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Logistics Operations and Management by Laleh Kardar, Shabnam Rezapour, Reza Farahani

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2. Physical Flows
Hannan Sadjady
Department of Industrial Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
The flows of materials, products, inventories, and other goods in logistics networks, are referred to as physical flows, the main direction of which is considered to be from the point of origin to the point of consumption. However, physical flows also include the backward or reverse flows of materials; therefore, they involve the entire process and activities of logistics systems.
To explore the concept of physical flows systematically, the major components and functional areas of logistics systems, which are more involved with this concept, are investigated in this chapter. The first functional area of logistics systems ...

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