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Local Networks and the Internet: From Protocols to Interconnection

Book Description

This title covers the most commonly used elements of Internet and Intranet technology and their development. It details the latest developments in research and covers new themes such as IP6, MPLS, and IS-IS routing, as well as explaining the function of standardization committees such as IETF, IEEE, and UIT. The book is illustrated with numerous examples and applications which will help the reader to place protocols in their proper context.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Chapter 1: Introduction
    1. 1.1. Why a network?
    2. 1.2. Network classification
      1. 1.2.1. Function of distance
        1. 1.2.1.1. Local networks
        2. 1.2.1.2. Metropolitan network or access network
        3. 1.2.1.3. Public networks
      2. 1.2.2. Function of the topology
    3. 1.3. Interconnection networks
    4. 1.4. Examples of network utilization
    5. 1.5. The Internet network
      1. 1.5.1. History
      2. 1.5.2. Functioning principle
        1. 1.5.2.1. Protocols
        2. 1.5.2.2. Network structure
    6. 1.6. Structure of this book
  5. Chapter 2: Standardization and Wiring
    1. 2.1. The IEEE 802 committee
      1. 2.1.1. Traffic types and constraints
      2. 2.1.2. Constraints
    2. 2.2. The standards
    3. 2.3. IEEE 802.1 addressing
      1. 2.3.1. MAC address
      2. 2.3.2. EUI-64
    4. 2.4. Cabling rules
      1. 2.4.1. Twisted pair wiring
      2. 2.4.2. Optical fibers
  6. Chapter 3: Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 Protocols
    1. 3.1. History
    2. 3.2. Physical level
      1. 3.2.1. The supports
      2. 3.2.2. The interfaces and connectors
    3. 3.3. The fundamentals of CSMA/CD
      1. 3.3.1. Protocol parameters
      2. 3.3.2. BEB algorithm
        1. 3.3.2.1. Emission algorithm
        2. 3.3.2.2. Reception algorithm
      3. 3.3.3. Limits of the CSMA/CD algorithm
      4. 3.3.4. The repeaters
    4. 3.4. Frame format
      1. 3.4.1. Physical level
      2. 3.4.2. MAC level
        1. 3.4.2.1. IEEE 802.3 frame
        2. 3.4.2.2. Ethernet frame
    5. 3.5. The 10BASE5 network
      1. 3.5.1. The equipment
      2. 3.5.2. Manchester coding
    6. 3.6. Devices for the 10BASE2
    7. 3.7. Twisted pair equipment
      1. 3.7.1. The hubs
      2. 3.7.2. The switches
        1. 3.7.2.1. Operation mode
        2. 3.7.2.2. Flow control
      3. 3.7.3. The 100BASE-T
        1. 3.7.3.1. Model 1
        2. 3.7.3.2. Model 2
        3. 3.7.3.3. Encoding 100BASE-TX information
        4. 3.7.3.4. Encoding 100BASE-T4 information
      4. 3.7.4. 1000BASE-T
      5. 3.7.5. Auto-negotiation
        1. 3.7.5.1. Messages
        2. 3.7.5.2. Technology selection
    8. 3.8. Fiber optics
      1. 3.8.1. 10BASE-F
      2. 3.8.2. 100BASE-FX
      3. 3.8.3. 1000BASE-X
      4. 3.8.4. Encoding
      5. 3.8.5. Auto-negotiation
      6. 3.8.6. Half-duplex mode and burst transmission
    9. 3.9. Examples of Ethernet frames
      1. 3.9.1. Signalovera 10BASE2 segment
      2. 3.9.2. Frames
    10. 3.10 Evolution of the Ethernet
  7. Chapter 4: The LLC and SNAP Sublayers
    1. 4.1. Definition
    2. 4.2. LLC frames
      1. 4.2.1. Frame formats
        1. 4.2.1.1. DSAP and SSAP fields
        2. 4.2.1.2. The control field
        3. 4.2.1.3. The P/F bit
