You are previewing Location-Based Services Handbook.
O'Reilly logo
Location-Based Services Handbook

Book Description

Location-Based Services Handbook: Applications, Technologies, and Security is a comprehensive reference containing all aspects of essential technical information on location-based services (LBS) technology. With broad coverage ranging from basic concepts to research-grade material, it presents a much-needed overview of technologies for positioning and localizing, including range- and proximity-based localization methods, and environment-based location estimation methods. Featuring valuable contributions from field experts around the world, this book addresses existing and future directions of LBS technology, exploring how it can be used to optimize resource allocation and improve cooperation in wireless networks.

It is a self-contained, comprehensive resource that presents:

  • A detailed description of the wireless location positioning technology used in LBS
  • Coverage of the privacy and protection procedure for cellular networks—and its shortcomings
  • An assessment of threats presented when location information is divulged to unauthorized parties
  • Important IP Multimedia Subsystem and IMS-based presence service proposals

The demand for navigation services is predicted to rise by a combined annual growth rate of more than 104 percent between 2008 and 2012, and many of these applications require efficient and highly scalable system architecture and system services to support dissemination of location-dependent resources and information to a large and growing number of mobile users.

This book offers tools to aid in determining the optimal distance measurement system for a given situation by assessing factors including complexity, accuracy, and environment. It provides an extensive survey of existing literature and proposes a novel, widely applicable, and highly scalable architecture solution. Organized into three major sections—applications, technologies, and security—this material fully covers various location-based applications and the impact they will have on the future.

Table of Contents

  1. Preliminaries
  2. Preface
  3. Editors
  4. Contributors
  5. Chapter 1 Positioning Technologies in Location-Based Services
    1. 1.1 Introduction
      1. 1.1.1 Overview of localization systems
    2. 1.2 Geometric Principles for Location Estimation
      1. 1.2.1 Trilateration
      2. 1.2.2 Multilateration
      3. 1.2.3 Triangulation
      4. 1.2.4 Comparison between trilateration, multilateration, and triangulation
    3. 1.3 Main Localization Techniques
      1. 1.3.1 Time of arrival
        1. 1.3.1.1 Radiofrequency technologies
        2. 1.3.1.2 Laser technology
        3. 1.3.1.3 Ultrasound technology
        4. 1.3.1.4 Sounds technology
      2. 1.3.2 Time difference of arrival
      3. 1.3.3 Received signal strength indication
        1. 1.3.3.1 Common localization technologies based on received signal strength indication fingerprinting
        2. 1.3.3.2 Common localization technologies based on received signal strength indication with theoretical propagation models
      4. 1.3.4 Angle of arrival
    4. 1.4 Other Localization Methods
      1. 1.4.1 Inertial navigation systems
      2. 1.4.2 Proximity-based methods
        1. 1.4.2.1 Convex positioning
        2. 1.4.2.2 Centroid
        3. 1.4.2.3 Center of gravity of overlapping areas
          1. 1.4.2.3.1 Point-in-triangle test
          2. 1.4.2.3.2 Center of gravity of overlapping sectors
        4. 1.4.2.4 Probabilistic techniques
        5. 1.4.2.5 Hop-count based methods
        6. 1.4.2.6 Amorphous localization
