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Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook, 3rd Edition

Book Description

Written by a team of experts, the Loudspeaker and Headphone Handbook provides a detailed technical reference of all aspects of loudspeakers and headphones: from theory and construction of transducer drive units and enclosures, to such practical matters as construction, applications in rooms, public address, sound reinforcement, studio monitoring and musical instruments. Loudspeaker measurements and subjective evaluation are treated in equal detail and headphones are discussed comprehensively.

This third edition takes account of recent significant advances in technology, including:
· the latest computer-aided design systems
· digital audio processing
· new research procedures
· the full range of loudspeakers
· new user applications.

Table of Contents

  1. Front Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright
  5. Contents
  6. Preface to the third edition
  7. List of contributors
  8. 1 Principles of sound radiation
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Acoustic wave propagation
    3. 1.3 Sources of sound
    4. 1.4 Multiple sources and mutual coupling
    5. 1.5 Limitations of the infinite baffle loudspeaker model
    6. 1.6 Horns
    7. 1.7 Non-linear acoustics
    8. References
    9. Appendix: Complex numbers and the complex exponential
  9. 2 Transducer drive mechanisms
    1. 2.1 A short history
    2. 2.2 The diaphragm
    3. 2.3 Diaphragm material
    4. 2.4 Magnetism
    5. 2.5 The coil
    6. 2.6 The case for square wire
    7. 2.7 The suspension
    8. 2.8 Motor performance
    9. 2.9 The chassis
    10. 2.10 Efficiency
    11. 2.11 Power handling and heat dissipation
    12. 2.12 The dome driver
    13. 2.13 The horn driver
    14. 2.14 The ribbon loudspeaker
    15. 2.15 Moving masses
    16. 2.16 Modelling the moving-coil motor
    17. 2.17 The electrical analog of a drive unit
    18. 2.18 Modelling the enclosure
    19. 2.19 Low-frequency reproduction
    20. 2.20 The compound loudspeaker
    21. 2.21 Motional feedback
    22. References
  10. 3 Electrostatic loudspeakers
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Electrostatic drive theory
    3. 3.3 Radiating the sound
    4. 3.4 Practical designs
    5. 3.5 A general principle
    6. 3.6 Safety
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
  11. 4 The distributed mode loudspeaker (DML)
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Historical background
    3. 4.3 Traditional loudspeakers
    4. 4.4 Bending waves in beams and plates
    5. 4.5 Optimizing modal density
    6. 4.6 Early work
    7. 4.7 Current methodologies
    8. 4.8 Panel mechanical measurements
    9. 4.9 Drive points
    10. 4.10 Mechanical model
    11. 4.11 Implementation for a practical moving-coil exciter
    12. 4.12 Radiation simulation modelling
    13. 4.13 Performance
    14. 4.14 Acoustical measurements
    15. 4.15 Psychoacoustics
    16. 4.16 Loudness
    17. 4.17 Stereophonic localization
    18. 4.18 Boundary reaction
    19. 4.19 Acoustic feedback margin
    20. 4.20 Sound reinforcement applications
    21. 4.21 Distortion mechanisms
    22. 4.22 The future
    23. Acknowledgements
    24. References
  12. 5 Multiple-driver loudspeaker systems
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Crossover networks – theoretical design criteria
    3. 5.3 Practical system design procedures
    4. 5.4 Summary
    5. References
    6. Bibliography
  13. 6 The amplifier/loudspeaker interface
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 The electrical load presented by the loudspeaker
    3. 6.3 Impedance compensation
    4. 6.4 Complete conjugate impedance compensation
    5. 6.5 Sound level and amplifier power
    6. 6.6 Remote crossovers, remote or built-in amplifiers?
    7. 6.7 Damping factor and source resistance
    8. 6.8 Level rather than watts
    9. 6.9 Axial SPL and room loudness
    10. 6.10 Active loudspeaker systems
    11. 6.11 A typical active speaker system
    12. 6.12 Driver equalization and motional feedback (MFB)
    13. 6.13 Full-range feedback
