Cover image for LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition

Book Description

LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell, Second Edition is an invaluable resource for determining what you need to practice to pass the Linux Professional Institute exams. This book will help you determine when you're ready to take the exams, which are technically challenging and designed to reflect the skills that administrators need in real working environments.

As more corporations adopt Linux as the networking backbone for their IT systems, the demand for certified technicians will become even greater. Passing the LPI exams will broaden your career options because the LPIC is the most widely known and respected Linux certification program in the world. Linux Journal recognized the LPI as the best Training and Certification Program. The exams were developed by the Linux Professional Institute, an international, volunteer-driven organization with affiliates in a dozen countries.

The core LPI exams cover two levels. Level 1 tests a basic knowledge of Linux installation, configuration, and command-line skills. Level 2 goes into much more depth regarding system troubleshooting and network services such as email and the Web. The second edition of LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell is a thoroughly researched reference to these exams. The book is divided into four parts, one for each of the LPI exams. Each part features not only a summary of the core skills you need, but sample exercises and test questions, along with helpful hints to let you focus your energies.

Major topics include:

  • GNU and Unix commands

  • Linux installation and package management

  • Devices, filesystems, and kernel configuration

  • Text editing, processing, and printing

  • The X Window System

  • Networking fundamentals and troubleshooting

  • Security, including intrusion detection, SSH, Kerberos, and more

  • DNS, DHCP, file sharing, and other networking infrastructure

  • Email, FTP, and Web services

  • Praise for the first edition: "Although O'Reilly's Nutshell series are intended as 'Desktop Reference' manuals, I have to recommend this one as a good all-round read; not only as a primer for LPI certification, but as an excellent introductory text on GNU/Linux. In all, this is a valuable addition to O'Reilly's already packed stable of Linux titles and I look forward to more from the author." --First Monday

