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Ludwig's Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, 4th Edition

Book Description

This complete revision of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Volume 1 builds upon Ernest E. Ludwig’s classic text to further enhance its use as a chemical engineering process design manual of methods and proven fundamentals. This new edition includes important supplemental mechanical and related data, nomographs and charts. Also included within are improved techniques and fundamental methodologies, to guide the engineer in designing process equipment and applying chemical processes to properly detailed equipment.

All three volumes of Applied Process Design for Chemical and Petrochemical Plants serve the practicing engineer by providing organized design procedures, details on the equipment suitable for application selection, and charts in readily usable form. Process engineers, designers, and operators will find more chemical petrochemical plant design data in:

Volume 2, Third Edition, which covers distillation and packed towers as well as material on azeotropes and ideal/non-ideal systems.

Volume 3, Third Edition, which covers heat transfer, refrigeration systems, compression surge drums, and mechanical drivers.


A. Kayode Coker, is Chairman of Chemical & Process Engineering Technology department at Jubail Industrial College in Saudi Arabia. He’s both a chartered scientist and a chartered chemical engineer for more than 15 years. and an author of Fortran Programs for Chemical Process Design, Analysis and Simulation, Gulf Publishing Co., and Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design, Butterworth-Heinemann.

*Provides improved design manuals for methods and proven fundamentals of process design with related data and charts
*Covers a complete range of basic day-to-day petrochemical operation topics with new material on significant industry changes since 1995.
*Website includes computer applications along with Excel spreadsheets and concise applied process design flow charts.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface to the Fourth Edition
  7. Preface to the Third Edition
  8. Foreword
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. Biography
  11. Disclaimer
  12. Using the Software and Excel Spreadsheet Programs
    1. USING MICROSOFT EXCEL SPREADSHEET
    2. USING FORTRAN PROGRAMS
  13. RULES OF THUMB: SUMMARY
    1. VESSELS (STORAGE TANKS)
    2. VESSEL (PRESSURE)
    3. VESSELS (DRUMS)
    4. UTILITIES, COMMON SPECIFICATIONS
    5. SIZE SEPARATION OF PARTICLES
    6. REFRIGERATION
    7. REACTORS
    8. PUMPS
    9. PIPING
    10. PARTICLE SIZE ENLARGEMENT
    11. MIXING AND AGITATION
    12. INSULATION
    13. HEAT EXCHANGERS
    14. FLUIDIZATION OF PARTICLES WITH GASES
    15. FILTRATION
    16. EXTRACTION, LIQUID–LIQUID
    17. EVAPORATORS
    18. DRYING OF SOLIDS
    19. DRIVERS AND POWER RECOVERY EQUIPMENT
    20. PACKED TOWERS
    21. TRAY TOWERS
    22. TOWERS
    23. DISINTEGRATION
    24. CRYSTALLIZATION FROM SOLUTION
    25. COOLING TOWERS
    26. CONVEYORS FOR PARTICULATE SOLIDS