        7. 1.4.2.7 Main technologies using proximity for localization
          1. 1.4.2.7.1 Infrared
          2. 1.4.2.7.2 Radio frequency technologies
      3. 1.4.3 Environment-based localization techniques
      4. 1.4.4 Multimode approach for localization
        1. 1.4.4.1 Introduction
        2. 1.4.4.2 Diversity of technologies
        3. 1.4.4.3 Diversity of localization techniques
        4. 1.4.4.4 Diversity of reference objects: Multiple neighboring terminals and cooperative localization
    5. 1.5 Comparison and Outlook
    6. 1.6 Conclusions
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
      1. Figure 1.1
      2. Figure 1.2
      3. Figure 1.3
      1. Table 1.1
  6. Chapter 2 Wireless Location Technology in Location-Based Services
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Study on the Estimation of Position-Related Parameters (or Data Collection)
      1. 2.2.1 Cell of origin
      2. 2.2.2 Time of arrival
      3. 2.2.3 Time difference of arrival
      4. 2.2.4 Angle of arrival
      5. 2.2.5 Received signal strength
    3. 2.3 Infrastructure of Positioning in Cellular Network
      1. 2.3.1 Cellular network fundamentals
      2. 2.3.2 Classification of positioning infrastructures
        1. 2.3.2.1 Integrated and stand-alone infrastructures
        2. 2.3.2.2 Network-based and terminal-based positioning
        3. 2.3.2.3 Satellites, cellular, and indoor infrastructures
    4. 2.4 Cellular Networks
      1. 2.4.1 Global positioning system solution
      2. 2.4.2 Cell identification
      3. 2.4.3 Problems and solutions in cellular network positioning
        1. 2.4.3.1 Narrowband networks
        2. 2.4.3.2 Code division multiple access
        3. 2.4.3.3 Global system for mobile communications
    5. 2.5 Precision and Accuracy
      1. 2.5.1 Study of the multi-path promulgate
      2. 2.5.2 Non-line-of-sight promulgate
      3. 2.5.3 Code division multiple access multi-address access interference
      4. 2.5.4 Other sources of positioning error
    6. 2.6 Conclusion
    7. References
      1. Figure 2.1
      2. Figure 2.2
      3. Figure 2.3
      4. Figure 2.4
      5. Figure 2.5
      1. Table 2.1
  7. Chapter 3 Location in Wireless Local Area Networks
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Techniques Based on Cell Identity
    3. 3.3 Fingerprinting
      1. 3.3.1 Matching algorithms
      2. 3.3.2 Relevant approaches
      3. 3.3.3 Performance characteristics
      4. 3.3.4 Current trends
    4. 3.4 Received Signal Strength Indicator-Based Ranging and Trilateration
      1. 3.4.1 Received signal strength indicator-based ranging
      2. 3.4.2 Performance characteristics
    5. 3.5 Time of Arrival-Based Ranging/Trilateration
      1. 3.5.1 Estimating time of arrival at the physical layer
      2. 3.5.2 Estimating time of arrival at upper layers
      3. 3.5.3 Performance characteristics
    6. 3.6 Time Difference of Arrival
      1. 3.6.1 Relevant proposals
      2. 3.6.2 Performance characteristics
    7. 3.7 Angle of Arrival or Direction of Arrival
      1. 3.7.1 Relevant proposals
      2. 3.7.2 Performance characteristics
    8. 3.8 Assisted Global Positioning System
    9. 3.9 Discussion
    10. 3.10 Commercial Solutions
      1. 3.10.1 Ekahau Real Time Location System
      2. 3.10.2 Aeroscout Visibility System
      3. 3.10.3 Skyhook Wireless Wi-Fi Positioning System
    11. References
      1. Figure 3.1
      2. Figure 3.2
      3. Figure 3.3
      4. Figure 3.4
      5. Figure 3.5
      6. Figure 3.6
      7. Figure 3.7
      1. Table 3.1
  8. Chapter 4 Radio Frequency Identification Positioning
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 RFID Tags as Location Reference Points