    Table of Contents

    1. LPI Linux Certification in a Nutshell
    2. Preface
      1. The Linux Professional Institute
      2. Audience for This Book
      3. Organization
        1. Book Chapters
      4. Conventions Used in This Book
      5. Using Code Examples
      6. Safari Enabled
      7. How to Contact Us
      8. Acknowledgments
    3. I. General Linux Exam 101
      1. 1. LPI Exams
        1. 1.1. Exam 101 Overview
      2. 2. Exam 101 Study Guide
        1. 2.1. Exam Preparation
      3. 3. Hardware and Architecture (Topic 1.101)
        1. 3.1. Objective 1: Configure Fundamental BIOS Settings
          1. 3.1.1. BIOS
            1. 3.1.1.1. Date and time
            2. 3.1.1.2. Disks and boot devices
          2. 3.1.2. Resource Assignments
          3. 3.1.3. 1024-Cylinder Limit
        2. 3.2. Objective 3: Configure Modems and Sound Cards
          1. 3.2.1. Modems
            1. 3.2.1.1. Modem types
            2. 3.2.1.2. Modem hardware resources
          2. 3.2.2. Sound Devices
        3. 3.3. Objective 4: Set Up Non-IDE Devices
          1. 3.3.1. SCSI
            1. 3.3.1.1. SCSI types
          2. 3.3.2. SCSI IDs
            1. 3.3.2.1. SCSI logical unit numbers
            2. 3.3.2.2. Linux SCSI disk device files
            3. 3.3.2.3. Termination
            4. 3.3.2.4. SCSI controllers on PCs
        4. 3.4. Objective 5: Set Up Different PC Expansion Cards
          1. 3.4.1. Plug and Play
            1. 3.4.1.1. Using the /proc filesystem
        5. 3.5. Objective 6: Configure Communications Devices
        6. 3.6. Objective 7: Configure USB Devices
          1. 3.6.1. USB Topology
          2. 3.6.2. USB Controllers
          3. 3.6.3. USB Devices
          4. 3.6.4. USB Drivers
          5. 3.6.5. USB Hotplug
      4. 4. Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 1.102)
        1. 4.1. Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout
          1. 4.1.1. System Considerations
            1. 4.1.1.1. Limited disk space
            2. 4.1.1.2. Larger systems
            3. 4.1.1.3. System role
            4. 4.1.1.4. Backup
          2. 4.1.2. Swap Space
          3. 4.1.3. General Guidelines
        2. 4.2. Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager
          1. 4.2.1. LILO
            1. 4.2.1.1. The boot loader
            2. 4.2.1.2. The LILO map installer and its configuration file
            3. 4.2.1.3. LILO locations
          2. 4.2.2. GRUB
            1. 4.2.2.1. GRUB device naming
            2. 4.2.2.2. Installing GRUB
            3. 4.2.2.3. Booting GRUB
            4. 4.2.2.4. The GRUB configuration file
        3. 4.3. Objective 3: Make and Install Programs from Source
          1. 4.3.1. Getting Open Source and Free Software
            1. 4.3.1.1. What's a tarball?
            2. 4.3.1.2. Opening a tarball
          2. 4.3.2. Compiling Open Source Software
            1. 4.3.2.1. configure
            2. 4.3.2.2. make
            3. 4.3.2.3. Installing the compiled software
            4. 4.3.2.4. Example:Compiling bash
        4. 4.4. Objective 4: Manage Shared Libraries
          1. 4.4.1. Shared Library Dependencies
          2. 4.4.2. Linking Shared Libraries
        5. 4.5. Objective 5: Use Debian Package Management
          1. 4.5.1. Debian Package Management Overview
          2. 4.5.2. Managing Debian Packages
        6. 4.6. Objective 6: Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
          1. 4.6.1. RPM Overview
          2. 4.6.2. Running rpm
      5. 5. GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 1.103)
        1. 5.1. Objective 1: Work on the Command Line
          1. 5.1.1. The Interactive Shell
            1. 5.1.1.1. Shell variable basics
            2. 5.1.1.2. Entering commands at the command prompt
            3. 5.1.1.3. Entering commands not in the PATH
            4. 5.1.1.4. Entering multiple-line commands interactively
            5. 5.1.1.5. Entering command sequences
          2. 5.1.2. Command History and Editing
            1. 5.1.2.1. Command substitution
            2. 5.1.2.2. Applying commands recursively through a directory tree
        2. 5.2. Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters
        3. 5.4. Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management
          1. 5.4.1. Filesystem Objects
            1. 5.4.1.1. Directories and files
            2. 5.4.1.2. Inodes
            3. 5.4.1.3. File and directory management commands
          2. 5.4.2. File-Naming Wildcards
        4. 5.5. Objective 4: Use Streams, Pipes, and Redirects
          1. 5.5.1. Standard I/O and Default File Descriptors
          2. 5.5.2. Pipes
          3. 5.5.3. Redirection
          4. 5.5.4. Using the tee Command
        5. 5.6. Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes
          1. 5.6.1. Processes
          2. 5.6.2. Process Monitoring
          3. 5.6.3. Signaling Active Processes
          4. 5.6.4. Terminating Processes
          5. 5.6.5. Shell Job Control
        6. 5.7. Objective 6: Modify Process Execution Priorities
          1. 5.7.1. nice
        7. 5.8. Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions
          1. 5.8.1. Regular Expression Syntax
            1. 5.8.1.1. Examples
          2. 5.8.2. Using sed
            1. 5.8.2.1. Commands
          3. 5.8.3. Examples
            1. 5.8.3.1. Anchors
            2. 5.8.3.2. Groups and ranges
            3. 5.8.3.3. Modifiers
            4. 5.8.3.4. Basic regular expression patterns
            5. 5.8.3.5. Using regular expressions as addresses in sed
        8. 5.9. Objective 8: Perform Basic File Editing Operations Using vi
          1. 5.9.1. Invoking vi
          2. 5.9.2. vi Basics
      6. 6. Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 1.104)
        1. 6.1. Objective 1: Create Partitions and Filesystems
          1. 6.1.1. Disk Drives Under Linux
            1. 6.1.1.1. Hard disk devices
            2. 6.1.1.2. Disk partitions
            3. 6.1.1.3. The root filesystem and mount points
            4. 6.1.1.4. Managing partitions
            5. 6.1.1.5. Creating filesystems
            6. 6.1.1.6. Creating swap partitions
        2. 6.2. Objective 2: Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems
          1. 6.2.1. Monitoring Free Disk Space and Inodes
          2. 6.2.2. Monitoring Disk Usage
          3. 6.2.3. Modifying a Filesystem
          4. 6.2.4. Checking and Repairing Filesystems
        3. 6.3. Objective 3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting
          1. 6.3.1. Managing the Filesystem Table
          2. 6.3.2. Mounting Filesystems
          3. 6.3.3. Unmounting Filesystems
        4. 6.4. Objective 4: Set and View Disk Quotas
          1. 6.4.1. Quota Limits
          2. 6.4.2. Quota Commands
          3. 6.4.3. Enabling Quotas
        5. 6.5. Objective 5: Use File Permissions to Control Access to Files
          1. 6.5.1. Linux Access Control
            1. 6.5.1.1. The mode bits
            2. 6.5.1.2. The mode string
          2. 6.5.2. Setting Access Modes
            1. 6.5.2.1. New files
            2. 6.5.2.2. Changing access modes
        6. 6.6. Setting Up a Workgroup Directory
        7. 6.7. Objective 6: Manage File Ownership
        8. 6.8. Objective 7: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links
          1. 6.8.1. Why Links?
            1. 6.8.1.1. Preserving links
            2. 6.8.1.2. Finding links to a file
        9. 6.9. Objective 8: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location
          1. 6.9.1. Data Types
          2. 6.9.2. The root Filesystem
            1. 6.9.2.1. The /usr filesystem
            2. 6.9.2.2. The /var filesystem
            3. 6.9.2.3. Linux annex
            4. 6.9.2.4. Where's that binary?
          3. 6.9.3. Locating Files
      7. 7. The X Window System (Topic 1.1.10)
        1. 7.1. An Overview of X
