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Low-Visibility Antennas for Communication Systems

Book Description

Low-visibility antennas have many attractive features, such as being low-profile, flexible, lightweight, small-volume, and low-cost. Low-Visibility Antennas for Communication Systems provides explicit guidelines for the development of these antennas. Offering valuable insight into emerging antenna technologies, the book:

  • Introduces the fundamental theory of electromagnetics and antennas with few integral and differential equations, improving accessibility while providing sufficient mathematical detail
  • Presents state-of-the-art advancements in microstrip, millimeter (mm) wave microstrip, wearable, wearable tunable printed, wideband wearable meta-material, and fractal printed antennas
  • Discusses microwave integrated circuits (MICs), monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs), micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), and low temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC)

Low-Visibility Antennas for Communication Systems delivers a comprehensive and cutting-edge study of the design and application of low-visibility antennas, complete with design considerations, computed and measured results, and an extensive exploration of radio frequency and antenna measurements.

Table of Contents

  1. Series Preface
    1. Gregory L. Charvat Series on Practical Approaches to Electrical Engineering
  2. Preface
  3. About the Author
  4. Chapter 1 - Electromagnetic Theory and Transmission Lines
    1. 1.1 Definitions
    2. 1.2 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. 1.2.1 Maxwell’s Equations
      2. 1.2.2 Gauss’s Law for Electric Fields
      3. 1.2.3 Gauss’s Law for Magnetic Fields
      4. 1.2.4 Ampère’s Law
      5. 1.2.5 Faraday’s Law
      6. 1.2.6 Wave Equations
    3. 1.3 Transmission Lines
    4. 1.4 Matching Techniques
      1. 1.4.1 Smith Chart Guidelines
      2. 1.4.2 Quarter-Wave Transformers
      3. 1.4.3 Wideband Matching—Multisection Transformers
      4. 1.4.4 Single-Stub Matching
    5. 1.5 Coaxial Transmission Line
      1. 1.5.1 Cutoff Frequency and Wavelength of Coaxial Cables
    6. 1.6 Microstrip Line
      1. 1.6.1 Effective Dielectric Constant
      2. 1.6.2 Characteristic Impedance
      3. 1.6.3 Higher-Order Transmission Modes in a Microstrip Line
        1. 1.6.3.1 Examples
        2. 1.6.3.2 Losses in Microstrip Line
      4. 1.6.4 Conductor Loss
      5. 1.6.5 Dielectric Loss
    7. 1.7 Materials
    8. 1.8 Waveguides
      1. 1.8.1 TE Waves
      2. 1.8.2 TM Waves
    9. 1.9 Circular Waveguide
      1. 1.9.1 TE Waves in a Circular Waveguide
      2. 1.9.2 TM Waves in a Circular Waveguide
    10. References
  5. Chapter 2 - Basic Antenna Theory
    1. 2.1 Introduction to Antennas
    2. 2.2 Antenna Parameters
    3. 2.3 Dipole Antenna
      1. 2.3.1 Radiation from a Small Dipole
      2. 2.3.2 Dipole Radiation Pattern
      3. 2.3.3 Dipole E-Plane Radiation Pattern
      4. 2.3.4 Dipole H-Plane Radiation Pattern
      5. 2.3.5 Antenna Radiation Pattern
      6. 2.3.6 Dipole Directivity
      7. 2.3.7 Antenna Impedance
      8. 2.3.8 Impedance of a Folded Dipole
    4. 2.4 Basic Aperture Antennas
      1. 2.4.1 The Parabolic Reflector Antenna
      2. 2.4.2 Reflector Directivity
      3. 2.4.3 Cassegrain Reflector
    5. 2.5 Horn Antennas
      1. 2.5.1 E-Plane Sectoral Horn
        1. Directivity of the E-Plane Horn
      2. 2.5.2 H-Plane Sectoral Horn
        1. Directivity of the E-Plane Horn
      3. 2.5.3 Pyramidal Horn Antenna
    6. References
  6. Chapter 3 - Low-Visibility Printed Antennas
