You are previewing LPIC I Exam Cram™ 2: Linux Professional Institute Certification Exams 101 and 102.
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LPIC I Exam Cram™ 2: Linux Professional Institute Certification Exams 101 and 102

Book Description

The Exam Cram 2 series from Que Publishing is the smartest, most efficient way for IT professionals to pass a variety of IT exams and become certified. The growing list of certifications covered by Exam Cram 2 now includes Linux Professional Institute Certification Exams 101 and 102. LPIC 1 Exam Cram 2 includes the most up-to-date exam information available. A CD is included and features ExamSim, an innovative exam simulator designed specifically for Linux users featuring randomly chosen questions with each practice session, Training Mode with answer button and Exam Mode with running timer. LPIC 1 Exam Cram 2 is a winning strategy to help you pass the exam the first time.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
    1. Dedication
  2. A Note from Series Editor Ed Tittel
  3. About the Author
  4. About the Technical Editors
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. We Want to Hear from You!
  7. Introduction
    1. The Exam Situation
    2. The Actual Exams
    3. Exam Scoring
    4. LPI Retake Policy
    5. LPIC Exam Question Types
    6. Multiple-choice Questions
      1. Sample Multiple-choice Question
    7. Choose Two/Three Questions
      1. Sample Choose Two/Three Question
    8. Choose All That Apply Questions
      1. Sample Choose All That Apply Question
    9. Fill-in-the-Blank Questions
      1. Sample Fill-in-the-Blank Question
    10. Identify-the-Component Questions
      1. Sample Identify-the-Component Question
    11. Mastering the Inner Game
    12. Need to Know More?
  8. Self-Assessment
    1. LPI Exam Sections
    2. LPIC Level 1 Professionals in the Real World
      1. The Ideal LPIC Level 1 Candidate
      2. Putting Yourself to the Test
        1. Educational Background
        2. Hands-On Experience
      3. Testing Your Exam-Readiness
      4. Assessing Your Readiness for Exams 117-101 and 117-102
      5. Onward, Through the Fog!
  9. I. LPIC Exam 101
    1. 1. Linux Installation
      1. Linux Distributions
      2. LPI Certification and Distributions
        1. Which Version of Red Hat and Debian to Use?
      3. Preparing Hardware for Installation
        1. Problem Peripherals
        2. Resolving Conflicts
      4. Viewing Configuration Addresses
      5. Partitioning Disks
        1. Performance
        2. Integrity
        3. Backup
        4. Security
        5. Understanding Partition Limitations
        6. Partitioning Applications
          1. fdisk
          2. Disk Druid
          3. cfdisk
      6. Red Hat Installation Console Options
      7. Creating Installation Disks
      8. Boot Loaders
        1. LILO—The Linux Loader
          1. Entering Options at Boot
          2. Troubleshooting LILO
          3. LILO Command Options
          4. LILO Error Codes
        2. Grand Unified Boot Loader
          1. GRUB’s Configuration Files
          2. How GRUB Treats Disks
          3. Setting Up GRUB
          4. Another GRUB Install Option
          5. Example of a Native Install of GRUB
          6. Example of Booting Linux on Unconfigured GRUB
      9. Viewing Boot Messages
      10. Exam Prep Questions
    2. 2. Using the Linux Shell
      1. Understanding Shells
      2. Global and User Settings
        1. A Login Shell Session
        2. A Non-Login Shell Session
      3. Using the Command Line
        1. Structuring Commands
        2. Breaking Long Command Lines
      4. Command Completion
      5. Special Characters in the Shell
      6. Controlling Command Execution
        1. Possible Exit Statuses
        2. Executing Multiple Commands
          1. Multiple Command Operators
      7. The Readline Library
        1. Command Substitution
      8. bash’s History Feature
        1. Important History Variables
        2. The fc Command
      9. Environment Variables and Settings
        1. The Path
      10. Getting $HOME
      11. Configuring Prompts
        1. Configuring the Prompt Step by Step
      12. Setting Options in bash
        1. Important bash Options
      13. Job Control
        1. Elements of Job Control
      14. Managing Processes
        1. Sending Signals to Processes
      15. Managing Process Priorities
      16. Exam Prep Questions
    3. 3. Basic vi Skills
      1. Editors
      2. Modes in vi
      3. Editing in vi
        1. The Message Line
      4. Opening a File for Editing
      5. Navigating Within a File
        1. Force Multipliers
        2. Undo Operations
      6. Quitting Files
      7. Saving Files
      8. Command Mode Editing
        1. Inserting and Adding Text
        2. Changing or Replacing Text
        3. Deleting Text and Lines
      9. The Cut, Copy, and Paste Commands
      10. Named and Unnamed Buffers
      11. Searching in vi
      12. Searching and Replacing
        1. Fuzzy Searches
      13. Options in vi
      14. Advanced vi
        1. Running External Commands in vi
        2. Joining Lines
        3. Split Windows
      15. Exam Prep Questions
    4. 4. Hardware
      1. Hardware
        1. IRQs and Ports
        2. Printer Ports
      2. Modems
        1. UARTs
        2. Using the setserial Command
      3. Ethernet/NIC Devices
        1. Configuring NICs
        2. The ARP Cache
      4. Point to Point Protocol
        1. Using Chat to Connect
        2. The PPP Daemon
          1. Setting pppd Options
        3. Authentication Options
      5. Plug and Play
        1. PnP Tools
      6. Configuring Sound and Time
        1. Local System Time
        2. The date Command
        3. The hwclock Command
      7. USB Devices
        1. Controller Types
        2. USB Devices and Linux
        3. USB and Storage Devices
        4. Using usbmgr
        5. USB Devices and Drivers
      8. Setting Up SCSI
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    5. 5. Partitioning and File Systems