    27. COMPRESSORS, FANS, BLOWERS AND VACUUM PUMPS
  14. Chapter 1: PROCESS PLANNING, SCHEDULING, AND FLOWSHEET DESIGN
    1. ABBREVIATION
    2. NOMENCLATURE
    3. 1.21 RULES OF THUMB ESTIMATING
    4. 1.20 PLANT LAYOUT
    5. 1.19 TIME PLANNING AND SCHEDULING
    6. 1.18 SYSTEM DESIGN PRESSURES
    7. 1.17 SYSTEM OF UNITS
    8. 1.16 INFORMATION CHECKLISTS
    9. 1.15 WORKING SCHEDULES
    10. 1.14 FLOWSHEET SYMBOLS
    11. 1.13 OPERATOR TRAINING SIMULATOR SYSTEM
    12. 1.12 COMPUTER-AIDED FLOWSHEET DESIGN/DRAFTING
    13. 1.11 GENERAL ARRANGEMENTS GUIDE
    14. 1.10 FLOWSHEET PRESENTATION
    15. 1.9 FLOWSHEETS – TYPES
    16. 1.8 ISOBUTANE CHEMICALS (iC4H10)
    17. 1.7 DEGREES-OF-FREEDOM MODELING
    18. 1.6 THE EQUATION MODULAR APPROACH
    19. 1.5 THE SEQUENTIAL MODULAR SIMULATION
    20. 1.4 COMPUTER-AIDED FLOWSHEETING
    21. 1.3 ROLE OF THE PROCESS DESIGN ENGINEER
    22. 1.2 PROCESS DESIGN SCOPE
    23. 1.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
  15. Chapter 2: COST ESTIMATION AND ECONOMIC EVALUATION
    1. 2.10 PROJECT EVALUATION
    2. 2.9 COMPUTER COST ESTIMATING
    3. 2.8 SUMMARY OF THE FACTORIAL METHOD
    4. 2.7 BARE MODULE COST FOR EQUIPMENT
    5. 2.6 DETAILED FACTORIAL COST ESTIMATES
    6. 2.5 FACTORED COST ESTIMATE
    7. 2.4 YEARLY COST INDICES
    8. 2.3 EQUIPMENT COST ESTIMATIONS BY CAPACITY RATIO EXPONENTS
    9. 2.2 CAPITAL COST ESTIMATION
    10. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
  16. Chapter 3: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES
    1. GREEK LETTERS
    2. NOMENCLATURE
    3. 3.26 GAS MIXTURES
    4. 3.25 GENERALIZED COMPRESSIBILITY Z-FACTOR
    5. 3.24 COMPRESSIBILITY Z-FACTOR OF NATURAL GASES
    6. 3.23 DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS (DIFFUSIVITIES)
    7. 3.22 ADSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON
    8. 3.21 VOLUMETRIC EXPANSION RATE
    9. 3.20 COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION OF LIQUID
    10. 3.19 SOLUBILITY AND HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR NITROGEN COMPOUNDS IN WATER
    11. 3.18 SOLUBILITY OF NAPHTHENES IN WATER
    12. 3.17 SOLUBILITY AND HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR SULFUR COMPOUNDS IN WATER
    13. 3.16 SOLUBILITY OF GASES IN WATER
    14. 3.15 HENRY’S LAW CONSTANT FOR GASES IN WATER
    15. 3.14 SOLUBILITY IN WATER AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE
    16. 3.13 SOLUBILITY IN WATER CONTAINING SALT
    17. 3.12 GIBBS ENERGY OF FORMATION
    18. 3.11 ENTHALPY OF FORMATION
    19. 3.10 ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION
    20. 3.9 VAPOR PRESSURE
    21. 3.8 SURFACE TENSION
    22. 3.7 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS
    23. 3.6 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GAS
    24. 3.5 HEAT CAPACITY OF LIQUID
    25. 3.4 HEAT CAPACITY OF GAS
    26. 3.3 VISCOSITY OF LIQUIDS
    27. 3.2 VISCOSITY OF GAS
    28. 3.1 DENSITY OF LIQUIDS
  17. Chapter 4: FLUID FLOW
    1. 4.40 SONIC CONDITIONS LIMITING FLOW OF GASES AND VAPORS
    2. 4.39 MAXIMUM FLOW AND PRESSURE DROP
    3. 4.38 COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW IN PIPES
