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Low Voltage Electron Microscopy: Principles and Applications

Book Description

Part of the Wiley-Royal Microscopical Society Series, this book discusses the rapidly developing cutting-edge field of low-voltage microscopy, a field that has only recently emerged due to the rapid developments in the electron optics design and image processing.

It serves as a guide for current and new microscopists and materials scientists who are active in the field of nanotechnology, and presents applications in nanotechnology and research of surface-related phenomena, allowing researches to observe materials as never before.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Current and future titles in the Royal Microscopical Society- John Wiley Series
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. List of Contributors
  6. Preface
  7. Chapter 1: Introduction to the Theory and Advantages of Low Voltage Electron Microscopy
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Historical Perspective
    3. 1.3 Beam Interaction with Specimen—Elastic and Inelastic Scattering
    4. 1.4 Instrument Configuration
    5. 1.5 Influence of Electron Optics Aberrations at Low Voltages
    6. 1.6 SEM Imaging at Low Voltages
    7. 1.7 TEM/STEM Imaging and Analysis at Low Voltages
    8. 1.8 Conclusion
    9. References
  8. Chapter 2: SEM Instrumentation Developments for Low kV Imaging and Microanalysis
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Electron Source
    3. 2.3 SEM Column Design Considerations
    4. 2.4 Beam Deceleration
    5. 2.5 Novel Detector Options and Energy Filters
    6. 2.6 Low Voltage STEM in SEM
    7. 2.7 Aberration Correction in SEM
    8. 2.8 Conclusions
    9. References
  9. Chapter 3: Extreme High-Resolution (XHR) SEM Using a Beam Monochromator
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Limitations in Low Voltage SEM Performance
    3. 3.3 Beam Monochromator Design and Implementation
    4. 3.4 XHR Systems and Applications
    5. 3.5 Conclusions
    6. Acknowledgements
    7. References
  10. Chapter 4: The Application of Low-Voltage SEM—From Nanotechnology to Biological Research
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Specimen Preparation Considerations
    3. 4.3 Nanomaterials Applications
    4. 4.4 Beam Sensitive Materials
    5. 4.5 Semiconductor Materials
    6. 4.6 Biological Specimens
    7. 4.7 Low-Voltage Microanalysis
    8. 4.8 Conclusions
    9. References
  11. Chapter 5: Low Voltage High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 So How Low is Low?
    3. 5.3 The Effect of Chromatic Aberration and Chromatic Aberration Correction
    4. 5.4 The Electron Monochromator
    5. 5.5 Theoretical Tradeoffs of Low kV Imaging
    6. 5.6 Our Experience at 40 keV LV-HREM
    7. 5.7 Examples of LV-HREM Imaging
    8. 5.8 Conclusions
    9. References
  12. Chapter 6: Gentle STEM of Single Atoms: Low keV Imaging and Analysis at Ultimate Detection Limits
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Optimizing STEM Resolution and Probe Current at Low Primary Energies
    3. 6.3 STEM Image Formation
    4. 6.4 Gentle STEM Applications
    5. 6.5 Discussion
    6. 6.6 Conclusion
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  13. Chapter 7: Low Voltage Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy of Oxide Interfaces
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Methods and Instrumentation
    3. 7.3 Low Voltage Imaging and Spectroscopy
    4. 7.4 Summary
    5. Acknowledgements
    6. References
  14. Chapter 8: What's Next? The Future Directions in Low Voltage Electron Microscopy
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Unique Low Voltage SEM and TEM Instruments
    3. 8.3 Cameras, Detectors, and Other Accessories
    4. 8.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  15. Index