      1. Overview
      2. Partitions
        1. Swap
        2. Drive Partitioning Schemes
      3. Disk Partitioning Tools
        1. fdisk
        2. DiskDruid
        3. cfdisk
      4. Overview of File Systems
        1. Superblocks
        2. Inodes and Files
        3. Inodes and Disk Space
      5. File System Types
      6. Creating File Systems
        1. The mkfs Command
        2. File System Creation Options
      7. Advanced File System Commands
        1. File System Checker
        2. Tuning File Systems
        3. Debugging File Systems
      8. Mounting and Unmounting
        1. The File System Table
        2. Manually Mounting File Systems
        3. Automatically Mounting File Systems
        4. Unmounting File Systems
      9. Space Utilization
        1. Using du
        2. Using df
      10. Exam Prep Questions
    6. 6. File Systems and Commands
      1. File System Overview
      2. What Belongs Where
        1. The Root of the System
        2. Oddities in the FHS
        3. Where Programs Live
      3. File Management Commands
        1. Tips for Working with Linux Files
      4. Basic Navigation
        1. Advanced Navigation
      5. Listing Files and Directories
      6. Determining File Types
      7. Touching Files
        1. Copying Files and Directories
      8. Moving Objects
      9. Transforming Data Formats
      10. Creating and Removing Directories
        1. Removing Objects
      11. Where Are Those Files?
        1. Locating Files with locate
        2. Finding Files
      12. Which Command Will Run?
      13. Researching a Command
      14. Linking Files
        1. Symbolic Links
        2. Hard Links
      15. Working with Permissions
        1. Permission Trio Bits
        2. Manipulating Permissions
          1. Numeric Mode
          2. Symbolic Mode
      16. User and Group Ownership
        1. Changing Ownership
        2. Changing Group Ownership
        3. Special File Permissions
          1. Special Bit Permissions
          2. Setting the SUID Bit
          3. Setting the SGID Bit
          4. Setting the Sticky Bit
        4. Finding Files by Permission
        5. Default Permissions
      17. Using Disk Quotas
        1. Quota Commands and Files
        2. Quota Concepts
        3. Configuring Quotas
        4. Hard and Soft Limits
        5. Setting the Grace Period
        6. Getting Quota Information
      18. File Attributes
      19. Exam Prep Questions
    7. 7. XFree86 Configuration and Troubleshooting
      1. Quick Overview of X
        1. How X Works
        2. Window Managers
        3. Linux Desktops
      2. The XFree86 System
        1. Installing XFree86
        2. XFree86 Versions
        3. The XFree86 Configuration File
        4. Important XF86Config Sections
        5. Configuring xf86config
        6. Starting X
        7. X Customization Files
      3. Fonts in X
      4. X Display Manager
      5. Tuning X
      6. Into and Out of X
      7. Remote Clients
      8. Displaying X Clients
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    8. 8. Text Processing
      1. Unix/Linux Toolset Mentality
      2. Working with I/O Streams
        1. Redirection of Streams
        2. Redirecting Standard Input
        3. Redirecting Standard Output
        4. Redirecting Standard Error
        5. Redirection Redux
      3. Pipes
      4. Filters
        1. Sorting
        2. Numbering Lines
      5. Counting
        1. Tabs
        2. Cutting Columns
        3. Pasting and Joining
        4. Unique Data
        5. Heads or Tails?
        6. Splitting Files
        7. When cat Goes Backward
        8. Viewing Binary Files Safely
      6. Formatting Commands
      7. Translating Files
      8. He sed, She sed
      9. Getting a grep
        1. Examples of Using grep
        2. Using Regular Expressions and grep
      10. Exam Prep Questions
    9. 9. Software Installation
      1. Important Exam Information
      2. Methods of Managing Software Installation
        1. Installing Software from Source
          1. Components of a Source Code Install
        2. The Makefile
        3. Example of a Compilation of Source Code
      3. Shared Libraries
        1. Determining Required Libraries
      4. Installing Software with Packages
      5. Red Hat Package Management
      6. The RPM Database
      7. RPM Package Files
        1. Package Name Conventions
      8. The rpm Command
        1. Validation of Packages
        2. Installation of Packages
          1. Additional Installation Options
        3. Verifying a Package’s Integrity
        4. Freshening Versus Upgrading
      9. Removing Packages
        1. Other Removal Options
      10. Querying Packages
      11. Building RPMs
        1. What Happens in a Build?
      12. Exam Prep Questions
  10. II. LPIC Exam 102
    1. 10. Linux Boot Process and Runlevels
      1. The Linux Boot Process
      2. Understanding Runlevels and init
      3. Shutting Down a System
      4. The init Process
        1. The /etc/inittab File
        2. Trapping Ctrl+Alt+Delete
      5. The Runlevel Directories
      6. Configuring the Runlevels
      7. Single User Mode
      8. Making Boot/Rescue Disks
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    2. 11. Using Linux and GNU Documentation
      1. The man Pages
        1. The man Page Sections
        2. What’s in a man Page
        3. Where man Pages Live
      2. Using the man Command
        1. man Configuration and Path
        2. Action Keys in man
        3. Getting More Out of man
        4. whatis Apropos?