        2. 7.2. Objective 1: Install and Configure X11
          1. 7.2.1. Selecting and Configuring an X Server
            1. 7.2.1.1. Supported video hardware
            2. 7.2.1.2. Installing XFree86
            3. 7.2.1.3. Configuring an X server and the XF86Config file
          2. 7.2.2. X Fonts
            1. 7.2.2.1. Installing fonts
            2. 7.2.2.2. The X font server
          3. 7.2.3. Controlling X Applications with .Xresources
        3. 7.3. Objective 2: Set Up a Display Manager
          1. 7.3.1. Configuring xdm
            1. 7.3.1.1. Running xdm manually
            2. 7.3.1.2. Running xdm automatically
            3. 7.3.1.3. Basic xdm customization
          2. 7.3.2. X Terminals
            1. 7.3.2.1. xdm for X terminals
        4. 7.4. Objective 4: Install and Customize a Window Manager Environment
          1. 7.4.1. Starting X and a Default Window Manager
            1. 7.4.1.1. The XFree86 start up process
          2. 7.4.2. xterm et al.
          3. 7.4.3. X Libraries
          4. 7.4.4. Remote X Clients
            1. 7.4.4.1. Examples
          5. 7.4.5. X Security
            1. 7.4.5.1. Host access control
            2. 7.4.5.2. MIT-MAGIC-COOKIE-1 Authentication
      8. 8. Exam 101 Review Questions and Exercises
        1. 8.1. Hardware and Architecture (Topic 1.101)
          1. 8.1.1. Review questions
          2. 8.1.2. Exercises
        2. 8.2. Linux Installation and Package Management (Topic 1.102)
          1. 8.2.1. Review Questions
          2. 8.2.2. Exercises
        3. 8.3. GNU and Unix Commands (Topic 1.103)
          1. 8.3.1. Review Questions
          2. 8.3.2. Exercises
        4. 8.4. Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (Topic 1.104)
          1. 8.4.1. Review Questions
          2. 8.4.2. Exercises
        5. 8.5. The X Window System (Topic 1.110)
          1. 8.5.1. Review Questions
          2. 8.5.2. Exercises
      9. 9. Exam 101 Practice Test
        1. 9.1. Questions
        2. 9.2. Answers
      10. 10. Exam 101 Highlighter's Index
        1. 10.1. Hardware and Architecture
          1. 10.1.1. Objective 1: Configure Fundamental BIOS Settings
            1. 10.1.1.1. PC BIOS
            2. 10.1.1.2. Resource assignments
            3. 10.1.1.3. 1024-cylinder limit
          2. 10.1.2. Objective 3: Configure Modems and Sound Cards
            1. 10.1.2.1. Modems
            2. 10.1.2.2. Sound devices
          3. 10.1.3. Objective 4: Set Up Non-IDE Devices
            1. 10.1.3.1. SCSI
          4. 10.1.4. Objective 5: Set Up PC Different Expansion Cards
            1. 10.1.4.1. /proc
            2. 10.1.4.2. Commands
          5. 10.1.5. Objective 6: Configure Communication Devices
            1. 10.1.5.1. Concepts
            2. 10.1.5.2. Commands
          6. 10.1.6. Objective 7: Configure USB Devices
            1. 10.1.6.1. Host Controllers
            2. 10.1.6.2. Devices
            3. 10.1.6.3. Drivers
            4. 10.1.6.4. Commands
        2. 10.2. Linux Installation and Package Management
          1. 10.2.1. Objective 1: Design a Hard Disk Layout
            1. 10.2.1.1. Guidelines
          2. 10.2.2. Objective 2: Install a Boot Manager
            1. 10.2.2.1. LILO
            2. 10.2.2.2. GRUB
          3. 10.2.3. Objective 3: Make and Install Programs from Source
            1. 10.2.3.1. Source Files
            2. 10.2.3.2. make
          4. 10.2.4. Objective 4: Manage Shared Libraries
            1. 10.2.4.1. Concepts
            2. 10.2.4.2. Commands
          5. 10.2.5. Objective 5: Use Debian Package Management
            1. 10.2.5.1. Commands
          6. 10.2.6. Objective 6: Use Red Hat Package Manager (RPM)
            1. 10.2.6.1. Concepts
        3. 10.3. GNU and Unix Commands
          1. 10.3.1. Objective 1: Work Effectively on the Command Line
            1. 10.3.1.1. The interactive shell and shell variables
            2. 10.3.1.2. Entering commands
            3. 10.3.1.3. Command history, editing, and substitution
            4. 10.3.1.4. Recursive execution
          2. 10.3.2. Objective 2: Process Text Streams Using Filters
            1. 10.3.2.1. The Commands
            2. 10.3.2.2. The stream editor, sed
          3. 10.3.3. Objective 3: Perform Basic File Management
            1. 10.3.3.1. Concepts
            2. 10.3.3.2. File and directory management commands
            3. 10.3.3.3. File-naming wildcards
          4. 10.3.4. Objective 4: Use Unix Streams, Pipes, and Redirects
            1. 10.3.4.1. Concepts
            2. 10.3.4.2. Standard I/O
            3. 10.3.4.3. Pipes and redirection
          5. 10.3.5. Objective 5: Create, Monitor, and Kill Processes
            1. 10.3.5.1. Concepts
            2. 10.3.5.2. Monitoring commands
            3. 10.3.5.3. Signaling processes
            4. 10.3.5.4. Shell job control
          6. 10.3.6. Objective 6: Modify Process Execution Priorities
            1. 10.3.6.1. Concepts
            2. 10.3.6.2. Commands
          7. 10.3.7. Objective 7: Search Text Files Using Regular Expressions
            1. 10.3.7.1. Concepts
            2. 10.3.7.2. Position anchors
            3. 10.3.7.3. Character sets
            4. 10.3.7.4. Modifiers
          8. 10.3.8. Objective 8: Using vi
            1. 10.3.8.1. Subcommands
        4. 10.4. Devices, Linux Filesystems, and the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard
          1. 10.4.1. Objective 1: Create Partitions and Filesystems
            1. 10.4.1.1. Disk drives and partitions
            2. 10.4.1.2. The root filesystem and mount points
            3. 10.4.1.3. Partition and filesystem management commands
          2. 10.4.2. Objective 2: Maintain the Integrity of Filesystems
            1. 10.4.2.1. Filesystem Commands
          3. 10.4.3. Objective 3: Control Filesystem Mounting and Unmounting
            1. 10.4.3.1. Managing the filesystem table
            2. 10.4.3.2. Mounting and unmounting
            3. 10.4.3.3. Filesystem types
          4. 10.4.4. Objective 4: Managing Disk Quota
            1. 10.4.4.1. Quota Types
            2. 10.4.4.2. Commands
          5. 10.4.5. Objective 5: Use File Permissions to Control Access to Files
            1. 10.4.5.1. Access control
            2. 10.4.5.2. Setting access modes
          6. 10.4.6. Objective 6: Manage File Ownership
            1. 10.4.6.1. Concepts
            2. 10.4.6.2. Commands
          7. 10.4.7. Objective 7: Create and Change Hard and Symbolic Links
            1. 10.4.7.1. Concepts
            2. 10.4.7.2. ln
          8. 10.4.8. Objective 8: Find System Files and Place Files in the Correct Location
            1. 10.4.8.1. File Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
            2. 10.4.8.2. The directory hierarchy
            3. 10.4.8.3. Locating files
        5. 10.5. The X Window System
          1. 10.5.1. Objective 1: Install and Configure X11
            1. 10.5.1.1. Selecting and configuring an X server
            2. 10.5.1.2. X fonts
            3. 10.5.1.3. .Xresources
          2. 10.5.2. Objective 2: Setup A Display Manager
            1. 10.5.2.1. xdm
            2. 10.5.2.2. X terminals
          3. 10.5.3. Objective 4: Install and Customize a Window Manager Environment
            1. 10.5.3.1. Concepts
            2. 10.5.3.2. Window managers
            3. 10.5.3.3. xterm
            4. 10.5.3.4. X libraries
            5. 10.5.3.5. Remote X clients
    4. II. General Linux Exam 102
      1. 11. Exam 102 Overview
      2. 12. Exam 102 Study Guide
        1. 12.1. Exam Preparation
      3. 13. Kernel (Topic 1.105)
        1. 13.1. Objective 1: Manage/Query Kernel and Kernel Modules at Runtime
          1. 13.1.1. Module Files
          2. 13.1.2. Manipulating Modules
          3. 13.1.3. Configuring Modules
          4. 13.1.4. Module Dependency File
        2. 13.2. Objective 2: Reconfigure, Build, and Install a Custom Kernel and Kernel Modules