      2. 4.2.2. Examples of protocols
        1. 4.2.2.1. Case without errors (Figure 4.7)
        2. 4.2.2.2. Case with loss of frames (Figure 4.8)
        3. 4.2.2.3. Case with multiple losses (Figure 4.9)
        4. 4.2.2.4. Case of a sequence break (Figure 4.10)
      3. 4.2.3. Window widths
    3. 4.3. Example
      1. 4.3.1. Type 1 LLC
      2. 4.3.2. Type 2 LLC
    4. 4.4. The SNAP layer
      1. 4.4.1. Frame formats
      2. 4.4.2. Example
  8. Chapter 5: Interconnection by Bridges: The Spanning Tree Algorithm
    1. 5.1. Introduction
    2. 5.2. Transparent filtering bridges
      1. 5.2.1. Simple case
      2. 5.2.2. Complex case
    3. 5.3. Spanning tree algorithm
      1. 5.3.1. Example
        1. 5.3.1.1. Bridges in parallel
        2. 5.3.1.2. Interconnection of four networks
      2. 5.3.2. Information update
      3. 5.3.3. State diagram
      4. 5.3.4. Message format
      5. 5.3.5. Example
  9. Chapter 6: Internet
    1. 6.1. The Internet players
      1. 6.1.1. The Internet Society
      2. 6.1.2. The IAB
      3. 6.1.3. The IESG
        1. 6.1.3.1. Function of an IETF working group
        2. 6.1.3.2. Working group creation
        3. 6.1.3.3. The RFC
      4. 6.1.4. The IRSG
      5. 6.1.5. Address and protocol parameter management
        1. 6.1.5.1. The ICANN
        2. 6.1.5.2. The IANA
        3. 6.1.5.3. The regional authorities (RIR)
        4. 6.1.5.4. The who is database
  10. Chapter 7: IP Protocols
    1. 7.1. Implementation of the TCP/IP protocols
      1. 7.1.1. Terminal equipment
      2. 7.1.2. Routers
      3. 7.1.3. IP layer architecture
    2. 7.2. Internet addressing
      1. 7.2.1. Notation
      2. 7.2.2. Special IPv4 addresses
      3. 7.2.3. IPv4 class addressing
        1. 7.2.3.1. Usage of the netmask
        2. 7.2.3.2. Variable length network masks
        3. 7.2.3.3. Classfull address drawback
      4. 7.2.4. Hierarchical addressing
        1. 7.2.4.1. Classless Internet domain routing (CIDR)
        2. 7.2.4.2. Aggregation rules
        3. 7.2.4.3. Example of allocation hierarchy
      5. 7.2.5. Special IPv4 prefixes and addresses
        1. 7.2.5.1. Addresses for private networks (RFC 1597)
      6. 7.2.6. Special IPv6 addresses and prefixes
    3. 7.3. The IPv4 protocol (RFC 791, RFC 1122)
      1. 7.3.1. Format of IPv4 datagrams
        1. 7.3.1.1. Version
        2. 7.3.1.2. Internet header length
        3. 7.3.1.3. Type of service
        4. 7.3.1.4. Total length
        5. 7.3.1.5. Fragmentation
        6. 7.3.1.6. Time to Live
        7. 7.3.1.7. Protocol
        8. 7.3.1.8. Checksum (RFC 1071, RFC 1141)
        9. 7.3.1.9. Source and destination addresses
        10. 7.3.1.10. Options
    4. 7.4. The ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) (RFC 792)
      1. 7.4.1. The message cannot reach its destination
      2. 7.4.2. Expired TTL and the traceroute program
        1. 7.4.2.1. Limitation of ICMP traffic
        2. 7.4.2.2. Loose source routing option
      3. 7.4.3. Quench source
      4. 7.4.4. Redirection indication
      5. 7.4.5. Echo/the ping command
        1. 7.4.5.1. Route recording option
        2. 7.4.5.2. Broadcast address
      6. 7.4.6. Netmask request /reply to netmask (RFC 950)
      7. 7.4.7. Information about routers (RFC 1256)
      8. 7.4.8. MTU discovery (RFC 1191)
    5. 7.5. The IPv6 protocol
      1. 7.5.1. Format of IPv6 datagrams
      2. 7.5.2. The ICMPv6 protocol