    3. 4.3 Location Estimation Techniques
    4. 4.4 Applications
    5. 4.5 Facilitating Deployment
    6. 4.6 Security and Privacy
    7. 4.7 Real-World Deployment
      1. 4.7.1 Prototype implementation
      2. 4.7.2 Preliminary experiments
      3. 4.7.3 Field experiment
    8. 4.8 Conclusion
    9. References
      1. Figure 4.1
      2. Figure 4.2
      3. Figure 4.3
      4. Figure 4.4
      5. Figure 4.5
      6. Figure 4.6
      7. Figure 4.7
      8. Figure 4.8
      9. Figure 4.9
      10. Figure 4.10
      11. Figure 4.11
      12. Figure 4.12
  9. Chapter 5 Supporting Smart Mobile Navigation in a Smart Environment
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Related Work
      1. 5.2.1 Location-based services in a smart environment
      2. 5.2.2 Location-based services in Web 2.0
      3. 5.2.3 Mobile navigation
    3. 5.3 Smart Environment
      1. 5.3.1 Indoor positioning
      2. 5.3.2 Wireless infrastructure
    4. 5.4 User Interaction and Annotation
      1. 5.4.1 User-generated content
      2. 5.4.2 Motivation and data quality of user-generated content
    5. 5.5 Collective Intelligence-Based Route Calculation
      1. 5.5.1 Data modeling
      2. 5.5.2 Collective intelligence-based route calculation
        1. 5.5.2.1 Route calculation for mobile navigation
        2. 5.5.2.2 Different kinds of best routes
      3. 5.5.3 Discussion
    6. 5.6 Context-Aware Adaptation on Software Architecture and Destination Selection
      1. 5.6.1 Software architecture
      2. 5.6.2 Destination selection
    7. 5.7 Conclusions and Future Work
    8. Acknowledgment
    9. References
      1. Figure 5.1
      2. Figure 5.2
      1. Table 5.1
  10. Chapter 6 Indoor Location Determination: Environmental Impacts, Algorithm Robustness, and Performance Evaluation
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Signal Strength Distortion Model
    3. 6.3 Dynamic Localization Mechanisms
      1. 6.3.1 Signal-location map
      2. 6.3.2 Indoor radio propagation modeling
      3. 6.3.3 Signal distance mapping
      4. 6.3.4 Distance fitting
      5. 6.3.5 Distance-based location search
    4. 6.4 Simulations and System Comparison
      1. 6.4.1 Testing environments
      2. 6.4.2 Experimental strategy
      3. 6.4.3 Simulations results
        1. 6.4.3.1 Distance estimation
        2. 6.4.3.2 Localization results
      4. 6.4.4 Dependence on number of deployed sniffers and reference measurements
        1. 6.4.4.1 Number of deployed sniffers
        2. 6.4.4.2 Dependence on the number of reference measurements
      5. 6.4.5 Robustness to signal strength distortion and security attacks
      6. 6.4.6 Computation efficiency and scalability
    5. 6.5 Related Research
    6. 6.6 Conclusion
    7. References
      1. Figure 6.1
      2. Figure 6.2
      3. Figure 6.3
      1. Table 6.1
      2. Table 6.2
      3. Table 6.3
      4. Table 6.4
      5. Table 6.5
      6. Table 6.6
      7. Table 6.7
      8. Table 6.8
  11. Chapter 7 Location-Aware Access Control: Scenarios Modeling Approaches, and Selected Issue
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Application Scenarios
    3. 7.3 Basics of Access Control
      1. 7.3.1 Discretionary access control
      2. 7.3.2 Role-based access control
      3. 7.3.3 Mandatory access control
    4. 7.4 Generic Location-Aware Access Control Models
      1. 7.4.1 Role-based access control
      2. 7.4.2 Discretionary access control
      3. 7.4.3 Mandatory access control
    5. 7.5 Application-Specific Location-Aware Access Control Models
      1. 7.5.1 Process-aware access control
      2. 7.5.2 Access control for database systems