          1. 13.2.1. Kernel Background
            1. 13.2.1.1. Kernel versions
            2. 13.2.1.2. Required tools and software
          2. 13.2.2. Compiling a Custom Kernel
            1. 13.2.2.1. Creating a kernel configuration
            2. 13.2.2.2. Compiling the kernel
            3. 13.2.2.3. Installing the new kernel and configuring LILO
            4. 13.2.2.4. Examine the new modules
      4. 14. Boot, Initialization, Shutdown, and Runlevels (Topic 1.106)
        1. 14.1. Objective 1: Boot the System
          1. 14.1.1. Boot-time Kernel Parameters
          2. 14.1.2. Introduction to Kernel Module Configuration
            1. 14.1.2.1. Kernel boot-time messages
            2. 14.1.2.2. Reviewing system logs
        2. 14.2. Objective 2: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System
          1. 14.2.1. Single-User Mode
            1. 14.2.1.1. Overview of the /etc directory tree and the init process
            2. 14.2.1.2. Setting the default runlevel
            3. 14.2.1.3. Determining your system's runlevel
          2. 14.2.2. Changing Runlevels with init and telinit
          3. 14.2.3. System Shutdown with shutdown
      5. 15. Printing (Topic 1.107)
        1. 15.1. An Overview of Printing
        2. 15.2. Objective 2: Manage Printers and Print Queues
          1. 15.2.1. Linux Printing Overview
          2. 15.2.2. Managing Print Queues
            1. 15.2.2.1. Managing print queues with lpc
        3. 15.3. Objective 3: Print Files
        4. 15.4. Objective 4: Install and Configure Local and Remote Printers
          1. 15.4.1. /etc/printcap
          2. 15.4.2. Filters
            1. 15.4.2.1. APSfilter
            2. 15.4.2.2. magicfilter
            3. 15.4.2.3. Multiple filters
          3. 15.4.3. Remote lpd and Samba Printers
      6. 16. Documentation (Topic 1.108)
        1. 16.1. Objective 1: Use and Manage Local System Documentation
          1. 16.1.1. Text Files and Paging
            1. 16.1.1.1. Paging programs
          2. 16.1.2. Manpages
            1. 16.1.2.1. Manual sections
            2. 16.1.2.2. Manpage format
            3. 16.1.2.3. man mechanics
          3. 16.1.3. Information in /usr/share/doc
          4. 16.1.4. Info Pages
        2. 16.2. Objective 2: Find Linux Documentation on the Internet
          1. 16.2.1. The Linux Documentation Project
          2. 16.2.2. Usenet Newsgroups
            1. 16.2.2.1. Newsgroup archives
            2. 16.2.2.2. Contributing to Usenet
          3. 16.2.3. Mailing Lists
          4. 16.2.4. Vendor Web Sites and Other Resources
        3. 16.3. Objective 5: Notify Users on System-related Issues
          1. 16.3.1. /etc/issue
            1. 16.3.1.1. Example
          2. 16.3.2. /etc/motd
      7. 17. Shells, Scripting, Programming, and Compiling (Topic 1.109)
        1. 17.1. Objective 1: Customize and Use the Shell Environment
          1. 17.1.1. An Overview of Shells
          2. 17.1.2. The Bash Shell
            1. 17.1.2.1. Shell and environment variables
            2. 17.1.2.2. Aliases
            3. 17.1.2.3. Functions
            4. 17.1.2.4. Configuration files
            5. 17.1.2.5. .inputrc
        2. 17.2. Objective 2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts
          1. 17.2.1. Script Files
            1. 17.2.1.1. Creating a simple bash script
            2. 17.2.1.2. Executable files
            3. 17.2.1.3. She-bang!
            4. 17.2.1.4. The shell script's environment
            5. 17.2.1.5. Location, ownership, and permissions
            6. 17.2.1.6. SUID and GUID rights
          2. 17.2.2. Basic Bash Scripts
            1. 17.2.2.1. Return values
            2. 17.2.2.2. File tests
            3. 17.2.2.3. Command substitution
            4. 17.2.2.4. Mailing from scripts
            5. 17.2.2.5. Abbreviated Bash command reference
      8. 18. Administrative Tasks (Topic 1.111)
        1. 18.1. Objective 1: Manage Users and Group Accounts and Related System Files
          1. 18.1.1. User Accounts and the Password File
          2. 18.1.2. Groups and the Group File
          3. 18.1.3. The Shadow Password and Shadow Group Systems
            1. 18.1.3.1. Group passwords and shadow groups
          4. 18.1.4. User and Group Management Commands
            1. 18.1.4.1. Additional shadow password management commands
        2. 18.2. Objective 2: Tune the User Environment and System Environment Variables
          1. 18.2.1. Systemwide Startup Scripts
          2. 18.2.2. Setting the Home Directory for New Accounts
        3. 18.3. Objective 3: Configure and Use System Log Files to Meet Administrative and Security Needs
          1. 18.3.1. Configuring syslogd
          2. 18.3.2. Log File Rotation
          3. 18.3.3. Examining Log Files
        4. 18.4. Objective 4: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs to Run in the Future
          1. 18.4.1. Using cron
            1. 18.4.1.1. User crontab files
            2. 18.4.1.2. System crontab files
          2. 18.4.2. Using at
          3. 18.4.3. Controlling User Access to cron and at
        5. 18.5. Objective 5: Maintain an Effective Data Backup Strategy
          1. 18.5.1. Backup Concepts and Strategies
            1. 18.5.1.1. Backup types
            2. 18.5.1.2. Backup verification
          2. 18.5.2. Device Files
          3. 18.5.3. Using tar and mt
          4. 18.5.4. Backup Operations
            1. 18.5.4.1. What should I back up?
            2. 18.5.4.2. An example backup script
            3. 18.5.4.3. Verifying tar archives
            4. 18.5.4.4. File restoration
        6. 18.6. Objective 6: Maintain System Time
          1. 18.6.1. NTP Concepts
          2. 18.6.2. The NTP Software Package Components
      9. 19. Networking Fundamentals (Topic 1.112)
        1. 19.1. Objective 1: Fundamentals of TCP/IP
          1. 19.1.1. Addressing and Masks
          2. 19.1.2. Protocols
          3. 19.1.3. TCP/IP Services
          4. 19.1.4. TCP/IP Utilities
        2. 19.2. Objective 3: TCP/IP Configuration and Troubleshooting
          1. 19.2.1. Network Interfaces
            1. 19.2.1.1. Configuration files
            2. 19.2.1.2. Configuration commands
            3. 19.2.1.3. Common manual network interface tasks
          2. 19.2.2. DHCP
            1. 19.2.2.1. Subnets and relays
            2. 19.2.2.2. Leases
            3. 19.2.2.3. dhcpd
        3. 19.3. Objective 4: Configure Linux as a PPP Client
          1. 19.3.1. Clients and Servers
            1. 19.3.1.1. Serial ports and modems
            2. 19.3.1.2. PPP overview
            3. 19.3.1.3. Chat scripts
            4. 19.3.1.4. The PPP daemon
            5. 19.3.1.5. Manual PPP connection
            6. 19.3.1.6. Authentication protocols
            7. 19.3.1.7. PPP over ISDN
            8. 19.3.1.8. Too many variables
      10. 20. Networking Services (Topic 1.113)
        1. 20.1. Objective 1: Configure and Manage inetd, xinetd, and Related Services
          1. 20.1.1. The inetd Configuration File
          2. 20.1.2. TCP Wrappers with inetd
          3. 20.1.3. Starting and Stopping inetd Services
          4. 20.1.4. xinetd Configuration
            1. 20.1.4.1. Frequently used xinetd.conf options
            2. 20.1.4.2. Modular configuration
        2. 20.2. Objective 2: Operate and Perform Basic Configuration of Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)
          1. 20.2.1. Configuring sendmail
            1. 20.2.1.1. The smart host parameter
          2. 20.2.2. Mail Aliases
            1. 20.2.2.1. Forwarding mail from your account to another account
          3. 20.2.3. Queued Mail
          4. 20.2.4. Starting and Stopping sendmail
        3. 20.3. Objective 3: Operate and Perform Basic Configuration of Apache
          1. 20.3.1. Configuring Apache
          2. 20.3.2. Starting and Stopping Apache