    4. 4.37 FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW
    5. 4.36 WATER HAMMER [23]
    6. 4.35 FLOW OF WATER FROM OPEN-END HORIZONTAL PIPE
    7. 4.34 FRICTION LOSS FOR WATER FLOW
    8. Establishing Control Valve Estimated Pressure Drop, using Connell’s Method [18]
    9. 4.33 THE DIRECT DESIGN OF A CONTROL VALVE
    10. 4.32 ESTIMATION OF PRESSURE LOSS ACROSS CONTROL VALVES
    11. 4.31 FRICTION PRESSURE DROP FOR NON-VISCOUS LIQUIDS
    12. 4.30 EQUIVALENT LENGTH CONCEPT FOR VALVES, FITTINGS AND SO ON
    13. 4.29 ALTERNATE CALCULATION BASIS FOR PIPING SYSTEMS FRICTION HEAD LOSS: LIQUIDS
    14. 4.28 NOZZLES AND ORIFICES [4]
    15. 4.27 FLOW COEFFICIENTS FOR VALVES, CV
    16. 4.26 RESISTANCE OF VALVES
    17. 4.25 PIPING SYSTEMS
    18. 4.24 SUDDEN ENLARGEMENT OR CONTRACTION [2]
    19. 4.23 LOSS COEFFICIENT
    20. 4.22 LAMINAR FLOW
    21. 4.21 VALIDITY OF K VALUES
    22. 4.20 L/D VALUES IN LAMINAR REGION
    23. 4.19 EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF FITTINGS
    24. 4.18 VELOCITY AND VELOCITY HEAD
    25. 4.17 PRESSURE DROP IN FITTINGS, VALVES, AND CONNECTIONS
    26. 4.16 FRICTION HEAD LOSS (RESISTANCE) IN PIPE, FITTINGS, AND CONNECTIONS
    27. 4.15 DARCY FRICTION FACTOR, F
    28. 4.14 PIPE RELATIVE ROUGHNESS
    29. 4.13 REYNOLDS NUMBER, Re (SOMETIMES USED NRe)
    30. 4.12 BACKGROUND INFORMATION (ALSO SEE CHAPTER 5)
    31. 4.11 USUAL INDUSTRY PIPE SIZES AND CLASSES PRACTICE
    32. 4.10 PIPE
    33. 4.9 PIPE, FITTINGS, AND VALVES
    34. 4.8 FACTORS OF “SAFETY” FOR DESIGN BASIS
    35. 4.7 IMPORTANT PRESSURE LEVEL REFERENCES
    36. 4.6 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW: VAPORS AND GASES [4]
    37. 4.5 INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW
    38. 4.4 BASIS
    39. 4.3 SCOPE
    40. 4.2 FLOW OF FLUIDS IN PIPES
    41. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    42. 4.67 A SOLUTION FOR ALL TWO-PHASE PROBLEMS
    43. 4.68 GAS–LIQUID TWO-PHASE VERTICAL DOWN FLOW
    44. 4.69 PRESSURE DROP IN VACUUM SYSTEMS
    45. 4.70 LOW ABSOLUTE PRESSURE SYSTEMS FOR AIR [62]
    46. 4.71 VACUUM FOR OTHER GASES AND VAPORS
    47. 4.72 PIPE SIZING FOR NON-NEWTONIAN FLOW
    48. 4.73 SLURRY FLOW IN PROCESS PLANT PIPING
    49. 4.74 PRESSURE DROP FOR FLASHING LIQUIDS
    50. 4.75 SIZING CONDENSATE RETURN LINES
    51. 4.76 DESIGN PROCEDURE USING SARCO CHART [74]
    52. 4.77 FLOW THROUGH PACKED BEDS
    53. NOMENCLATURE
    54. SOFTWARE FOR CALCULATING PRESSURE DROP
    55. 4.41 THE MACH NUMBER, MA
    56. 4.42 MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF COMPRESSIBLE ISOTHERMAL FLOW
    57. 4.43 FLOW RATE THROUGH PIPELINE
    58. 4.44 PIPELINE PRESSURE DROP (ΔP)
    59. 4.45 CRITICAL PRESSURE RATIO
    60. 4.46 ADIABATIC FLOW
    61. 4.47 THE EXPANSION FACTOR, Y
    62. 4.48 MISLEADING RULES OF THUMB FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW
    63. 4.49 OTHER SIMPLIFIED COMPRESSIBLE FLOW METHODS
    64. 4.50 FRICTION DROP FOR FLOW OF VAPORS, GASES, AND STEAM
    65. 4.51 DARCY RATIONAL RELATION FOR COMPRESSIBLE VAPORS AND GASES
    66. 4.52 VELOCITY OF COMPRESSIBLE FLUIDS IN PIPE