    6. 7.6 Prevention of Location Spoofing
    7. 7.7 Miscellaneous Aspects
      1. 7.7.1 Access control for geospatial data
      2. 7.7.2 Access control for location privacy
      3. 7.7.3 Proximity-based access control with radio frequency identification technology
    8. 7.8 Summary and Outlook
    9. References
      1. Figure 7.1
      2. Figure 7.2
      3. Figure 7.3
      4. Figure 7.4
  12. Chapter 8 Location-Based Services and Privacy
    1. 8.1 Location-based Services
    2. 8.2 Satellite Systems
      1. 8.2.1 Global positioning system
      2. 8.2.2 Galileo
      3. 8.2.3 Satellites system limits
    3. 8.3 Positioning in Wi-Fi Networks
      1. 8.3.1 Limits
    4. 8.4 Cellular Positioning Techniques
      1. 8.4.1 Location service
      2. 8.4.2 Assisted-global navigation satellite system
      3. 8.4.3 Cell ID
      4. 8.4.4 Observed time difference
      5. 8.4.5 Uplink time difference of arrival
      6. 8.4.6 Architecture of location service in cellular networks
        1. 8.4.6.1 Added nodes
          1. 8.4.6.1.1 Serving mobile location center
          2. 8.4.6.1.2 Location measurement unit
          3. 8.4.6.1.3 Gateway mobile location center
          4. 8.4.6.1.4 Privacy profile register
          5. 8.4.6.1.5 Pseudonym mediation device
        2. 8.4.6.2 Location service architecture in cellular networks
        3. 8.4.6.3 Added functionalities in existing nodes
          1. 8.4.6.3.1 Base station
          2. 8.4.6.3.2 Mobile services switching center
          3. 8.4.6.3.3 Serving GPRS support node
          4. 8.4.6.3.4 Home subscriber server and home location server
          5. 8.4.6.3.5 User equipment
    5. 8.5 Location Information Threats
    6. 8.6 Location Privacy Policy
      1. 8.6.1 Privacy definition
      2. 8.6.2 Privacy in location-based services
      3. 8.6.3 Privacy enforcement in cellular networks
      4. 8.6.4 Shortcomings of privacy protection in cellular networks
      5. 8.6.5 Service provider access to location information
      6. 8.6.6 Privacy enhancement for location service in cellular networks
    7. 8.7 Conclusion
    8. References
      1. Figure 8.1
  13. Chapter 9 Protecting Privacy in Location-Based Applications
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Selecting a Location System to Support Privacy
    3. 9.3 Cloaking to Protect Online Privacy
      1. 9.3.1 Previous work in online location privacy
      2. 9.3.2 Mathematical foundation of cloaking
      3. 9.3.3 Cloaking system
        1. 9.3.3.1 Rounding
        2. 9.3.3.2 Truncating
        3. 9.3.3.3 Geodetic resolution
        4. 9.3.3.4 Randomization
      4. 9.3.4 System analysis
      5. 9.3.5 Resources
        1. 9.3.5.1 Power
        2. 9.3.5.2 Memory
        3. 9.3.5.3 Run-time memory
        4. 9.3.5.4 Bandwidth
    4. 9.4 Problems with Corporate Tracking
    5. 9.5 Protecting Privacy by Using Prediction
      1. 9.5.1 Location determination
        1. 9.5.1.1 Symbolic location
      2. 9.5.2 Related work in location prediction
        1. 9.5.2.1 MavHome
        2. 9.5.2.2 Using the global positioning system to determine significant locations
        3. 9.5.2.3 Dartmouth College mobility predictions
        4. 9.5.2.4 Predicting future times of availability
      3. 9.5.3 Prediction based on text compression
        1. 9.5.3.1 Prediction by partial match
      4. 9.5.4 An experiment in prediction
        1. 9.5.4.1 Location determination
        2. 9.5.4.2 Representations
        3. 9.5.4.3 Protecting privacy during the prediction process
    6. 9.6 Conclusion
    7. References
      1. Figure 9.1
      2. Figure 9.2
      3. Figure 9.3
      1. Table 9.1
      2. Table 9.2
      3. Table 9.3