        4. 20.4. Objective 4: Properly Manage the NFS and Samba Daemons
          1. 20.4.1. NFS
            1. 20.4.1.1. Exporting (sharing) local filesystems using NFS
            2. 20.4.1.2. Mounting remote NFS filesystems
            3. 20.4.1.3. Starting and stopping NFS
          2. 20.4.2. Samba and the SMB and NMB Daemons
            1. 20.4.2.1. Getting started
            2. 20.4.2.2. WINS and browsing
            3. 20.4.2.3. Using SWAT
        5. 20.5. Objective 5: Set Up and Configure Basic DNS Services
          1. 20.5.1. The Resolver
            1. 20.5.1.1. Domain registration
            2. 20.5.1.2. Using named as a local caching-only name server
            3. 20.5.1.3. DNS query utilities
            4. 20.5.1.4. BIND Version 4 versus Version 8 configuration files
        6. 20.6. Objective 7: Set Up Secure Shell (OpenSSH)
      11. 21. Security (Topic 1.114)
        1. 21.1. Objective 1: Perform Security Administration Tasks
          1. 21.1.1. TCP Wrappers
            1. 21.1.1.1. On the attack
            2. 21.1.1.2. Configuring inetd and tcpd
            3. 21.1.1.3. tcpd access control
            4. 21.1.1.4. tcpd logging
          2. 21.1.2. Finding Executable SUID Files
          3. 21.1.3. Verifying Packages
            1. 21.1.3.1. Checking installed packages
            2. 21.1.3.2. Checking packages prior to installation
          4. 21.1.4. SGID Workgroups
          5. 21.1.5. Password Management
        2. 21.2. Objective 2: Set Up Host Security
          1. 21.2.1. Shadow Passwords
          2. 21.2.2. inetd Minimalism
          3. 21.2.3. Logging and Superuser Mail
          4. 21.2.4. Watching for Security Announcements
        3. 21.3. Objective 3: Set Up User-level Security
      12. 22. Exam 102 Review Questions and Exercises
        1. 22.1. Kernel (Topic 1.105)
          1. 22.1.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.1.2. Exercises
        2. 22.2. Boot, Initialization, Shutdown, and Runlevels (Topic 1.106)
          1. 22.2.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.2.2. Exercises
            1. 22.2.2.1. Exercise 1.106-1. Boot
            2. 22.2.2.2. Exercise 1.106-2. Runlevels
        3. 22.3. Printing (Topic 1.107)
          1. 22.3.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.3.2. Exercises
        4. 22.4. Documentation (Topic 1.108)
          1. 22.4.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.4.2. Exercises
            1. 22.4.2.1. Exercise 1.108-1. man and /usr/doc
            2. 22.4.2.2. Exercise 1.108-4. Acting as a Linux helpdesk
        5. 22.5. Shells, Scripting, Programming, and Compiling (Topic 1.109)
          1. 22.5.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.5.2. Exercises
        6. 22.6. Administrative Tasks (Topic 1.111)
          1. 22.6.1. Review questions
          2. 22.6.2. Exercises
            1. 22.6.2.1. Exercise 1.111-1. User accounts
            2. 22.6.2.2. Exercise 1.111-2. User environment and variables
            3. 22.6.2.3. Exercise 1.111-3. Syslog and log files
            4. 22.6.2.4. Exercise 1.111-4. cron and at
            5. 22.6.2.5. Exercise 1.111-5. Backup
        7. 22.7. Networking Fundamentals (Topic 1.112)
          1. 22.7.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.7.2. Exercises
        8. 22.8. Networking Services (Topic 1.113)
          1. 22.8.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.8.2. Exercises
        9. 22.9. Security (Topic 1.114)
          1. 22.9.1. Review Questions
          2. 22.9.2. Exercises
      13. 23. Exam 102 Practice Test
        1. 23.1. Questions
        2. 23.2. Answers
      14. 24. Exam 102 Highlighter's Index
        1. 24.1. Kernel (Topic 1.105)
          1. 24.1.1. Objective 1: Manage/Query Kernel and Kernel Modules at Runtime
          2. 24.1.2. Objective 2: Reconfigure, Build, and Install a Custom Kernel and Kernel Modules
        2. 24.2. Boot, Initialization, Shutdown, and Runlevels (Topic 1.106)
          1. 24.2.1. Objective 1: Boot the System
            1. 24.2.1.1. LILO, the Linux loader
            2. 24.2.1.2. Kernel parameters and module configuration
            3. 24.2.1.3. Boot-time messages
          2. 24.2.2. Objective 2: Change Runlevels and Shut Down or Reboot System
            1. 24.2.2.1. Single-user mode
            2. 24.2.2.2. The /etc/rc.d directory
            3. 24.2.2.3. Default runlevel, determining runlevel, changing runlevels
        3. 24.3. Printing (Topic 1.107)
          1. 24.3.1. Objective 2: Manage Printers and Print Queues
          2. 24.3.2. Objective 3: Print Files
          3. 24.3.3. Objective 4: Install and Configure Local and Remote Printers
            1. 24.3.3.1. /etc/printcap
            2. 24.3.3.2. Filters
            3. 24.3.3.3. Remote queues and Samba printers
        4. 24.4. Documentation (Topic 1.108)
          1. 24.4.1. Objective 1: Use and Manage Local System Documentation
            1. 24.4.1.1. Text and paging
            2. 24.4.1.2. The man facility
            3. 24.4.1.3. /usr/doc
            4. 24.4.1.4. The info facility
          2. 24.4.2. Objective 2: Find Linux Documentation on the Internet
            1. 24.4.2.1. Linux Documentation Project
            2. 24.4.2.2. Other sources
          3. 24.4.3. Objective 5: Notify Users on System-related Issues
            1. 24.4.3.1. /etc/issue
            2. 24.4.3.2. /etc/issue.net
            3. 24.4.3.3. /etc/motd
        5. 24.5. Shells, Scripting, Programming, and Compiling
          1. 24.5.1. Objective 1: Customize and Use the Shell Environment
            1. 24.5.1.1. bash
          2. 24.5.2. Objective 2: Customize or Write Simple Scripts
            1. 24.5.2.1. Environment
        6. 24.6. Administrative Tasks (Topic 1.111)
          1. 24.6.1. Objective 1: Manage Users and Group Accounts and Related System Files
            1. 24.6.1.1. passwd and group
            2. 24.6.1.2. Shadow files
            3. 24.6.1.3. User and group management commands
          2. 24.6.2. Objective 2: Tune the User Environment and System Environment Variables
            1. 24.6.2.1. Configuration scripts
            2. 24.6.2.2. New account home directories
          3. 24.6.3. Objective 3: Configure and Use System Log Files to Meet Administrative and Security Needs
            1. 24.6.3.1. Syslog
            2. 24.6.3.2. Log file rotation
            3. 24.6.3.3. Examining log files
          4. 24.6.4. Objective 4: Automate System Administration Tasks by Scheduling Jobs to Run in the Future
            1. 24.6.4.1. Using cron
            2. 24.6.4.2. Using at
            3. 24.6.4.3. User access
          5. 24.6.5. Objective 5: Maintain an Effective Data Backup Strategy
          6. 24.6.6. Objective 6: Maintain System Time
        7. 24.7. Networking Fundamentals (Topic 1.112)
          1. 24.7.1. Objective 1: Fundamentals of TCP/IP
            1. 24.7.1.1. Addressing and masks
            2. 24.7.1.2. Protocols
            3. 24.7.1.3. TCP/IP services
            4. 24.7.1.4. TCP/IP utilities
          2. 24.7.2. Objective 3: TCP/IP Configuration and Troubleshooting
            1. 24.7.2.1. Network interfaces
            2. 24.7.2.2. DHCP
          3. 24.7.3. Objective 4: Configure Linux as a PPP Client
        8. 24.8. Networking Services (Topic 1.113)
          1. 24.8.1. Objective 1: Configure and Manage inetd, xinetd, and Related Services
          2. 24.8.2. Objective 2: Operate and Perform Basic Configuration of Mail Transfer Agent (MTA)
          3. 24.8.3. Objective 3: Operate and Perform Basic Configuration of Apache
          4. 24.8.4. Objective 4: Properly Manage the NFS and Samba Daemons
            1. 24.8.4.1. NFS
            2. 24.8.4.2. Samba
          5. 24.8.5. Objective 5: Set Up and Configure Basic DNS Services
            1. 24.8.5.1. The resolver
            2. 24.8.5.2. Domain registration