    67. 4.53 ALTERNATE SOLUTION TO COMPRESSIBLE FLOW PROBLEMS
    68. 4.54 PROCEDURE
    69. 4.55 FRICTION DROP FOR COMPRESSIBLE NATURAL GAS IN LONG PIPE LINES
    70. 4.56 PANHANDLE-A GAS FLOW FORMULA [4]
    71. 4.57 MODIFIED PANHANDLE FLOW FORMULA [26]
    72. 4.58 AMERICAN GAS ASSOCIATION (AGA) DRY GAS METHOD
    73. 4.59 COMPLEX PIPE SYSTEMS HANDLING NATURAL (OR SIMILAR) GAS
    74. 4.60 TWO-PHASE LIQUID AND GAS FLOW IN PROCESS PIPING
    75. 4.61 FLOW PATTERNS
    76. 4.62 FLOW REGIMES
    77. 4.63 PRESSURE DROP
    78. 4.64 EROSION-CORROSION
    79. 4.65 TOTAL SYSTEM PRESSURE DROP
    80. 4.66 PIPE SIZING RULES
  18. Chapter 5: PUMPING OF LIQUIDS
    1. 5.1 PUMP DESIGN STANDARDIZATION
    2. 5.2 BASIC PARTS OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
    3. 5.3 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SELECTION
    4. 5.4 HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS
    5. Liquid Heads
    6. 5.5 SUCTION HEAD OR SUCTION LIFT, hs
    7. 5.6 DISCHARGE HEAD, hd
    8. 5.7 VELOCITY HEAD
    9. 5.8 FRICTION
    10. 5.9 NET POSITIVE SUCTION HEAD (NPSH) AND PUMP SUCTION
    11. 5.10 SPECIFIC SPEED
    12. 5.11 ROTATIVE SPEED
    13. 5.12 PUMPING SYSTEMS AND PERFORMANCE
    14. 5.13 POWER REQUIREMENTS FOR PUMPING THROUGH PROCESS LINES
    15. 5.14 AFFINITY LAWS
    16. Illustrating Static, Pressure, and Friction Effects
    17. 5.15 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP EFFICIENCY
    18. 5.16 EFFECTS OF VISCOSITY
    19. 5.17 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP SPECIFICATIONS
    20. 5.18 ROTARY PUMPS
    21. 5.19 RECIPROCATING PUMPS
    22. 5.20 SELECTION RULES-OF-THUMB
  19. Chapter 6: MECHANICAL SEPARATIONS
    1. 6.1 PARTICLE SIZE
    2. 6.2 PRELIMINARY SEPARATOR SELECTION
    3. 6.3 GUIDE TO DUST SEPARATOR APPLICATIONS
    4. 6.4 GUIDE TO LIQUID–SOLID PARTICLE SEPARATORS
    5. 6.5 GRAVITY SETTLERS
    6. 6.6 TERMINAL VELOCITY
    7. 6.7 ALTERNATE TERMINAL VELOCITY CALCULATION
    8. 6.8 AMERICAN PETROLEUM INSTITUTE’S OIL FIELD SEPARATORS
    9. 6.9 MODIFIED METHOD OF HAPPEL AND JORDAN [22]
    10. 6.10 DECANTER [25]
    11. 6.11 IMPINGEMENT SEPARATORS
    12. 6.12 CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS
  20. Chapter 7: MIXING OF LIQUIDS
    1. 7.1 MECHANICAL COMPONENTS
    2. 7.2 IMPELLERS
    3. 7.3 EQUIPMENT FOR AGITATION
    4. 7.4 FLOW PATTERNS
    5. 7.5 FLOW VISUALIZATION
    6. 7.6 MIXING CONCEPTS, THEORY, FUNDAMENTALS
    7. 7.7 FLOW
    8. 7.8 POWER
    9. 7.9 SCALE OF AGITATION, SA
    10. 7.10 MIXING TIME CORRELATION
    11. 7.11 SHAFT
    12. 7.12 DRIVE AND GEARS
    13. 7.13 STEADY BEARINGS
    14. 7.14 DRAFT TUBES
    15. 7.15 ENTRAINMENT
    16. 7.16 BATCH OR CONTINUOUS MIXING
    17. 7.17 BAFFLES
    18. 7.18 BLENDING
    19. 7.19 EMULSIONS
    20. 7.20 EXTRACTION
    21. 7.21 GAS–LIQUID CONTACTING
    22. 7.22 GAS–LIQUID MIXING OR DISPERSION
    23. 7.23 HEAT TRANSFER: COILS IN TANK, LIQUID AGITATED
    24. 7.24 EFFECTS OF VISCOSITY ON PROCESS FLUID HEAT TRANSFER FILM COEFFICIENT
    25. 7.25 HEAT TRANSFER AREA
    26. 7.26 IN-LINE, STATIC, OR MOTIONLESS MIXING