      4. Table 9.4
      5. Table 9.5
      6. Table 9.6
      7. Table 9.7
      8. Table 9.8
      9. Table 9.9
      10. Table 9.10
  14. Chapter 10 Presence Services for the Support of Location-Based Applications
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Presence-Based LBS Infrastructures: Background and Open Issues
      1. 10.2.1 Reference IMPP PS
      2. 10.2.2 IMPS
      3. 10.2.3 XMPP
      4. 10.2.4 IMS PS
      5. 10.2.5 Discussion
    3. 10.3 State-of-the-Art of Management Solutions for IMS PS Scalability
      1. 10.3.1 Local scope
      2. 10.3.2 Intra-domain scope
      3. 10.3.3 Inter-domain scope
      4. 10.3.4 State-of-the-art summary
    4. 10.4 IHMAS for IMS PS Scalability
      1. 10.4.1 Design guidelines and architectural model for enhanced scalability of IMS PS
        1. 10.4.1.1 Filtering criteria and session state management
        2. 10.4.1.2 Intra-domain dynamic load balancing and data-centric sessions
        3. 10.4.1.3 Service-aware static balancing to partition intra-domain load
        4. 10.4.1.4 Inter-domain transmission optimizations
      2. 10.4.2 IHMAS load-balancing solutions
    5. 10.5 Presence-Based Infrastructures for LBS Support: Next Steps
      1. 10.5.1 Real-time monitoring of IMS infrastructure
      2. 10.5.2 Virtualized PSs for scalable composition of presence information
      3. 10.5.3 Presence-based location data dissemination for emergency applications
      4. 10.5.4 Dynamic load balancing and PS deployment over the Cloud
    6. 10.6 Conclusions
    7. References
      1. Figure 10.1
      2. Figure 10.2
      3. Figure 10.3
      4. Figure 10.4
      5. Figure 10.5
      6. Figure 10.6
      1. Table 10.1
  15. Chapter 11 Data-Flow Management for Location-Based Service Applications Using the Zoning Concept
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Static Zone-Based Update Mechanism
      1. 11.2.1 Evaluation and testing
        1. 11.2.1.1 Measuring the downloading time
        2. 11.2.1.2 Measuring the average throughput
        3. 11.2.1.3 Measuring the packet loss
        4. 11.2.1.4 Database server evaluation
    3. 11.3 Dynamic Zone-Based Update Mechanism
      1. 11.3.1 Evaluation and testing
      2. 11.3.2 Discussion
    4. 11.4 Conclusion
    5. References
      1. Figure 11.1
      2. Figure 11.2
      3. Figure 11.3
      4. Figure 11.4
      5. Figure 11.5
      6. Figure 11.6
      7. Figure 11.7
      8. Figure 11.8
      9. Figure 11.9
      10. Figure 11.10
      11. Figure 11.11
      1. Table 11.1
      2. Table 11.2
      3. Table 11.3
  16. Chapter 12 Assisted Global Navigation Satellite Systems: An Enabling Technology for High Demanding Location-Based Services
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Assisted Global Positioning System and the Open Mobile Alliance-Secure User Plane Location Approach
      1. 12.2.1 Overview on the secure user plane location architecture
      2. 12.2.2 Procedures for positioning
      3. 12.2.3 Mobile originated trellis
    3. 12.3 Infrastructure for Practical Tests
      1. 12.3.1 SAT-SURF & SAT-SURFER
        1. 12.3.1.1 SAT-SURF hardware platform
        2. 12.3.1.2 SAT-SURFER software suite
    4. 12.4 Trials and Parameters under Test
    5. 12.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. References
      1. Figure 12.1
      2. Figure 12.2
      3. Figure 12.3
      4. Figure 12.4
      5. Figure 12.5
      6. Figure 12.6
      7. Figure 12.7
      8. Figure 12.8
      9. Figure 12.9
      10. Figure 12.10
      11. Figure 12.11
      12. Figure 12.12
      13. Figure 12.13
      14. Figure 12.14
      15. Figure 12.15
      16. Figure 12.16
      1. Table 12.1