          6. 24.8.6. Objective 7: Set Up Secure Shell (OpenSSH)
        9. 24.9. Security (Topic 1.114)
          1. 24.9.1. Objective 1: Perform Security Administration Tasks
            1. 24.9.1.1. TCP wrappers
            2. 24.9.1.2. Finding executable SUID files
            3. 24.9.1.3. Verifying packages
            4. 24.9.1.4. SGID workgroups
            5. 24.9.1.5. The Secure Shell
          2. 24.9.2. Objective 2: Set Up Host Security
            1. 24.9.2.1. Shadow passwords
          3. 24.9.3. Objective 3: Set Up User-level Security
    5. III. General Linux Exam 201
      1. 25. Linux Kernel
        1. 25.1. Objective 1: Kernel Components
          1. 25.1.1. Kernel Image Formats
          2. 25.1.2. Different Kernel Trees
            1. 25.1.2.1. Choosing an appropriate kernel
            2. 25.1.2.2. Hardware support
            3. 25.1.2.3. Patches
            4. 25.1.2.4. Kernel modules
        2. 25.2. Objective 2: Compiling a Kernel
          1. 25.2.1. Kernel Configuration Tools
            1. 25.2.1.1. make config
            2. 25.2.1.2. make menuconfig
            3. 25.2.1.3. make xconfig
          2. 25.2.2. Compiling and Installing a Custom Kernel
          3. 25.2.3. Using initrd
            1. 25.2.3.1. mkinitrd on Red Hat/Fedora
            2. 25.2.3.2. mkinitrd in Debian
          4. 25.2.4. Updating Your Kernel
        3. 25.3. Objective 3: Patching a Kernel
          1. 25.3.1. Applying the Patch
          2. 25.3.2. Removing a Patch
        4. 25.4. Objective 4: Customizing a Kernel
      2. 26. System Startup
        1. 26.1. Objective 1: Customizing System Startup and Boot Processes
          1. 26.1.1. /etc/inittab
          2. 26.1.2. System Initialization Scripts
            1. 26.1.2.1. System initialization
            2. 26.1.2.2. Runlevel directories
          3. 26.1.3. Customizing Runlevels
            1. 26.1.3.1. Customizing runlevels on Red Hat
          4. 26.1.4. Customizing initrd Images
            1. 26.1.4.1. initrd and /linuxrc on Debian
            2. 26.1.4.2. initrd and /linuxrc on Red Hat
        2. 26.2. Objective 2: System Recovery
          1. 26.2.1. Filesystem Damage
          2. 26.2.2. init or the System Initialization Fails
            1. 26.2.2.1. Bypassing init
            2. 26.2.2.2. Working in the shell environment
          3. 26.2.3. Booting from a Rescue CD
            1. 26.2.3.1. Restoring the bootstrap
            2. 26.2.3.2. Exploring the damaged system
            3. 26.2.3.3. Loss of key files
      3. 27. Filesystem
        1. 27.1. Objective 1: Operating the Linux Filesystem
          1. 27.1.1. Level 1 Review
          2. 27.1.2. Additional Filesystem Management Files
          3. 27.1.3. Managing Swap
          4. 27.1.4. Linux Partitioning Scheme
        2. 27.2. Objective 2: Maintaining a Linux Filesystem
          1. 27.2.1. tune2fs
          2. 27.2.2. dumpe2fs
          3. 27.2.3. debugfs
          4. 27.2.4. badblocks and e2fsck
          5. 27.2.5. fsck
          6. 27.2.6. mke2fs
          7. 27.2.7. Filesystem Resizing
          8. 27.2.8. fsck
          9. 27.2.9. Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology System (SMART)
        3. 27.3. Objective 3: Creating and Configuring Filesystem Options
          1. 27.3.1. Automounting Filesystems
          2. 27.3.2. Other Filesystems
            1. 27.3.2.1. Using ext3
            2. 27.3.2.2. vfat filesystems
          3. 27.3.3. ISO9660 Filesystems
            1. 27.3.3.1. Creating ISO9660 images
            2. 27.3.3.2. Burning CD-ROMs
              1. 27.3.3.2.1. Burning with IDE CD burners
              2. 27.3.3.2.2. Using cdrecord
              3. 27.3.3.2.3. CD miscellany
          4. 27.3.4. dd
      4. 28. Hardware (Topic 2.204)
        1. 28.1. Objective 1: Configuring RAID
          1. 28.1.1. The mkraid Tools
          2. 28.1.2. How to Create RAID 1 (Mirroring)
        2. 28.2. Objective 2: Adding New Hardware
          1. 28.2.1. Reporting Your Hardware
        3. 28.3. Objective 3: Software and Kernel Configuration
          1. 28.3.1. hdparm
          2. 28.3.2. tune2fs
          3. 28.3.3. Supporting IDE CD Burners
          4. 28.3.4. Logical Volume Manager (LVM)
            1. 28.3.4.1. Initializing a disk or partition
            2. 28.3.4.2. Creating a volume group
            3. 28.3.4.3. Making a logical volume
            4. 28.3.4.4. Displaying physical volume properties
            5. 28.3.4.5. Displaying volume group properties
            6. 28.3.4.6. Displaying logical volume properties
            7. 28.3.4.7. Listing disks and volume groups
            8. 28.3.4.8. Adding disks to a volume group
            9. 28.3.4.9. Removing a disk from a volume group
            10. 28.3.4.10. Expanding a logical volume
            11. 28.3.4.11. Shrinking a logical volume
            12. 28.3.4.12. Removing a logical volume
            13. 28.3.4.13. Removing a volume group
            14. 28.3.4.14. Removing a physical volume
            15. 28.3.4.15. Starting and stopping LVM
            16. 28.3.4.16. LVM snapshots
          5. 28.3.5. Runtime Kernel Configuration
        4. 28.4. Objective 4: Configuring PCMCIA Devices
          1. 28.4.1. PCMCIA configuration files
            1. 28.4.1.1. /etc/pcmcia/config
            2. 28.4.1.2. /etc/pcmcia/config.opts
            3. 28.4.1.3. /etc/pcmcia/network.opts
            4. 28.4.1.4. /etc/pcmcia/*.opts
          2. 28.4.2. PCMCIA commands
          3. 28.4.3. PCMCIA Troubleshooting
            1. 28.4.3.1. Steps for troubleshooting PCMCIA devices
            2. 28.4.3.2. Boot problems
            3. 28.4.3.3. Common PCMCIA errors
            4. 28.4.3.4. Kernel upgrades
      5. 29. File and Service Sharing (Topic 2.209)
        1. 29.1. Objective 1: Configuring a Samba Server
          1. 29.1.1. Basic Configuration File
          2. 29.1.2. Windows Passwords
          3. 29.1.3. Acting as a PDC
          4. 29.1.4. Login Settings
          5. 29.1.5. Shares
          6. 29.1.6. Startup
          7. 29.1.7. Troubleshooting
        2. 29.2. Objective 2: Configuring an NFS Server
          1. 29.2.1. The NFS Server
          2. 29.2.2. Configuring NFS Server Exports
          3. 29.2.3. NFS Server Security
          4. 29.2.4. The NFS Client
          5. 29.2.5. NFS Tools
      6. 30. System Maintenance (Topic 2.211)
        1. 30.1. Objective 1: System Logging
          1. 30.1.1. Setting Up a syslog Server
          2. 30.1.2. Setting Up syslog Clients
          3. 30.1.3. Using the Central Logs
        2. 30.2. Objective 2: Packaging Software
          1. 30.2.1. Building RPM Packages
          2. 30.2.2. Modifying RPM Packages
          3. 30.2.3. Building Deb Packages
            1. 30.2.3.1. Signing the package
            2. 30.2.3.2. Building the package
          4. 30.2.4. Modifying Deb Packages
            1. 30.2.4.1. control
            2. 30.2.4.2. rules
        3. 30.3. Objective 3: Backup Operations
      7. 31. System Customization and Automation (Topic 2.213)
        1. 31.1. Objective 1: Automating Tasks Using Scripts
          1. 31.1.1. Scripting with Bash and Friends
            1. 31.1.1.1. Variables
            2. 31.1.1.2. Checking process status and sending alerts
            3. 31.1.1.3. Monitoring users and using awk
            4. 31.1.1.4. Detecting changes
            5. 31.1.1.5. Log munging with sed
          2. 31.1.2. Scripting with Perl
            1. 31.1.2.1. Using CPAN
            2. 31.1.2.2. Log watching with Perl
            3. 31.1.2.3. Fetching and processing web logs
            4. 31.1.2.4. Using Perl to add new disks attached to an HBA controller
            5. 31.1.2.5. Perl in adverse environments
          3. 31.1.3. Synchronizing Files Across Machines
          4. 31.1.4. Scheduled execution
            1. 31.1.4.1. cron
            2. 31.1.4.2. Using at
      8. 32. Troubleshooting (Topic 2.214)
