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Loudspeakers

Book Description

Need advice on which type of speaker to use and where? Very often the choice and positioning of loudspeakers is down to intuition, hearsay and chance. This practical guide explores the link between experience and the technology, giving you a better understanding of the tools you are using and why, leading to greatly improved results.

Newell and Holland share years of experience in the design, application and use of loudspeakers for recording and reproducing music. Get practical advice on the applications of different loudspeakers to the different phases of the music recording and reproduction chain.

If you are using loudspeakers in a recording studio, mastering facility, broadcasting studio, film post production facility, home or musician's studio, or you inspire to improve your music reproduction system this book will help you make the right decisions.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. About the authors
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. Preface
  9. Introduction
  10. Chapter 1 What is a loudspeaker?
    1. 1.1 A brief look at the concept
    2. 1.2 A little history and some background
    3. 1.3 Some other problems
    4. 1.4 Some basic facts
      1. 1.4.1 Acoustic wave propagation
      2. 1.4.2 Mechanical and acoustic impedance
      3. 1.4.3 Impedance in loudspeakers
    5. 1.5 The practical moving-coil cone loudspeaker
      1. 1.5.1 The combined response
    6. 1.6 Resistive and reactive loads
    7. 1.7 The bigger picture
    8. References
    9. Bibliography
  11. Chapter 2 Diversity of design
    1. 2.1 Moving-coil cone loudspeakers
      1. 2.1.1 Cones
      2. 2.1.2 Surrounds
      3. 2.1.3 Rear suspensions
      4. 2.1.4 The chassis
      5. 2.1.5 The voice-coil assembly
      6. 2.1.6 Magnet systems
      7. 2.1.7 Ferrofluids
      8. 2.1.8 The complete system
    2. 2.2 Dome loudspeakers
      1. 2.2.1 Hard and soft domes
    3. 2.3 Compression drivers
    4. 2.4 Ribbon loudspeakers
    5. 2.5 Heil air-motion transformers
    6. 2.6 Distributed mode loudspeakers
      1. 2.6.1 Panel/piston combinations
    7. 2.7 Beyond magnetics
      1. 2.7.1 Piezoelectric devices
      2. 2.7.2 Ionic loudspeakers
    8. 2.8 Electrostatic loudspeakers
    9. 2.9 Electromagnetic planar loudspeakers
    10. 2.10 Summary
    11. References
    12. Bibliography
  12. Chapter 3 Loudspeaker cabinets
    1. 3.1 The concept of the infinite baffle
    2. 3.2 The sealed box
      1. 3.2.1 Acoustic suspensions
    3. 3.3 Reflex enclosures
    4. 3.4 Acoustic labyrinths
      1. 3.4.1 Modern transmission lines
    5. 3.5 ABR systems
    6. 3.6 Bandpass cabinets
    7. 3.7 Series driver operation and isobaric loudspeakers
    8. 3.8 General discussion
    9. 3.9 Cabinet lining materials
    10. 3.10 Cabinet constructions
    11. 3.11 Cabinet shapes and diffraction effects
    12. 3.12 Front grilles
    13. 3.13 Cabinet mounting
    14. References
  13. Chapter 4 Horns
    1. 4.1 The horn as a transformer
    2. 4.2 Directivity control
    3. 4.3 Horn design compromises
    4. 4.4 Non-linear acoustics
    5. 4.5 Examples of non-linear acoustics in loudspeakers
    6. 4.6 Practical horns in studios and homes
    7. 4.7 Implications for practical horn design parameters
    8. 4.8 Summary of results
    9. 4.9 General horn characteristics
    10. 4.10 Phasing plugs
    11. 4.11 Acoustics lenses
    12. 4.12 Horn types
    13. 4.13 Materials of construction
    14. 4.14 Vestigial horns and ‘waveguides’
    15. 4.15 Flare rates
    16. References
  14. Chapter 5 Crossovers
    1. 5.1 What is a crossover?
    2. 5.2 Reconstruction problems
    3. 5.3 Orders, slopes and shapes
    4. 5.4 Filter shapes
    5. 5.5 Target functions
      1. 5.5.1 Minimum and non-minimum phase effects
      2. 5.5.2 Corrective measures and side-effects
    6. 5.6 Active versus passive crossovers
    7. 5.7 Physical derivation of crossover delay
    8. 5.8 Digital crossovers
    9. References
    10. Bibliography
  15. Chapter 6 Effects of amplifiers and cables