  21. Chapter 8: EJECTORS AND MECHANICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS
    1. 8.1 EJECTORS
    2. 8.2 VACUUM SAFETY
    3. 8.3 TYPICAL RANGE PERFORMANCE OF VACUUM PRODUCERS
    4. 8.4 FEATURES
    5. 8.5 TYPES
    6. 8.6 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    7. 8.7 VACUUM RANGE GUIDE
    8. 8.8 PRESSURE TERMINOLOGY
    9. 8.9 PRESSURE DROP AT LOW ABSOLUTE PRESSURES
    10. 8.10 PERFORMANCE FACTORS
    11. 8.11 TYPES OF LOADS
    12. Actual Capacity for Process Vapor Plus Non-Condensables
    13. 70°F Air Equivalent for Air-Water Vapor Mixture
    14. 8.12 LOAD VARIATION
    15. 8.13 STEAM AND WATER REQUIREMENTS
    16. 8.14 EJECTOR SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS
    17. 8.15 EJECTOR SELECTION PROCEDURE
    18. 8.16 WATER JET EJECTORS
    19. 8.17 STEAM JET THERMOCOMPRESSORS
    20. 8.18 EJECTOR CONTROL
    21. 8.19 TIME REQUIRED FOR SYSTEM EVACUATION
    22. 8.20 ALTERNATE PUMPDOWN TO A VACUUM USING A MECHANICAL PUMP
    23. 8.21 EVALUATION WITH STEAM JETS
    24. 8.22 MECHANICAL VACUUM PUMPS
    25. 8.23 LIQUID RING VACUUM PUMPS/COMPRESSOR
    26. 8.24 ROTARY VANE VACUUM PUMPS
    27. 8.25 ROTARY BLOWERS OR ROTARY LOBE-TYPE BLOWERS
    28. 8.26 ROTARY PISTON PUMPS
    29. NOMENCLATURE
  22. Chapter 9: PROCESS SAFETY AND PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES
    1. 9.1 TYPES OF POSITIVE PRESSURE-RELIEVING DEVICES (SEE MANUFACTURERS’ CATALOGS FOR DESIGN DETAILS)
    2. 9.2 TYPES OF VALVES/RELIEF DEVICES
    3. 9.3 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION
    4. 9.4 GENERAL CODE REQUIREMENTS [1]
    5. 9.5 RELIEF MECHANISMS
    6. 9.6 PRESSURE SETTINGS AND DESIGN BASIS
    7. 9.7 UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSELS ONLY, BUT NOT FIRED OR UNFIRED STEAM BOILERS
    8. 9.8 RELIEVING CAPACITY OF COMBINATIONS OF SAFETY RELIEF VALVES AND RUPTURE DISKS OR NON-RECLOSURE DEVICES (REFERENCE ASME CODE, PAR. UG-127, U-132).
    9. 9.9 ESTABLISHING RELIEVING OR SET PRESSURES
    10. 9.10 SELECTION AND APPLICATION
    11. 9.11 CAPACITY REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR PROCESS OPERATION (NON-FIRE)
    12. 9.12 SELECTION FEATURES: SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES, AND RUPTURE DISKS
    13. 9.13 CALCULATIONS OF RELIEVING AREAS: SAFETY AND RELIEF VALVES
    14. 9.14 STANDARD PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES–RELIEF AREA DISCHARGE OPENINGS
    15. 9.15 SIZING SAFETY RELIEF TYPE DEVICES FOR REQUIRED FLOW AREA AT TIME OF RELIEF*
    16. 9.16 EFFECTS OF TWO-PHASE VAPOR-LIQUID MIXTURE ON RELIEF VALVE CAPACITY
    17. 9.17 SIZING FOR GASES, VAPORS, OR LIQUIDS FOR CONVENTIONAL VALVES WITH CONSTANT BACK PRESSURE ONLY
    18. 9.18 ORIFICE AREA CALCULATIONS [42]
    19. 9.19 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5D]
    20. 9.20 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID RELIEF: PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVES NOT REQUIRING CAPACITY CERTIFICATION [5D]
    21. 9.21 REACTION FORCES
    22. 9.22 CALCULATIONS OF ORIFICE FLOW AREA USING PRESSURE RELIEVING BALANCED BELLOWS VALVES, WITH VARIABLE OR CONSTANT BACK PRESSURE