      3. Additional Documentation
      4. Web and Third-Party Documentation
        1. The Linux Documentation Project
        2. Usenet Resources
      5. Communicating with Users
        1. The Issue Files
        2. Message of the Day
        3. Writing to Users
        4. Talking to Users
      6. Exam Prep Questions
    3. 12. Managing Users and Groups
      1. The Importance of User and Group Management
      2. How the Kernel Understands Users and Groups
      3. What Accounts Are What?
        1. Junior Sysadmins
        2. Normal User Accounts
      4. User Entries in /etc/passwd
        1. Special Login Files
      5. What Groups Are What?
      6. Group Entries in /etc/group
        1. Group Passwords
      7. Adding Users and Groups
        1. Adding Users with useradd
        2. The useradd Defaults
        3. Adding Groups with groupadd
      8. Modifying Users and Groups
        1. Modifying User Accounts with usermod
        2. Modifying Groups with groupmod
      9. Removing Users and Groups
        1. Removing Users
        2. Removing Groups
      10. The Shadow Suite
        1. Encrypted Passwords and Shadow Fields
        2. shadow File Permissions
        3. Password Conversion
        4. Changing Passwords
        5. Aging Passwords
      11. skel Templates
      12. User Variables
      13. Exam Prep Questions
    4. 13. System Administration
      1. Managing System Services
        1. Controlling Your Daemons
          1. kill and killall
      2. System Logging
        1. Types of Logging
        2. Default System Log File
        3. Facilities and Priorities
          1. Actions
          2. Specifiers
        4. Putting It All Together
          1. Syslog Entry Examples
          2. Custom Log Entries
        5. Security Log Files
      3. Scheduling and Running Tasks
        1. The at Command
          1. at-related Commands and Files
        2. The batch Command
      4. Using cron to Schedule Tasks
        1. cron Components
        2. Managing cron’s Job Tables
        3. Submitting a cron Job
        4. Controlling User Access to cron
      5. Archiving and Backing Up
        1. Planning a Backup Scenario
        2. Backup Commands
        3. Using cpio
        4. Using tar
          1. Creating tar Archives
          2. Taking Pity on the Unarchiver
          3. Useful Creation Options
          4. Listing Archive Files
        5. Other Compression Utilities
          1. compress, uncompress, and zcat
          2. Using gzip and bzip2 for Compression
      6. Maintaining System Time
        1. NTP Files and Programs
          1. Setting Up NTP
          2. Monitoring and Changing NTP’s Activities
      7. Exam Prep Questions
    5. 14. Kernel Configuration and Custom Compilation
      1. Overview of the Kernel
      2. The Kernel Versions
      3. Monolithic Versus Modular Kernels
        1. Modules
        2. Module Dependencies
        3. Viewing Your Modules
        4. Loading and Unloading Modules
        5. Using modprobe to Manage Modules
      4. Patching the Kernel
      5. Using the patch Command
      6. Getting Kernel Source Code
      7. Configuring the Kernel
        1. make menuconfig
        2. make xconfig
      8. Steps to Compile a Kernel
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    6. 15. Linux Shells and Scripting