    6. 7.6. Tunnels
      1. 7.6.1. Architecture
      2. 7.6.2. Encapsulations
        1. 7.6.2.1. Simple encapsulation
        2. 7.6.2.2. Generic routing encapsulation
    7. 7.7. Configurations
      1. 7.7.1. Configuration of a Unix station
      2. 7.7.2. Visualization
      3. 7.7.3. Configuration
    8. 7.8. Configuration of a Cisco router
      1. 7.8.1. Visualization
      2. 7.8.2. Configuration
    9. 7.9. IPv4 and multicast
      1. 7.9.1. Format of multicast addresses
      2. 7.9.2. The IGMPv2 protocol (RFC 3376)
  11. Chapter 8: Level 4 Protocols: TCP, UDP and SCTP
    1. 8.1. Port notion
    2. 8.2. TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) (RFC 793)
      1. 8.2.1. TCP format message
    3. 8.3. The three protocol phases
      1. 8.3.1. Establishing a connection
        1. 8.3.1.1. Choice of initial sequence number
        2. 8.3.1.2. SYN flooding attacks
      2. 8.3.2. Data transfer
        1. 8.3.2.1. Example over a local network
        2. 8.3.2.2. Example over a public network
      3. 8.3.3. Closing a connection
    4. 8.4. The options
    5. 8.5. Adaptation to the environment
      1. 8.5.1. Timer management
        1. 8.5.1.1. Round trip time (RTT) estimation
        2. 8.5.1.2. RTT estimation with options
        3. 8.5.1.3. Timestamp value estimation
        4. 8.5.1.4. Fast data retransmission
      2. 8.5.2. Limitations of packets emitted
        1. 8.5.2.1. Acknowledgment delay
        2. 8.5.2.2. The Nagle algorithm
    6. 8.6. TCP flow control
      1. 8.6.1. Applicative flow control
        1. 8.6.1.1. Silly window syndrome
      2. 8.6.2. Congestion control at network level
        1. 8.6.2.1. Slow start
        2. 8.6.2.2. Congestion avoidance
        3. 8.6.2.3. Fast recovery
        4. 8.6.2.4. Selective acknowledgements (RFC 2018)
    7. 8.7. Study of TCP by simulations
      1. 8.7.1. Self-clocking
      2. 8.7.2. TCP Tahoe
      3. 8.7.3. TCP Reno
      4. 8.7.4. TCP newReno
      5. 8.7.5. Selective acknowledgements
    8. 8.8. Network consideration of TCP
      1. 8.8.1. RED
      2. 8.8.2. Explicit congestion notification (ECN)
      3. 8.8.3. TCP over different supports
        1. 8.8.3.1. High-speed networks
        2. 8.8.3.2. Asymmetric networks
        3. 8.8.3.3. Radio networks
    9. 8.9. The UDP (user datagram protocol) (RFC 768)
      1. 8.9.1. Message format
      2. 8.9.2. TCP friendly
      3. 8.9.3. The UDP-Lite protocol (RFC 3828)
      4. 8.9.4. The RTP protocol (RFC 1889)
    10. 8.10. SCTP
      1. 8.10.1. General message format
      2. 8.10.2. Creation of associations
      3. 8.10.3. Data transfer
      4. 8.10.4. Verification of the feasiblity of association
      5. 8.10.5. Closing an association
      6. 8.10.6. Example of SCTP traffic
  12. Chapter 9: Address Resolution and Automatic Configuration Protocols
    1. 9.1. Introduction
    2. 9.2. The address resolution protocol (ARP)
      1. 9.2.1. ARP frame format
        1. 9.2.1.1. Example
        2. 9.2.1.2. ARP table
        3. 9.2.1.3. Gratuitous ARP
        4. 9.2.1.4. Proxy ARP
      2. 9.2.2. The cases of broadcast and multicast addresses
    3. 9.3. Neighbor discovery in IPv6
      1. 9.3.1. Principle
      2. 9.3.2. Example
    4. 9.4. Initialization and auto-configuration
      1. 9.4.1. TFTP (trivial file transfer protocol) (RFC 1350)
        1. 9.4.1.1. Scenario
        2. 9.4.1.2. Security