    1. 6.1 Amplifiers – an over-view
    2. 6.2 Basic requirements for current and voltage output
    3. 6.3 Transient response
    4. 6.4 Non-linear distortions
    5. 6.5 Amplifier classes and modes of operation
      1. 6.5.1 Class A amplifiers
      2. 6.5.2 Class A derivatives
      3. 6.5.3 Class AB
      4. 6.5.4 Class D
      5. 6.5.5 Class G and H
    6. 6.6 MOSFET or BJT?
    7. 6.7 Choosing an amplifier
    8. 6.8 Loudspeaker cables and their effect on system performance
      1. 6.8.1 The bare minimum
      2. 6.8.2 The status quo
      3. 6.8.3 Cable designs for loudspeaker use
    9. 6.9 The amplifier/loudspeaker interface
    10. 6.10 Some provable characteristics of cable performance
    11. 6.11 Some passing comments
    12. 6.12 Multi-cabling
    13. 6.13 Polyamplification and multiamplification
    14. 6.14 System design
    15. References
    16. Bibliography
  16. Chapter 7 Loudspeaker behaviour in rooms
    1. 7.1 The anechoic and reverberation chambers
    2. 7.2 Boundary loading and room gain
      1. 7.2.1 Restriction of radiating space
      2. 7.2.2 The mirrored room and mutual coupling
    3. 7.3 Room reflexions
      1. 7.3.1 Resonant modes
    4. 7.4 Flush-mounting
    5. 7.5 Multichannel considerations and phantom imaging
    6. 7.6 Stereo perception in rooms
    7. 7.7 Rooms for critical listening
    8. 7.8 Electronic, digitally adaptive response correction
    9. 7.9 Minimum and non-minimum phase responses
    10. References
    11. Bibliography
  17. Chapter 8 Form follows function
    1. 8.1 The chain
    2. 8.2 Recording monitors
      1. 8.2.1 Basic requirements
      2. 8.2.2 Proportional costs
      3. 8.2.3 Different approaches
      4. 8.2.4 Crossover points
      5. 8.2.5 Power consideration
      6. 8.2.6 Interfacing with the rooms
      7. 8.2.7 A word about listening levels
    3. 8.3 Mixing monitors
      1. 8.3.1 Location dilemmas
    4. 8.4 Mastering loudspeakers
    5. 8.5 Domestic loudspeakers
    6. 8.6 Musical instrument loudspeakers
      1. 8.6.1 Cabinet designs
    7. Summary
    8. References
    9. Bibliography
  18. Chapter 9 Subjective and objective assessment
    1. 9.1 The general situation
    2. 9.2 Test signals and analysis
      1. 9.2.1 Frequency response plots
      2. 9.2.2 Waterfall plots
      3. 9.2.3 Harmonic distortion
      4. 9.2.4 Intermodulation distortion
      5. 9.2.5 Delta-functions and step-functions
      6. 9.2.6 Acoustic source plots
      7. 9.2.7 Cepstrum analysis
      8. 9.2.8 Modulation transfer functions
        1. 9.2.8.1 Application of room equalisation
        2. 9.2.8.2 A D-to-A dilemma
    3. 9.3 Sound fields and human perception
      1. 9.3.1 Further perceptual considerations
    4. References
    5. Bibliography
  19. Chapter 10 The mix, the music and the monitors
    1. 10.1 Physics or psychology?
    2. 10.2 The musical dependence of compatibility
      1. 10.2.1 Sine waves and pink noise
    3. 10.3 Real responses vs. preconceived ideas
    4. Acknowledgement
  20. Chapter 11 Low frequency and transient response dilemmas
    1. 11.1 The great low frequency deception
      1. 11.1.1 The air spring
      2. 11.1.2 Size, weight and sensitivity
      3. 11.1.3 Further consequences of small size
    2. 11.2 Commercial solutions
      1. 11.2.1 The time penalty
      2. 11.2.2 The transient trade-off
    3. 11.3 The evolution of the desk-top monitor
    4. 11.4 The great time deception
    5. 11.5 Resonant tails and one-note bass
    6. 11.6 The masking of detail
    7. 11.7 Theoretical equalisation and excess phase
    8. 11.8 Modulation transfer-function and a new type of frequency response plot
    9. 11.9 Summing-up
    10. References
  21. Chapter 12 The challenges of surround sound
    1. 12.1 Surround sound in professional studios
    2. 12.2 Cinema sound
    3. 12.3 Music mixing
    4. 12.4 Sub-woofers – discrete and managed
    5. 12.5 Size versus performance compromises
    6. 12.6 Compound sub-woofers and electronic control
    7. 12.7 System considerations
    8. References
  22. Glossary of terms
  23. Index