    23. 9.23 SIZING VALVES FOR LIQUID EXPANSION (HYDRAULIC EXPANSION OF LIQUID FILLED SYSTEMS/EQUIPMENT/PIPING)
    24. 9.24 SIZING VALVES FOR SUBCRITICAL FLOW: GAS OR VAPOR BUT NOT STEAM [5D]
    25. 9.25 EMERGENCY PRESSURE RELIEF: FIRES AND EXPLOSIONS RUPTURE DISKS
    26. 9.26 EXTERNAL FIRES
    27. 9.27 SET PRESSURES FOR EXTERNAL FIRES
    28. 9.28 HEAT ABSORBED
    29. 9.29 SURFACE AREA EXPOSED TO FIRE
    30. 9.30 RELIEF CAPACITY FOR FIRE EXPOSURE
    31. 9.31 CODE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERNAL FIRE CONDITIONS
    32. 9.32 DESIGN PROCEDURE
    33. 9.33 PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE ORIFICE AREAS ON VESSELS CONTAINING ONLY GAS, UNWETTED SURFACE
    34. 9.34 RUPTURE DISK SIZING DESIGN AND SPECIFICATION
    35. 9.35 SPECIFICATIONS TO MANUFACTURER
    36. 9.36 SIZE SELECTION
    37. 9.37 CALCULATION OF RELIEVING AREAS: RUPTURE DISKS FOR NON-EXPLOSIVE SERVICE
    38. 9.38 THE MANUFACTURING RANGE (MR)
    39. 9.39 SELECTION OF BURST PRESSURE FOR DISK, Pb (TABLE 9-3)
    40. 9.40 EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON DISK
    41. 9.41 RUPTURE DISK ASSEMBLY PRESSURE DROP
    42. 9.42 GASES AND VAPORS: RUPTURE DISKS [5a, PAR, 4.8]
    43. 9.43 API FOR SUBSONIC FLOW: GAS OR VAPOR (NOT STEAM)
    44. 9.44 LIQUIDS: RUPTURE DISK
    45. 9.45 SIZING FOR COMBINATION OF RUPTURE DISK AND PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE IN SERIES COMBINATION
    46. 9.46 PRESSURE-VACUUM RELIEF FOR LOW PRESSURE STORAGE TANKS
    47. 9.47 BASIC VENTING FOR LOW PRESSURE STORAGE VESSELS
    48. 9.141 STUDY CO-ORDINATION
    49. 9.142 HAZOP OF A BATCH PROCESS
    50. 9.143 LIMITATIONS OF HAZOP STUDIES
    51. 9.144 HAZARD ANALYSIS (HAZAN)
    52. 9.145 FAULT TREE ANALYSIS
    53. 9.146 INHERENTLY SAFER PLANT DESIGN
    54. 9.89 PREVENTING, MITIGATING, AND PROTECTION AGAINST DUST EXPLOSIONS
    55. 9.90 PREVENTIVE EXPLOSION PROTECTION
    56. 9.91 EXPLOSION SUPPRESSION
    57. 9.92 UNCONFINED VAPOR CLOUD EXPLOSIONS (UVCE)
    58. 9.93 EFFECTS OF VENTING DUCTS
    59. 9.94 MAXIMUM DISTANCE BETWEEN VENTS
    60. 9.95 RUNAWAY REACTIONS: DIERS
    61. 9.96 HAZARD EVALUATION IN THE CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES
    62. 9.97 HAZARD ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
    63. 9.98 EXOTHERMS
    64. 9.99 ACCUMULATION
    65. 9.100 THERMAL RUNAWAY CHEMICAL REACTION HAZARDS
    66. 9.101 HEAT CONSUMED HEATING THE VESSEL: THE φ-FACTOR
    67. 9.102 ONSET TEMPERATURE
    68. 9.103 TIME-TO-MAXIMUM RATE
    69. 9.104 MAXIMUM REACTION TEMPERATURE
    70. 9.105 VENT SIZING PACKAGE
    71. 9.106 VENT SIZING PACKAGE 2™(VSP2™)
    72. 9.107 ADVANCED REACTIVE SYSTEM SCREENING TOOL
    73. 9.108 TWO-PHASE FLOW RELIEF SIZING FOR RUNAWAY REACTION
    74. 9.109 RUNAWAY REACTIONS
    75. 9.110 VAPOR-PRESSURE SYSTEMS
    76. 9.111 GASSY SYSTEMS
    77. 9.112 HYBRID SYSTEMS
    78. 9.113 SIMPLIFIED NOMOGRAPH METHOD
    79. 9.114 VENT SIZING METHODS
    80. 9.115 VAPOR-PRESSURE SYSTEMS
    81. 9.116 FAUSKE’S METHOD
    82. 9.117 GASSY SYSTEMS
    83. 9.118 HOMOGENEOUS TWO-PHASE VENTING UNTIL DISENGAGEMENT