      2. 9.4.2. RARP (reverse address resolution protocol) (RFC 903)
        1. 9.4.2.1. Frame format
        2. 9.4.2.2. Configuration of a RARP server
      3. 9.4.3. BOOTP (RFC 951 and RFC 1542)
        1. 9.4.3.1. Packet format
        2. 9.4.3.2. Scenario
        3. 9.4.3.3. Example
        4. 9.4.3.4. The case of different subnetworks
      4. 9.4.4. DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol) (RFC 2131)
        1. 9.4.4.1. Traffic example
        2. 9.4.4.2. Example of a configuration
    5. 9.5. The domain name server (DNS) (RFC 1034, RFC 1035)
      1. 9.5.1. General principles
        1. 9.5.1.1. Roots
        2. 9.5.1.2. Top level domains (TLD)
        3. 9.5.1.3. Primary servers
        4. 9.5.1.4. Secondary servers
        5. 9.5.1.5. Server cache
      2. 9.5.2. The principle of interrogation
        1. 9.5.2.1. Client configuration
        2. 9.5.2.2. Example of interrogation
        3. 9.5.2.3. The nslookup command
        4. 9.5.2.4. The dig (domain information groper) command
      3. 9.5.3. arpa domain
        1. 9.5.3.1. Reverse resolutions for IPv4 addresses
        2. 9.5.3.2. Reverse resolution of IPv6 addresses
        3. 9.5.3.3. ENUM
      4. 9.5.4. Protocol
        1. 9.5.4.1. Format of packets
        2. 9.5.4.2. Example
        3. 9.5.4.3. Transfer of information
        4. 9.5.4.4. Information over a domain
        5. 9.5.4.5. Transfer of zones
      5. 9.5.5. Server configuration
  13. Chapter 10: Routing Protocols
    1. 10.1. Routing tables
    2. 10.2. Equipment classification
    3. 10.3. Routing table configuration
      1. 10.3.1. Display of the routing table under Unix or Windows
      2. 10.3.2. Display of the routing table under Cisco
      3. 10.3.3. Modification of the routing table under Unix
      4. 10.3.4. Modification of the routing table for Cisco
    4. 10.4. Station or router?
    5. 10.5. High-speed router
    6. 10.6. Router classification
    7. 10.7. Routing protocols
    8. 10.8. Autonomous systems
  14. Chapter 11: Internal Routing Protocols
    1. 11.1. The Distant Vector algorithm
      1. 11.1.1. Description
      2. 11.1.2. Convergence problem
        1. 11.1.2.1. Split horizon
        2. 11.1.2.2. Chosen path and poisoned reverse
      3. 11.1.3. Routing information protocol (RIP) (RFC 1058)
      4. 11.1.4. RIP-2 (RFC 1723)
      5. 11.1.5. Simple authentication
        1. 11.1.5.1. MD5 authentification
    2. 11.2. Link State algorithm
      1. 11.2.1. Principles
    3. 11.3. The OSPF protocol
      1. 11.3.1. Vocabulary and concepts
        1. 11.3.1.1. The notion of area
        2. 11.3.1.2. Virtual link
        3. 11.3.1.3. Area border routers
        4. 11.3.1.4. AS boundary routers
      2. 11.3.2. OSPF protocols (RFC 2328)
        1. 11.3.2.1. The Hello protocol
        2. 11.3.2.2. Designated router election
        3. 11.3.2.3. Database loading
        4. 11.3.2.4. Information propagation
      3. 11.3.3. Examples
        1. 11.3.3.1. Network initialization example
        2. 11.3.3.2. Example with several networks
        3. 11.3.3.3. Example with several areas
    4. 11.4. IS-IS
      1. 11.4.1. NSAP and NET addresses
        1. 11.4.1.1. NSAP Format
        2. 11.4.1.2. NSAP in IS-IS
      2. 11.4.2. IS-IS protocols
        1. 11.4.2.1. Hello protocol
        2. 11.4.2.2. Link State packets
        3. 11.4.2.3. CSN and PSN packets
      3. 11.4.3. Example