      1. Writing Scripts
        1. Writing a Simple Script
        2. Executing a Script
        3. Using Positional Parameters
        4. Testing for Conditions
        5. Having Users Make Variables
      2. Scripting Constructs
        1. if/else Statements
        2. The for Loop
        3. while and until Statements
      3. Customizing the Shell Environment
        1. Execution Precedence
      4. Environment Variables
        1. Creating Variables
        2. Exporting Variables
        3. Removing Variables
        4. Using Variables in Scripts
      5. Quoting and Variables
        1. How to Use Double Quotation Marks
        2. How to Use Single Quotation Marks
      6. Shell Aliases
        1. How Aliases Work
        2. Viewing, Setting, and Removing Aliases
        3. Examples of Using Aliases
      7. Shell Functions
        1. How a Function Works
        2. Viewing, Setting, and Removing Functions
      8. Understanding Shell Levels
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    7. 16. Linux Printing
      1. Linux Printing Overview
      2. How lpd Printing Works
        1. The Printer Capabilities File
        2. Remote Printing Entries
      3. Printing Command Overview
      4. The lpd Daemon
        1. Print Filters
      5. Printing with lpr
        1. lpr Command Options
      6. Monitoring Print Jobs with lpq
        1. lpq Command Options
        2. Examples of Using lpq
      7. Removing Print Jobs with lprm
        1. lprm Command Options
        2. Examples of Using lprm
      8. Monitoring Print Jobs with lpc
        1. lpc Command-Line Options
        2. Internal lpc Options
        3. Examples of Using lpc
        4. Additional Printing Commands
      9. Printer Security
      10. Exam Prep Questions
    8. 17. Basic Networking
      1. Conceptual Overview of Networking
        1. Necessary Configuration Information
      2. IPs
        1. Networks and Hosts
        2. Address Class Ranges
        3. Using the Bits to Determine Class
      3. Network Masks
        1. Using Default Network Masks
      4. Gateway Addresses, or “Do I Dial 9?”
        1. Broadcast Addresses
      5. Custom Network Masks
        1. Determining a Custom Network Mask
        2. Scenario 1: Custom Subnetting from Scratch
        3. Scenario 2: How Many Hosts on a Network?
      6. Managing Interfaces
        1. Viewing IP Information
        2. Red Hat Interface Configuration
        3. Debian Interface Configuration
        4. Viewing and Configuring Gateway Addresses
          1. Viewing the Default Gateway
          2. Configuring a Default Gateway
      7. Local Name Configuration
      8. Network Configuration Utilities
        1. Network Utility Examples
          1. The ifconfig Command
          2. The route Command
          3. DHCP Client Tools
          4. The host, nslookup, and dig Commands
          5. Hostname Utilities
          6. Using netstat
          7. The ping Command
          8. Using traceroute
          9. Using tcpdump
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    9. 18. Network Services
      1. Network Services
      2. Providing Services on Demand
        1. Using inetd and xinetd
          1. inetd Configuration Files
          2. xinetd Configuration Files
      3. Using TCP Wrappers for Securing Services
        1. inetd and TCP Wrappers
        2. xinetd and TCP Wrappers
        3. The hosts.allow and hosts.deny Files