        1. 32.1. Objective 1: Creating Recovery Disks
        2. 32.2. Objective 2: Identifying Boot Stages
        3. 32.3. Objective 3: Troubleshooting Boot Loaders
        4. 32.4. Objective 4: General Troubleshooting
        5. 32.5. Objective 5: Troubleshooting System Resources
          1. 32.5.1. Environment Variables and Shells
          2. 32.5.2. Shell Environment
          3. 32.5.3. Editors
          4. 32.5.4. Kernel Parameters
        6. 32.6. Objective 6: Troubleshooting Environment Configurations
          1. 32.6.1. Authorization Problems
          2. 32.6.2. crontab Problems
          3. 32.6.3. Init Problems
          4. 32.6.4. Logging Problems
      9. 33. LPI Exam 201 Review Questions and Exercises
        1. 33.1. Linux Kernel (Topic 2.201)
          1. 33.1.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.1.2. Answers
          3. 33.1.3. Exercise
        2. 33.2. System Startup (Topic 2.202)
          1. 33.2.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.2.2. Answers
          3. 33.2.3. Exercises
        3. 33.3. Filesystem (Topic 2.203)
          1. 33.3.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.3.2. Answers
          3. 33.3.3. Exercises
        4. 33.4. Hardware (Topic 2.204)
          1. 33.4.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.4.2. Answers
          3. 33.4.3. Exercises
        5. 33.5. File and Service Sharing (Topic 2.209)
          1. 33.5.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.5.2. Answers
          3. 33.5.3. Exercises
        6. 33.6. System Maintenance (Topic 2.211)
          1. 33.6.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.6.2. Answers
          3. 33.6.3. Exercises
        7. 33.7. System Customization and Automation (Topic 2.213)
          1. 33.7.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.7.2. Answers
          3. 33.7.3. Exercises
        8. 33.8. Troubleshooting (Topic 2.214)
          1. 33.8.1. Review Questions
          2. 33.8.2. Answers
          3. 33.8.3. Exercises
      10. 34. Exam 201 Practice Test
        1. 34.1. Questions
        2. 34.2. Answers
    6. IV. General Linux Exam 202
      1. 35. Networking Configuration (Topic 2.205)
        1. 35.1. Objective 1: Basic Networking Configuration
          1. 35.1.1. Network Configuration Utilities, and What Lies Beneath
          2. 35.1.2. Common Network Configuration Files
            1. 35.1.2.1. The /etc/network/interfaces file
            2. 35.1.2.2. The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts directory
          3. 35.1.3. Using ifconfig
            1. 35.1.3.1. Virtual interfaces
            2. 35.1.3.2. Other common uses for ifconfig
            3. 35.1.3.3. Examples
          4. 35.1.4. The route Command
            1. 35.1.4.1. Syntax and frequently used options
          5. 35.1.5. Common Uses
          6. 35.1.6. ARP and Related Commands
            1. 35.1.6.1. arp command syntax
            2. 35.1.6.2. Example #1
            3. 35.1.6.3. Example #2
          7. 35.1.7. The arpwatch Command
            1. 35.1.7.1. arpwatch
            2. 35.1.7.2. Sample arpwatch results
          8. 35.1.8. Dial-up Connections
            1. 35.1.8.1. Connecting with a modem
            2. 35.1.8.2. Configuration files
            3. 35.1.8.3. pon
            4. 35.1.8.4. Checking a dial-up network connection
            5. 35.1.8.5. The poff command
            6. 35.1.8.6. The wvdial command
            7. 35.1.8.7. Configuring wvdial: wvdialconf
            8. 35.1.8.8. wvdialconf examples
            9. 35.1.8.9. Sample /etc/wvdial.conf file
            10. 35.1.8.10. ISDN connections
            11. 35.1.8.11. The ipppd daemon
            12. 35.1.8.12. The isdnctrl command
            13. 35.1.8.13. Using isdnctrl
            14. 35.1.8.14. Multihomed systems
            15. 35.1.8.15. IP routing configuration
            16. 35.1.8.16. IP forwarding versus firewalling and Network Address Translation (NAT)
        2. 35.2. Objective 2: Advanced Network Configuration and Troubleshooting
          1. 35.2.1. Simple Connectivity Example: Telnet
            1. 35.2.1.1. Using tcpdump
            2. 35.2.1.2. tcpdump expressions
            3. 35.2.1.3. Example #1
            4. 35.2.1.4. Example #2
            5. 35.2.1.5. Example #3
            6. 35.2.1.6. Example #4
            7. 35.2.1.7. ethereal and tethereal
            8. 35.2.1.8. The lsof command
            9. 35.2.1.9. Example #1
            10. 35.2.1.10. Example #2
            11. 35.2.1.11. Example #3
            12. 35.2.1.12. Example #4
            13. 35.2.1.13. Example #5
            14. 35.2.1.14. The netstat command
            15. 35.2.1.15. Example #1
            16. 35.2.1.16. Example #2
            17. 35.2.1.17. Example #3
          2. 35.2.2. netcat (nc)
            1. 35.2.2.1. Example #1
            2. 35.2.2.2. Example #2
            3. 35.2.2.3. Example #3
      2. 36. Mail and News (Topic 2.206)
        1. 36.1. Objective 2: Using Sendmail
          1. 36.1.1. Sendmail Configuration
            1. 36.1.1.1. Building and editing configuration files: the m4 utility
            2. 36.1.1.2. Additional configuration files
              1. 36.1.1.2.1. Restarting Sendmail
          2. 36.1.2. Securing Sendmail
            1. 36.1.2.1. Defining a trusted network
            2. 36.1.2.2. The /etc/mail/access file
            3. 36.1.2.3. Testing Sendmail configuration
            4. 36.1.2.4. Defining accepted email domains: local-host-names and sendmail.cw
          3. 36.1.3. Delivering Email
            1. 36.1.3.1. SMTP delivery based on DNS lookup
              1. 36.1.3.1.1. SMTP delivery via a smart host
          4. 36.1.4. Manual Entries
          5. 36.1.5. Local Delivery
          6. 36.1.6. Using virtusertable
          7. 36.1.7. Checking Virtual Users
          8. 36.1.8. Email Aliases
            1. 36.1.8.1. The contents of the aliases file
            2. 36.1.8.2. Reversing virtual user accounts
            3. 36.1.8.3. The genericstable file
          9. 36.1.9. Bastion Host Sendmail Server
            1. 36.1.9.1. Locking down the server
            2. 36.1.9.2. Configuring Sendmail for a bastion host
          10. 36.1.10. Managing Mail Traffic
          11. 36.1.11. Monitoring Mail
          12. 36.1.12. Log Configuration
        2. 36.2. Objective 3: Managing Mail Traffic
          1. 36.2.1. Filtering and Sorting Techniques
            1. 36.2.1.1. Using Procmail
            2. 36.2.1.2. Procmail files
            3. 36.2.1.3. Creating recipes in Procmail
              1. 36.2.1.3.1. Sample Procmail recipes
            4. 36.2.1.4. Monitoring and troubleshooting Procmail
        3. 36.3. Objective 1: Configuring Mailing Lists
          1. 36.3.1. Configuring Majordomo
            1. 36.3.1.1. Preparing Sendmail
            2. 36.3.1.2. Installing Majordomo
            3. 36.3.1.3. Creating Majordomo lists
              1. 36.3.1.3.1. Using the create command
              2. 36.3.1.3.2. Customizing the list
          2. 36.3.2. Testing the Implementation and Monitoring Problems
        4. 36.4. Objective 4: Serving News
          1. 36.4.1. Overview
            1. 36.4.1.1. Installing INN
            2. 36.4.1.2. Configuring INN
            3. 36.4.1.3. Customizing newsgroups
            4. 36.4.1.4. Configuring downstream and upstream clients
            5. 36.4.1.5. Monitoring newsgroups
            6. 36.4.1.6. Using innwatch
        5. 36.5. Conclusion
      3. 37. DNS (Topic 2.207)
        1. 37.1. Objective 1: Basic DNS Server Configuration
          1. 37.1.1. named.conf
          2. 37.1.2. Primary DNS
          3. 37.1.3. Secondary and Tertiary DNS
        2. 37.2. Objective 2: Create and Maintain DNS Zones
          1. 37.2.1. Forward DNS Zones
          2. 37.2.2. Reverse DNS Files
          3. 37.2.3. DNS Tools
        3. 37.3. Objective 3: Securing a DNS Server