    1. 3.1 Microstrip Antennas
      1. 3.1.1 Introduction to Microstrip Antennas
      2. 3.1.2 Transmission Line Model of Microstrip Antennas
      3. 3.1.3 Higher-Order Transmission Modes in Microstrip Antennas
      4. 3.1.4 Effective Dielectric Constant
      5. 3.1.5 Losses in Microstrip Antennas
        1. 3.1.5.1 Conductor Loss
        2. 3.1.5.2 Dielectric Loss
      6. 3.1.6 Patch Radiation Pattern
    2. 3.2 Two-Layer Stacked Microstrip Antennas
    3. 3.3 Stacked Monopulse Ku Band Patch Antenna
      1. 3.3.1 Rat-Race Coupler
    4. 3.4 Loop Antennas
      1. 3.4.1 Small Loop Antenna
      2. 3.4.2 Printed Loop Antenna
      3. 3.4.3 Radio Frequency Identification Loop Antennas
      4. 3.4.4 New Loop Antenna with Ground Plane
    5. 3.5 Wired Loop Antenna
    6. 3.6 Radiation Pattern of a Loop Antenna Near a Metal Sheet
    7. 3.7 Planar inverted-F antenna
      1. 3.7.1 Grounded Quarter-Wavelength Patch Antenna
      2. 3.7.2 A New Double-Layer PIFA Antenna
    8. References
  7. Chapter 4 - Antenna Array
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Array Radiation Pattern
    3. 4.3 Broadside Array
    4. 4.4 End-fire Array
    5. 4.5 Printed Arrays
    6. 4.6 Stacked microstrip antenna arrays
    7. 4.7 Ka band Microstrip antenna arrays
    8. 4.8 Series Fed Microstrip Arrays
    9. 4.9 Stacked Series Fed Microstrip 8-Element ArraY
    10. 4.10 Stacked Series Parallel Fed Microstrip 64-Element Array
    11. 4.11 Conclusions
    12. References
  8. Chapter 5 - Applications of Low-Visibility Printed Antennas
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Low-visibility Microstrip Antenna Arrays with High Efficiency
      1. 5.2.1 Evaluation of Microstrip Feed Network Losses
      2. 5.2.2 Evaluation of Radiation Loss
      3. 5.2.3 Radiation Loss from Microstrip Discontinuities
      4. 5.2.4 64- and 256-Microstrip Antenna Arrays with High Efficiency
    3. 5.3 W Band Microstrip Antenna Detection Array
      1. 5.3.1 The Array Principle of Operation
      2. 5.3.2 W Band Antenna Design
      3. 5.3.3 Resistor Design
      4. 5.3.4 220-GHz Microstrip Patch Antenna
    4. 5.4 Medical Applications of Microstrip Antennas
      1. 5.4.1 Dual Polarized 434-MHz Printed Antenna
      2. 5.4.2 New Loop Antenna with a Ground Plane
      3. 5.4.3 Antenna S11 Variation as a Function of Distance from the Body
      4. 5.4.4 Medical Applications for Low-Visibility Antennas
    5. 5.5 Conclusion
    6. References
  9. Chapter 6 - Wearable Antennas for Communication and Medical Applications
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Dually Polarized Wearable 434- MHz Printed Antenna
    3. 6.3 Loop Antenna with Ground Plane
    4. 6.4 Antenna S11 Variation as a Function of Distance from the Body
    5. 6.5 Wearable Antennas
    6. 6.6 Compact Dual Polarized Printed Antenna
    7. 6.7 Helix Antenna Performance on the Human Body
    8. 6.8 Compact Wearable RFID Antennas
      1. 6.8.1 Dual Polarized 13.5-MHz Compact Printed Antenna
      2. 6.8.2 Varying the Antenna Feed Network
      3. 6.8.3 RFID Wearable Loop Antennas
      4. 6.8.4 Proposed Antenna Applications
    9. 6.9 Conclusions
    10. References
  10. Chapter 7 - Wearable Tunable Printed Antennas for Medical Applications
    1. 7.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 7.2 Varactor Theory
      1. 7.2.1 Varactor Diode Basics
      2. 7.2.2 Types of Varactors
    3. 7.3 Dually Polarized Tunable Printed Antenna
    4. 7.4 Wearable Tunable Antennas
    5. 7.5 TUNABLE ANTENNA VARACTORS
    6. 7.6 Measurements of Tunable Antennas
    7. 7.7 Folded dual polarized Tunable antenna
    8. 7.8 Medical Applications for Tunable Antennas