    84. 9.119 TWO-PHASE FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE
    85. 9.120 CONDITIONS OF USE
    86. 9.121 DISCHARGE SYSTEM
    87. 9.122 SAFE DISCHARGE
    88. 9.123 DIRECT DISCHARGE TO THE ATMOSPHERE
    89. 9.124 DIERS FINAL REPORTS
    90. 9.125 FLARES/FLARE STACKS
    91. 9.126 FLARES
    92. 9.127 SIZING
    93. 9.128 FLAME LENGTH [5C]
    94. 9.129 FLAME DISTORTION [5C] CAUSED BY WIND VELOCITY
    95. 9.130 FLARE STACK HEIGHT
    96. 9.131 PURGING OF FLARE STACKS AND VESSELS/PIPING
    97. 9.132 STATIC ELECTRICITY
    98. 9.133 COMPRESSIBLE FLOW FOR DISCHARGE PIPING
    99. 9.134 DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR COMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW FOR DISCHARGE PIPING
    100. 9.135 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR Z
    101. 9.136 DISCHARGE LINE SIZING
    102. 9.137 VENT PIPING
    103. 9.138 DISCHARGE REACTIVE FORCE
    104. 9.139 A RAPID SOLUTION FOR SIZING DEPRESSURING LINES [5C]
    105. 9.140 HAZARD AND OPERABILITY (HAZOP) STUDIES
    106. 9.48 NON-REFRIGERATED ABOVE GROUND TANKS; API-STD-2000
    107. 9.49 CORRECTIONS TO EXPRESS MISCELLANEOUS LIQUIDS VENTING IN TERMS OF FREE AIR (14.7 PSIA AND 60°F)
    108. 9.50 EMERGENCY VENT EQUIPMENT
    109. 9.51 REFRIGERATED ABOVE GROUND AND BELOW GROUND TANKS [48]
    110. 9.52 NORMAL CONDITIONS
    111. 9.53 EMERGENCY VENTING FOR FIRE EXPOSURE
    112. 9.54 FLAME ARRESTORS
    113. 9.55 PILOT-OPERATED VENT VALUES
    114. 9.56 EXPLOSIONS
    115. 9.57 FLAMMABILITY
    116. 9.58 TERMINOLOGY
    117. 9.59 MIXTURES OF FLAMMABLE GASES
    118. 9.60 PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE EFFECTS
    119. 9.61 IGNITION OF FLAMMABLE MIXTURES
    120. 9.62 AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS OF FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
    121. 9.63 BLAST PRESSURES
    122. 9.64 TRI-NITRO TOLUENE (TNT) EQUIVALENCE FOR EXPLOSIONS
    123. 9.65 PRESSURE PILING
    124. 9.66 BLAST SCALING
    125. 9.67 EXPLOSION VENTING FOR GASES/VAPORS (NOT DUSTS)
    126. 9.68 BLEVES (BOILING LIQUID EXPANDING VAPOR EXPLOSIONS)
    127. 9.69 LIQUID MIST EXPLOSIONS
    128. 9.70 RELIEF SIZING: EXPLOSIONS OF GASES AND VAPORS
    129. 9.71 VENT OR RELIEF AREA CALCULATION [10] FOR VENTING OF DEFLAGRATIONS IN LOW-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES
    130. 9.72 HIGH-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES FOR DEFLAGRATIONS
    131. 9.73 DETERMINATION OF RELIEF AREAS FOR DEFLAGRATIONS OF GASES/VAPORS/MISTS IN HIGH-STRENGTH ENCLOSURES
    132. 9.74 DUST EXPLOSIONS
    133. 9.75 DUST EXPLOSION CHARACTERISTICS
    134. 9.76 EVALUATING THE HAZARD
    135. 9.77 SIZING OF VENTS METHODS
    136. 9.78 THE VDI NOMOGRAPH METHODS
    137. Use of the Dust Nomographs
    138. 9.79 THE ST GROUP NOMOGRAPH METHOD
    139. 9.80 REGRESSION ANALYSIS FROM THE KST NOMOGRAPHS
    140. 9.81 EQUATIONS TO REPRESENT THE NOMOGRAPHS
    141. 9.82 THE VENT RATIO METHOD
    142. 9.83 EXTRAPOLATION/INTERPOLATION OF DUST NOMOGRAPHS
    143. 9.84 VENTING OF BINS, SILOS, AND HOPPERS
    144. 9.85 SIZING GUIDELINES (SEE [30] FOR DETAILS)