          1. 37.3.1. Dedicated Servers
          2. 37.3.2. Restricting Zone Transfers
          3. 37.3.3. Using Transaction Signatures (TSIG)
          4. 37.3.4. Recursive Queries
          5. 37.3.5. Running BIND in a chroot Jail/Reduced Privileges
      4. 38. Web Services (Apache and Squid, Topic 2.208)
        1. 38.1. Installing Apache
          1. 38.1.1. Apache Installation from Source
        2. 38.2. Configuring Apache
          1. 38.2.1. Access Control
          2. 38.2.2. Third-Party Modules
            1. 38.2.2.1. mod_php
            2. 38.2.2.2. mod_perl
            3. 38.2.2.3. mod_ssl
            4. 38.2.2.4. mod_rewrite
            5. 38.2.2.5. Apache performance tuning
        3. 38.3. Squid: History and Overview
          1. 38.3.1. http_port option
          2. 38.3.2. cache_dir option
          3. 38.3.3. cache_mem option
          4. 38.3.4. cache_access_log option
          5. 38.3.5. acl option
        4. 38.4. Squid Authentication
        5. 38.5. Squid as Web Accelerator
      5. 39. Network Client Management (Topic 2.210)
        1. 39.1. Objective 1: DHCP Configuration
          1. 39.1.1. Setting Up a DHCP Server
            1. 39.1.1.1. Configuring DHCP options
            2. 39.1.1.2. Configuring dhcpd for random IP assignment
            3. 39.1.1.3. Fixed addresses in dhcpd
            4. 39.1.1.4. bootp support
            5. 39.1.1.5. dhcpd.leases
          2. 39.1.2. Using DHCP Clients
            1. 39.1.2.1. Using pump
            2. 39.1.2.2. Using dhclient
            3. 39.1.2.3. Configuring Red Hat as a DHCP client
            4. 39.1.2.4. Configuring Debian as a DHCP client
          3. 39.1.3. DHCP Relay
        2. 39.2. Objective 2: NIS Configuration
          1. 39.2.1. NIS Master Server
          2. 39.2.2. NIS Client
            1. 39.2.2.1. compat
            2. 39.2.2.2. NIS slave server
          3. 39.2.3. NIS Maps and Tools
            1. 39.2.3.1. Map lookups and nicknames
            2. 39.2.3.2. Keeping maps up to date
            3. 39.2.3.3. Netgroups
            4. 39.2.3.4. RPC calls
        3. 39.3. Objective 3: LDAP Configuration
          1. 39.3.1. Setting Up OpenLDAP Server
          2. 39.3.2. Setting Up Client Tools
        4. 39.4. Objective 4: PAM Authentication
          1. 39.4.1. PAM Configuration
            1. 39.4.1.1. module-type
            2. 39.4.1.2. control-flag
            3. 39.4.1.3. module-path and arguments
          2. 39.4.2. LDAP Client Authentication Using PAM
            1. 39.4.2.1. Packages for LDAP and PAM
            2. 39.4.2.2. Configuring nss_ldap and nsswitch.conf
            3. 39.4.2.3. Configuring pam_ldap and /etc/pam.d files
      6. 40. System Security (Topic 2.212)
        1. 40.1. Objective 2: Configuring a Router
          1. 40.1.1. The Example Networks
          2. 40.1.2. Getting Routing Working
          3. 40.1.3. Firewall Rulesets
            1. 40.1.3.1. ipchains versus iptables
            2. 40.1.3.2. Antispoofing
          4. 40.1.4. Using ipchains
            1. 40.1.4.1. ipchains
            2. 40.1.4.2. ipmasqadm
            3. 40.1.4.3. Sample ipchains setup
          5. 40.1.5. Using iptables
            1. 40.1.5.1. The iptables command
            2. 40.1.5.2. Example netfilter configuration
          6. 40.1.6. Firewalling Miscellanea
            1. 40.1.6.1. /proc/sys/net/ipv4
            2. 40.1.6.2. Saving and reloading rulesets
            3. 40.1.6.3. NAT and security
            4. 40.1.6.4. Dynamic routing
        2. 40.2. Objective 3: Securing FTP Servers
        3. 40.3. Objective 4: Secure Shell (SSH)
          1. 40.3.1. Installation and Configuration
          2. 40.3.2. Generating and Using Keys
          3. 40.3.3. ssh-agent
          4. 40.3.4. Other ssh Tricks
        4. 40.4. Objective 5: TCP Wrappers
          1. 40.4.1. /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny
            1. 40.4.1.1. Specifying services
            2. 40.4.1.2. xinetd and access control
        5. 40.5. Objective 6: Security Tasks
          1. 40.5.1. Kerberos
            1. 40.5.1.1. Overview
            2. 40.5.1.2. Server installation and configuration
            3. 40.5.1.3. Client configuration
          2. 40.5.2. Security Auditing Source Code
            1. 40.5.2.1. Executing subprograms
            2. 40.5.2.2. Checking input
            3. 40.5.2.3. Buffer overflows
            4. 40.5.2.4. Unsafe temporary file creation
          3. 40.5.3. IDS
            1. 40.5.3.1. Tripwire
              1. 40.5.3.1.1. Overview of Tripwire
              2. 40.5.3.1.2. Tripwire policy file format
            2. 40.5.3.2. Snort
              1. 40.5.3.2.1. Configuring Snort
              2. 40.5.3.2.2. Understanding Snort rules
          4. 40.5.4. Miscellaneous
            1. 40.5.4.1. Scanning in general
            2. 40.5.4.2. Security alerts
            3. 40.5.4.3. Updating Linux
              1. 40.5.4.3.1. Keeping Debian up-to-date
              2. 40.5.4.3.2. Keeping Red Hat up-to-date
      7. 41. Network Troubleshooting (Topic 214)
        1. 41.1. Network Troubleshooting Essentials
        2. 41.2. Common Troubleshooting Commands
          1. 41.2.1. ping
          2. 41.2.2. telnet and netcat
          3. 41.2.3. ifconfig
          4. 41.2.4. traceroute
          5. 41.2.5. netstat and route
        3. 41.3. Hardware Problems
          1. 41.3.1. Physical Connection Issues
            1. 41.3.1.1. Cabling
            2. 41.3.1.2. Failed networking devices
          2. 41.3.2. Problems with the Interface Card
          3. 41.3.3. Reviewing Screen Output
          4. 41.3.4. Changes to the Kernel and /etc/modules
          5. 41.3.5. Checking Log Files
        4. 41.4. Network Device Configuration Files
          1. 41.4.1. The /etc/network/interfaces File
          2. 41.4.2. The /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts Directory
          3. 41.4.3. PCMCIA Card Configuration
          4. 41.4.4. The /etc/networks File
          5. 41.4.5. The /etc/nsswitch File
          6. 41.4.6. Additional Configuration Files
            1. 41.4.6.1. /etc/host.conf
            2. 41.4.6.2. /etc/modprobe.d/aliases
            3. 41.4.6.3. The /etc/hostname file
          7. 41.4.7. Application Issues
        5. 41.5. DNS Errors
        6. 41.6. Determining the Cause of Inaccessible Services
          1. 41.6.1. Using netstat
          2. 41.6.2. nmap
          3. 41.6.3. Finding Authoritative Information with lsof and strace
          4. 41.6.4. Unexpected Changes to Files and Settings
        7. 41.7. Conclusion
      8. 42. Exam 202 Review Questions and Exercises
        1. 42.1. Networking Configuration (Topic 2.205)
          1. 42.1.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.1.2. Answers
          3. 42.1.3. Exercise
        2. 42.2. Mail and News (Topic 2.206)
          1. 42.2.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.2.2. Answers
          3. 42.2.3. Exercises
        3. 42.3. DNS (Topic 2.207)
          1. 42.3.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.3.2. Answers
          3. 42.3.3. Exercises
        4. 42.4. Web Services (Topic 2.208)
          1. 42.4.1. Review Questions
        5. 42.5. Answers
          1. 42.5.1. Exercises
        6. 42.6. Network Client Management (Topic 2.210)
          1. 42.6.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.6.2. Answers
          3. 42.6.3. Exercises
        7. 42.7. System Security (Topic 2.212)
          1. 42.7.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.7.2. Answers
          3. 42.7.3. Exercises
        8. 42.8. Network Troubleshooting (Topic 2.214)
          1. 42.8.1. Review Questions
          2. 42.8.2. Answers
          3. 42.8.3. Exercises
      9. 43. Exam 202 Practice Test
        1. 43.1. Questions
        2. 43.2. Answers
    7. Index
    8. About the Authors
    9. Colophon
    10. Copyright