  15. Chapter 12: External Routing Protocols
    1. 12.1. Path announcing
      1. 12.1.1. Principles
        1. 12.1.1.1. The importance of announcement
        2. 12.1.1.2. Multi-homing management
      2. 12.1.2. The RIPE database
      3. 12.1.3. Crossing ASs
    2. 12.2. The interconnection points
    3. 12.3. The symmetry of routes
    4. 12.4. BGP (border gateway protocol)
      1. 12.4.1. Message format
        1. 12.4.1.1. Header
        2. 12.4.1.2. Open
        3. 12.4.1.3. Update
        4. 12.4.1.4. Update in multi-protocol
        5. 12.4.1.5. Notification
      2. 12.4.2. Internal BGP
        1. 12.4.2.1. Principle
        2. 12.4.2.2. Internal information exchange
        3. 12.4.2.3. Loopback interface
      3. 12.4.3. Use of attributes
        1. 12.4.3.1. Origin
        2. 12.4.3.2. As_Path
        3. 12.4.3.3. Next_Hop
        4. 12.4.3.4. Multi_Exit_Disc or Med
        5. 12.4.3.5. Local_Pref
      4. 12.4.4. Synchronization between IGP and EGP
    5. 12.5. Route selection rules
    6. 12.6. BGP traffic analysis
      1. 12.6.1. IPMA (Internet Performance Measurement and Analysis) project
      2. 12.6.2. Network probe daemon
    7. 12.7. Reduction of oscillations
    8. 12.8. Routing limit in the Internet
  16. Chapter 13: Virtual Local Networks
    1. 13.1. Definition
    2. 13.2. Multicast data management
      1. 13.2.1. GARP (Generic Attribute Registration Protocol)
        1. 13.2.1.1. The equipment
        2. 13.2.1.2. The protocol
        3. 13.2.1.3. Messages format
      2. 13.2.2. GMRP (GARP Multicast Registration Protocol)
        1. 13.2.2.1. Reception
        2. 13.2.2.2. Transmission
    3. 13.3. Virtual networks
      1. 13.3.1. VLAN membership
      2. 13.3.2. Configuration of devices
        1. 13.3.2.1. Manual
        2. 13.3.2.2. Semi-automatic
        3. 13.3.2.3. Automatic
      3. 13.3.3. Labeling frames
  17. Chapter 14: MPLS (Multi Protocol Label Switching)
    1. 14.1. Routing protocols’ limits
    2. 14.2. MPLS header format
    3. 14.3. Principles of operation
    4. 14.4. MPLS label D distribution protocols
      1. 14.4.1. LDP (Label Distribution Protocol) (RFC 5036)
    5. 14.5. Traffic engineering
  18. Chapter 15: IP on Point-to-Point Links: PPP
    1. 15.1. Serial links
    2. 15.2. SLIP (Serial Link IP, RFC 1055)
      1. 15.2.1. Principle
        1. 15.2.1.1. Encapsulation
    3. 15.3. PPP (point-to-point protocol, RFC 1661)
      1. 15.3.1. Adaptation to physical support
        1. 15.3.1.1. Frame format
        2. 15.3.1.2. Transparency of the flag
        3. 15.3.1.3. Format optimization
      2. 15.3.2. The PPP frames
      3. 15.3.3. Negotiation parameters
      4. 15.3.4. The LCP protocol
      5. 15.3.5. The authentication protocols (RFC 1334)
        1. 15.3.5.1. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
        2. 15.3.5.2. CHAP (Challenge Authentication Protocol)
      6. 15.3.6. Layer 3 configuration protocols
        1. 15.3.6.1. IPCP (IP Configuration Protocol)
        2. 15.3.6.2. IPv6CP
      7. 15.3.7. TCP/IP (RFC 1144) header compression
        1. 15.3.7.1. Even greater compression
        2. 15.3.7.2 Correction of errors
        3. 15.3.7.3. Example
        4. 15.3.7.4. Limitation of the Van Jacobson algorithm
    4. 15.4. Configuration of routers
    5. 15.5. The RADIUS protocol
    6. 15.6. PPP over X.25 (RFC 1598)
    7. 15.7. PPP over high-speed networks