    14. 6.14 Speaker adaptability
    15. 6.15 Digital loudspeakers
    16. 6.16 Cables and connectors
    17. References
    18. Bibliography
  14. 7 Loudspeaker enclosures
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Lumped-parameter modelling
    3. 7.3 Enclosure types
    4. 7.4 Mechanical considerations
    5. 7.5 Acoustical considerations
    6. 7.6 Finite element modelling
    7. Appendix: Computer model
    8. References
  15. 8 The room environment: basic theory
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Basic room acoustics
    3. 8.3 Loudspeaker placement
    4. 8.4 Measurement of room acoustics
    5. 8.5 Listening room design
    6. 8.6 Frequency response equalization
    7. Acknowledgements
    8. References
    9. Bibliography
  16. 9 The room environment: problems and solutions
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Room equalization
    3. 9.3 Correctable and non-correctable responses
    4. 9.4 Digital correction techniques
    5. 9.5 Related problems in loudspeakers
    6. 9.6 Equalization in auditoria
    7. 9.7 An example of simple acoustic equalization
    8. 9.8 Acoustic solutions
    9. 9.9 Source pattern differences
    10. 9.10 Listening rooms
    11. 9.11 Critical distance
    12. 9.12 Control rooms
    13. 9.13 The advent of specialized control rooms
    14. 9.14 Built-in monitors
    15. 9.15 Directional acoustics
    16. 9.16 Scaling problems
    17. 9.17 The pressure zone
    18. 9.18 The general behaviour of loudspeakers in rooms
    19. 9.19 Summing up
    20. Acknowledgements
    21. References
    22. Bibliography
  17. 10 Sound reinforcement and public address
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Loudspeakers and signal distribution
    3. 10.3 Loudspeaker coverage
    4. 10.4 Sound systems for auditoria
    5. 10.5 Time delay and the Haas effect
    6. 10.6 Response shaping
    7. 10.7 Speech intelligibility
    8. 10.8 Outdoor PA systems
    9. 10.9 Climatic effects
    10. 10.10 Sound-masking systems
    11. 10.11 Reverberation enhancement
    12. 10.12 Electronic architecture
    13. 10.13 Cinema sound systems
    14. 10.14 Sound system performance and design prediction
    15. 10.15 Microphones
    16. References
    17. Bibliography
  18. 11 Loudspeakers for studio monitoring and musical instruments
    1. Part 1: Studio Monitor Loudspeakers
    2. 11.1 Introduction
    3. 11.2 Studio monitor performance requirements
    4. 11.3 Significant monitor designs
    5. Part 2: Musical Instrument Loudspeakers
    6. 11.4 Musical instrument direct-radiator driver construction
    7. 11.5 Musical instrument loudspeaker enclosures and systems
    8. Part 3: The Digital Future
    9. 11.6 Electronic speaker modelling, digital input and control, and the possibility of the digital loudspeaker
    10. References
    11. Bibliography
  19. 12 Loudspeaker measurements
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Measurement standards
    3. 12.3 The measurement environment
    4. 12.4 Measuring conditions
    5. 12.5 Characteristics measurements: small-signal
    6. 12.6 Large-signal measurements: distortion-limited
    7. 12.7 Large-signal measurements: damage-limited
    8. 12.8 Mechanical measurements
    9. 12.9 Integrated measurement systems
    10. Acknowledgements
    11. References
  20. 13 Subjective evaluation
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Turning listening tests into subjective measurements: identifying and controlling the nuisance variables
    3. 13.3 Electrical requirements
    4. 13.4 Experimental method
    5. 13.5 Statistical analysis of results
    6. 13.6 Conclusions References
  21. 14 Headphones
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Acoustics of headphones
    3. 14.3 The hearing mechanism
    4. 14.4 Headphone applications
    5. 14.5 Practical matters References
  22. 15 International standards
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Standards-making bodies
    3. 15.3 Standards for loudspeakers
    4. References
  23. 16 Terminology
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Definitions
    3. 16.3 Quantities and symbols
    4. References
  24. Index