          1. Wrapper Read Order
        4. Format of hosts.allow and hosts.deny
          1. Sample Configurations
        5. Using Rule Options
      4. sendmail, Bloody sendmail
        1. sendmail Configuration Files
        2. The sendmail.cf File
        3. Aliasing and Forwarding Mail
          1. Defining an Alias
          2. Forwarding Email for Users
        4. sendmail-Related Utilities
      5. Apache
        1. How Apache Runs
        2. Using apachectl
        3. Apache Configuration Files
        4. Apache Directives
      6. Network File System
        1. NFS Daemons
        2. Exporting File Systems
          1. Exports File Client and Address Options
          2. Making Shares Active
          3. Mounting NFS Shares
      7. Samba
        1. Samba’s Configuration File
        2. Important smb.conf Entries
        3. Setting Up a Simple Samba Server
          1. Monitoring SMB Connections
        4. Samba Client Connections
      8. Domain Name System
        1. Components of DNS
        2. Types of DNS Servers
        3. The named.* Files
        4. Zone and Record Types
      9. Exam Prep Questions
    10. 19. Security
      1. Using TCP Wrappers to Secure a Service
        1. Allow and Deny Files
      2. Understanding Permission Problems
        1. Finding Files by Permissions
      3. Validating Package Integrity
        1. Validation Methods
      4. Secure Shell
        1. SSH Components
        2. Using SSH Client Utilities
          1. Using the SSH Client
          2. Using the scp Client
        3. Using SSH Sans Password Prompts
      5. Using Firewalls for Security
        1. Understanding Basic iptables
        2. iptables’s Three Chains
        3. Using the iptables Command
        4. Configuring an iptables Chain
      6. Exam Prep Questions
    11. 20. Practice Exam 101
    12. 21. Answer Key 101
    13. 22. Practice Exam 102
    14. 23. Answer Key 102
    15. A. Debian Package Management
      1. Debian Package Architecture
        1. Debian’s Package Database
        2. Debian Package Files
        3. Debian Package Management Tools
        4. Using dpkg
          1. Installing Packages with dpkg
          2. Removing Packages
        5. Dependency Issues
          1. Querying Packages
        6. Using dselect
        7. Using apt-get to Manage Packages
          1. Protecting Your Sources
          2. Updating the Package Database
        8. Cleaning Out the Archives
        9. Loving the alien Command
    16. B. What’s on the CD-ROM
      1. Using ExamSim
      2. Exam Simulation
      3. Question Quality
      4. Interface Design
      5. Effective Learning Environment
      6. Hardware and Software Requirements
        1. Requirements for Linux
        2. Requirements for Windows
      7. Installing ExamSim
        1. Installation for Linux
        2. Installation for Windows
      8. Using ExamSim
      9. Exclusive Electronic Version of the Text
    17. Glossary
  11. The LPIC I Cram Sheet
    1. Exam 101
      1. Hardware and Architecture
      2. Linux Installation and Package Management
      3. GNU and Unix Commands
      4. Devices, Linux File Systems, and FHS
      5. X
    2. EXAM 102
      1. Kernel
      2. Boot, Initialization, Shutdown, and Runlevels
      3. Printing
      4. Documentation
      5. Shells, Scripting, Programming, and Compiling
      6. Administrative Tasks
      7. Networking Fundamentals
      8. Network Services
      9. Security