    8. 15.8. Bridging with PPP (RFC 1638)
      1. 15.8.1. Data frames
      2. 15.8.2. Spanning Tree frames
      3. 15.8.3. BCP configuration protocol
    9. 15.9. ADSL network architecture
      1. 15.9.1. PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet)
      2. 15.9.2. L2TP (Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol)
  19. Chapter 16: Network Administration
    1. 16.1. Vocabulary and concepts
      1. 16.1.1. Versions of SNMP
    2. 16.2. ASN.1 (Abstract Syntax Notation)
      1. 16.2.1. The standard
        1. 16.2.1.1. Definition of a module
        2. 16.2.1.2. Universal types and variables
      2. 16.2.2. BER (basic encoding rules) encoding
    3. 16.3. Definition of the MIB SNMP (RFC 1213)
    4. 16.4. Format of SNMPv1 messages (RFC 1157)
      1. 16.4.1. Interrogation message
      2. 16.4.2. Management of tables
      3. 16.4.3. Interrogation of MIB
      4. 16.4.4. The trap message
    5. 16.5. Formats of SNMPv2 messages (RFC 1905)
      1. 16.5.1. Primitive getbulk
      2. 16.5.2. Example of getbulk usage
      3. 16.5.3. Error messages
      4. 16.5.4. Trap messages
    6. 16.6. Examples of SNMPv1 traffic
      1. 16.6.1. Simple interrogation
      2. 16.6.2. Interface requests
    7. 16.7. MIB example
      1. 16.7.1. The system group (1.3.6.1.2.1.1)
      2. 16.7.2. The interface group (1.3.6.1.2.1.2)
      3. 16.7.3. The at group (1.3.6.1.2.1.3)
      4. 16.7.4. The IP group (1.3.6.1.2.1.4)
      5. 16.7.5. The ICMP group (1.3.6.1.2.1.5)
      6. 16.7.6. The TCP group (1.3.6.1.2.1.6)
      7. 16.7.7. The UDP group (1.3.6.1.2.1.7)
      8. 16.7.8. The SNMP group (1.3.6.1.2.1.11)
    8. 16.8. Other MIBs
      1. 16.8.1. The host MIB (RFC 2790)
      2. 16.8.2. The RMON MIB (RFC 1757)
  20. Chapter 17: Security
    1. 17.1. Risks
    2. 17.2. Filtering routers
      1. 17.2.1. IP spoofing
    3. 17.3. Bastion
    4. 17.4. Proxy
    5. 17.5. NAT (Network Address Translator, RFC 1631)
  21. Chapter 18: Flow Management
    1. 18.1. Quality of service
    2. 18.2. Flow notion
    3. 18.3. Flow management
      1. 18.3.1. Equity
      2. 18.3.2. Multiple queue mechanisms
        1. 18.3.2.1. Strict priority queuing
        2. 18.3.2.2. Round robin scheduling
        3. 18.3.2.3. Weighted round robin
      3. 18.3.3. Single queue mechanisms
        1. 18.3.3.1. Naïve scheduler
        2. 18.3.3.2. Virtual time
      4. 18.3.4. Hierarchical sharing of bandwidth
        1. 18.3.4.1. Definitions of sharing rules1
        2. 18.3.4.2. Class-based queuing
    4. 18.4. Flow measurements
      1. 18.4.1. Token bucket
      2. 18.4.2. Shapers
      3. 18.4.3. Network calculus
    5. 18.5. Integration of services on the Internet
      1. 18.5.1. RSVP characteristics
      2. 18.5.2. Elements of particular networks
      3. 18.5.3. RSVP message format
        1. 18.5.3.1. RSVP objects
      4. 18.5.4. Classes of services
        1. 18.5.4.1. Available bandwidth and token bucket
        2. 18.5.4.2. C and D parameters
      5. 18.5.5. Source emission of a path message
      6. 18.5.6. Resv frame emission for guaranteed service
        1. 18.5.6.1. Calculus of C and D for WFQ
        2. 18.5.6.2. Guaranteed service reservation example
      7. 18.5.7. Resv message emission for the controlled service
      8. 18.5.8. The future of RSVP
    6. 18.6. Differentiated services
    7. 18.7. Perspectives
  22. Bibliography
  23. Index