    9. 7.9 Conclusions
    10. References
  11. Chapter 8 - New Wideband Wearable Meta-Material Antennas for Communication Applications
    1. 8.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 8.2 NEW ANTENNAS WITH SRRs
    3. 8.3 FOLDED DIPOLE META-MATERIAL ANTENNA WITH SRRs
    4. 8.4 STACKED PATCH ANTENNA LOADED WITH SRRs
    5. 8.5 PATCH ANTENNA LOADED WITH SRRs
    6. 8.6 META-MATERIAL ANTENNA CHARACTERISTICS IN THE VICINITY OF THE HUMAN BODY
    7. 8.7 META-MATERIAL WEARABLE ANTENNAS
    8. 8.8 WIDEBAND STACKED PATCH WITH SRR
    9. 8.9 SMALL META-MATERIAL ANTENNA ANALYSIS
    10. 8.10 CONCLUSION
    11. REFERENCES
  12. Chapter 9 - Fractal Printed Antennas
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Fractal structures
    3. 9.3 Fractal antennas
    4. 9.4 Antiradar fractals and/ or multilevel chaff dispersers
      1. 9.4.1 Definition of Chaff
      2. 9.4.2 Geometry of Dispersers
    5. 9.5 Definition of multilevel structure
    6. 9.6 Advanced antenna system
    7. 9.7 Comparison between Euclidean AND Fractal antennaS
    8. 9.8 Multilevel and Space-Filling Ground Planes for Miniature and MultiBand Antennas
      1. 9.8.1 Multilevel Geometry
      2. 9.8.2 Space-Filling Curve
    9. 9.9 Applications of Fractal Printed Antennas
      1. 9.9.1 New 2.5-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas with Space- Filling Perimeter on the Radiator
      2. 9.9.2 New Stacked Patch 2.5-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas
      3. 9.9.3 New 8-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas with Space-Filling Perimeter of the Conducting Sheet
      4. 9.9.4 New Stacked Patch 7.4-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas
    10. 9.10 New Fractal Printed Antennas using Double-Layer Hilbert curves
      1. 9.10.1 New 3.3-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas Using Double-Layer Hilbert Curves
      2. 9.10.2 New 3.3-GHz Fractal Printed Antennas Using Hilbert Curves on the Resonator Layer
    11. 9.11 Conclusions
    12. References
  13. Chapter 10 - Microwave and MM Wave Technologies
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Microwave Integrated Circuits
    3. 10.3 Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits
      1. 10.3.1 MMIC Design Facts
      2. 10.3.2 MMIC Technology Features
      3. 10.3.3 Types of Components Designed
      4. 10.3.4 Advantages of GaAs versus Silicon
      5. 10.3.5 Semiconductor Technology
      6. 10.3.6 MMIC Fabrication Process
      7. 10.3.7 Generation of Microwave Signals in Microwave and MM Wave
      8. 10.3.8 MMIC Circuit Examples and Applications
    4. 10.4 MEMS Technology
      1. 10.4.1 MEMS Technology Advantages
      2. 10.4.2 MEMS Technology Process
      3. 10.4.3 MEMS Components
    5. 10.5 LTCC and HTCC TECHNOLOGY
      1. 10.5.1 LTCC and HTCC Technology Process
      2. 10.5.2 Design of High-Pass LTCC Filters
      3. 10.5.3 Comparison of Single-Layer and Multilayer Microstrip Circuits
    6. 10.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  14. Chapter 11 - Radio Frequency Measurements
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Multiport networks with N ports
    3. 11.3 Scattering Matrix
    4. 11.4 S-parameter measurements
      1. 11.4.1 Types of S-Parameter Measurements
    5. 11.5 Transmission Measurements
    6. 11.6 Output power and linearity measurements
    7. 11.7 Antenna Measurements
      1. 11.7.1 Radiation Pattern Measurements
      2. 11.7.2 Directivity and Antenna Effective Area
      3. 11.7.3 Radiation Efficiency
      4. 11.7.4 Typical Antenna Radiation Pattern
      5. 11.7.5 Gain Measurements
    8. 11.8 Antenna Range Setup
    9. References