vane Compressor
      24. Oil-Flooded Screw Compressors
      25. Integrally Geared Compressors
      26. Other Process-Related Compressors
      27. Advances in Compressor Technology
      28. Troubleshooting of Centrifugal and Reciprocating Compressors
      29. Fans
      30. Blowers and Exhausters
      31. Nomenclature
      32. Greek Symbols
      33. Subscripts
    14. Chapter 19. Reciprocating Compression Surge Drums
      1. Pulsation Dampener or Surge Drum
      2. Common Design Terminology
      3. Applications
      4. Internal Details
      5. Design Method – Surge Drums (Nonacoustic)
      6. Single-Compression Cylinder
      7. Parallel Multicylinder Arrangement Using Common Surge Drum
      8. Pipe Sizes for Surge Drum Systems
      9. Frequency of Pulsations
      10. Compressor Suction and Discharge Drums
      11. Design Method – Modified NACA Method for the Design of Suction and Discharge Drums
      12. Pipe Resonance
      13. Mechanical Considerations: Drums/Bottles and Piping
      14. Nomenclature
      15. Greek
      16. Subscripts
    15. Chapter 20. Mechanical Drivers
      1. Electric Motors
      2. Mechanical Drive Steam Turbines
      3. Gas and Gas-Diesel Engines
      4. Combustion Gas Turbine
      5. Nomenclature
    16. Chapter 21. Industrial and Laboratory Reactors – Chemical Reaction Hazards and Process Integration of Reactors
      1. Introduction
      2. Batch Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Reactor
      3. Semi-batch Reactors
      4. Continuous Flow Isothermal Perfectly Stirred Tank Reactor
      5. Continuous Isothermal Plug Flow (Tubular) Reactor
      6. Continuous Multiphase Reactors
      7. Fluidized Bed System
      8. Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit
      9. Deep Catalytic Cracking Unit
      10. Bubble Column Reactor
      11. Agitator Types for Different Reaction Systems
      12. Catalysts and Catalytic Processes
      13. Determining Laboratory Reactors
      14. Recirculating Reactors
      15. Guidelines for Selecting Batch Processes
      16. Heat Transfer in Reactors
      17. Chemical Reaction Hazardous Incidents
      18. Chemical Reactivity Worksheet (CRW)
      19. Protective Measures for Runaway Reactions
      20. Safety in Emergency Relief Systems
      21. Process Hazard Analysis (PHA)
      22. Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP)
      23. Hazard Analysis (HAZAN)
      24. Fault Tree Analysis
      25. Key Findings by US Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB)
      26. Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST)
      27. Energy Balances on Batch Reactors
      28. The ϕ Factor Accounting for the Heat Capacities of the Bomb Calorimeter
      29. Adiabatic Operation of a Batch Reactor
      30. Relief Valve Sizing Calculations
      31. Vent Sizing Equations
      32. Discharge System
      33. Hazardous Pyrophoric Reaction
      34. Heat-Integrated Reactors
      35. Appropriate Placement of Reactors
      36. Reactor Design to Improve Heat Integration
      37. Glossary
    17. Chapter 22. Metallurgy – Corrosion
      1. Introduction
      2. Material Selection
      3. Embrittlement
      4. Environmental Cracking
      5. Creep and Creep Rupture Life
      6. Martensitic Stainless Steels in Refining and Petroleum Production
      7. Corrosion
    18. Index