    145. 9.86 SECONDARY DUST EXPLOSIONS IN BUILDINGS
    146. 9.87 DUST CLOUDS
    147. 9.88 DUST EXPLOSION SEVERITY
  23. Appendix A: A LIST OF ENGINEERING PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS AND PROCESS DATA SHEETS
    1. A-1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS USING VISIO 2002 SOFTWARE
    2. A-2 PROCESS DATA SHEETS
  24. Appendix B
    1. ETHICS IN ENGINEERING PROFESSION
    2. RULES OF PROFESSIONAL CONDUCT
  25. Appendix C: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES
    1. TABLES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIQUIDS AND GASES
  26. Appendix D
    1. D-1 Alphabetical Conversion Factors
    2. D-2 Physical Property Conversion Factors
    3. D-3 Synchronous Speeds
    4. D-4 Conversion Factors
    5. D-5 Temperature Conversion
    6. D-6 Altitude and Atmospheric Pressures
    7. D-7 Vapor Pressure Curves. (Courtesy Ingersoll-Rand Co.)
    8. D-8 Pressure Conversion Chart
    9. D-9 Vacuum Conversion
    10. D-10 Dacimal and millimeter Equivalent of Fractions
    11. D-11 Particle Size Measurement
    12. D-12 Viscosity Conversions. (by permission, Tube Turns Div., Chemetron Corp., Bull. TT 725.)
    13. D-13 Viscosity Conversions. (Courtesy Kinney Vacuum Div., The New York Air Brake Co.)
    14. D-14 Commercial Wrought Steel Pipe Data (Based on ANSI B36.10 wall thicknesses)
    15. D-15 Stainless Steel Pipe Data (Based on ANSI B36.19 wall thicknesses)
    16. D-16 Properties of Pipe
    17. D-16 Equation of Pipes
    18. D-18 Circumferences and Area of Circles (Advancing of eights)
    19. D-17 Capacities of Cylinders and Spheres
    20. D-20 Tank Capacities, Horizontal Cylindrical Contents of Tanks with Flat Ends When Filled to Various Depths
    21. D-21 Tank Capacities, Horizontal Cylindrical Contents of Standards Dished Heads When Filled to Various Depths
    22. D-22 Miscellaneous Formulas (Courtesy of Chicago Bridge and iron Co.)
    23. D-23 Decimal Equivalent in Inches, Feet and Millimeters
    24. D-24 (by permission of Buffalo Tank Div., Bethlehem Steel Corp.)
    25. D-25 Wind Chill Equivalent Temperatures on Exposed Flesh at Varying Velocity
    26. D-26 Impurities in Water
    27. D-27 Water Analysis Conversions for Units Employed: Equivalents
    28. D-28 Parts Per Million to Grains Per U.S. Gallon
    29. D-29 Formulas, Molecular and Equivalent Weights, and Conversion Factors to CaCO3 of Substances Frequently Appearing in the Chemistry of Water Softening
    30. D-30 Grains Per U.S. Gallons – Pounds Per 1000 Gallons
    31. D-31 Parts Per Million – Pounds Per 1000 Gallons
    32. D-32 Coagulant, Acid, and Sulfate–1 ppm Equivalents
    33. D-33 Alkali and Lime – 1 ppm Equivalents
    34. D-34 Sulfuric, Hydrochloric Acid Equivalent
    35. D-35
  27. Appendix E
    1. E.1 FITTING EQUATIONS TO DATA
    2. E.2 LINEAR REGRESSION ANALYSIS
    3. E.3 POLYNOMIAL REGRESSION
    4. E.4 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS
    5. E.5 SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS USING THE MATRIX METHODS
    6. E.6 SOLVING SIMULTANEOUS NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS IN EXCEL USING SOLVER
    7. E.7 GAUSS-SEIDEL ITERATIVE METHOD
    8. NOMENCLATURE
  28. Appendix F
    1. F.1 MICROSOFT EXCEL SOLVER FOR NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS
    2. F.2 SOLVING EQUATIONS USING GOAL SEEK IN EXCEL
  29. Appendix G: ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
    1. G.1 USEFUL INTEGRALS
    2. G.2 LIEBNITZ’S RULE–HIGHER DERIVATIVES OF PRODUCTS
    3. G.3 DEFINITION OF A DERIVATIVE
    4. G.4 PRODUCT RULE
    5. G.5 QUOTIENT RULE
    6. G.6 EXPONENTIAL/LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS
    7. G.7 TAYLOR’S AND MACLAURIN’S SERIES
    8. G.8 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
    9. G.9 LINEAR EQUATIONS
    10. EXAMPLE
    11. G.10 EXACT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
    12. G.11 HOMOGENEOUS SECOND ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WITH CONSTANT COEFFICIENTS
    13. G.12 TABLE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM
    14. G.13 CUBIC EQUATIONS
  30. Appendix G: NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES
    1. H.1 SIMPSON’S RULE FOR AREA UNDER THE CURVE
    2. H.2 NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS
    3. SOLUTION OF NON-LINEAR EQUATIONS
    4. H.3 SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS, FIRST-ORDER, ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
    5. H.4 EXTENSION OF RUNGE-KUTTA METHODS
    6. H.5 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION
    7. H.6 THE EXPLICIT METHOD
    8. H.7 INITIAL VALUE METHODS
    9. H.8 FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD FOR ELLIPTIC EQUATIONS
  31. Appendix I: SCREENSHOT GUIDE TO ABSOFT COMPILER GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE
  32. Index