16. Freight-Transportation Externalities
Fatemeh Ranaiefar1 and Amelia Regan2
1Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
2Computer Science and Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Irvine, CA, USA
Freight transportation is a primary component of all supply-chain and logistics systems; at the same time, it has a high external cost that is borne by a society. Each type of externality generated by freight transportation requires special consideration. Air pollution, climate change, noise pollution, congestion, and accidents are the major externalities associated with trucking. This chapter reviews different studies of externalities or social costs caused by freight transportation ...