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Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications

Book Description

The chemistry, physics, and applications of liquid crystals beyond LCDs

Liquid Crystals (LCs) combine order and mobility on a molecular and supramolecular level. But while these remarkable states of matter are most commonly associated with visual display technologies, they have important applications for a variety of other fields as well. Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays: Chemistry, Physics, and Applications considers these, bringing together cutting-edge research from some of the most promising areas of LC science.

Featuring contributions from respected researchers from around the globe, this edited volume emphasizes the chemistry, physics, and applications of LCs in areas such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, filed-effect transistors, lasers, molecular motors, nanophotonics and biosensors. Specific chapters look at magnetic LCs, lyotropic chromonic LCs, LC-based chemical sensors, LCs in metamaterials, and much more.

Introducing readers to the fundamentals of LC science through the use of illustrative examples, Liquid Crystals Beyond Displays covers not only the most recent research in the myriad areas in which LCs are being utilized, but also looks ahead, addressing potential future developments. Designed for physicists, chemists, engineers, and biologists working in academia or industry, as well as graduate students specializing in LC technology, this is the first book to consider LC applications across a wide range of fields.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Preface
  5. Contributors
  6. Chapter 1: Liquid Crystal Lasers
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Types of Lasers
    3. 1.3 Lowering Threshold
    4. 1.4 Tunability
    5. 1.5 3D LC LASERS
    6. 1.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  7. Chapter 2: Self-Organized Semiconducting Discotic Liquid Crystals for Optoelectronic Applications
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Charge Transport and Measurements in DLCS
    3. 2.3 Discotic Molecular Systems
    4. 2.4 Alignment of DLC Materials in Active Semiconducting Layers
    5. 2.5 Applications of Self-Assembled DLCs
    6. 2.6 Conclusions and Outlook
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  8. Chapter 3: Magnetic Liquid Crystals
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Magnetic Anisotropy (Δχ) of LCs
    3. 3.3 Diamagnetic LCs
    4. 3.4 Paramagnetic Metallomesogens
    5. 3.5 All-Organic Radical LCs
    6. 3.6 Conclusions
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  9. Chapter 4: Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals for Nonlinear Optical Applications
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Fundamentals
    3. 4.3 NLO and EO LC Materials
    4. 4.4 Conclusions and Future Prospects
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  10. Chapter 5: Photo-Stimulated Phase Transformations in Liquid Crystals and Their Non-Display Applications
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Survey of Photoinduced Phase Transformation in Liquid Crystals
    3. 5.3 Detailed Account of PIPT in Specific Systems
    4. 5.4 Applications
    5. 5.5 Summary and Outlook
    6. References
  11. Chapter 6: Light-Driven Chiral Molecular Switches or Motors in Liquid Crystal Media
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Photoresponsive Cholesteric Liquid Crystals
    3. 6.3 Light-Driven Molecular Switches or Motors as Dopants
    4. 6.4 Conclusion
    5. Acknowledgments
    6. References
  12. Chapter 7: Liquid Crystal-Functionalized Nano- and Microfibers Produced by Electrospinning
    1. 7.1 Introduction: Why Electrospinning With Liquid Crystals?
    2. 7.2 What is Electrospinning?
    3. 7.3 Electrospinning of Liquid Crystal Polymers
    4. 7.4 Low Molar Mass Liquid Crystals Inside Electrospun Fibers
    5. 7.5 Application Potential of Liquid Crystal-Containing Electrospun Fibers
    6. References
  13. Chapter 8: Functional Liquid Crystalline Block Copolymers: Order Meets Self-Assembled Nanostructures
    1. 8.1 What are Functional Liquid Crystalline Block Copolymers?
    2. 8.2 Macroscopic Orientation of Nanodomains
    3. 8.3 Shape-Memory Materials and Elastomers
    4. 8.4 Stimuli-Responsive Vesicles in Solution
    5. 8.5 Outlook
    6. References
  14. Chapter 9: Semiconducting Applications of Polymerizable Liquid Crystals
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Material Properties
    3. 9.3 OLEDs
    4. 9.4 Organic Field-Effect Transistors
    5. 9.5 Discussion and Conclusion
    6. References
  15. Chapter 10: Liquid Crystals of Carbon Nanotubes and Carbon Nanotubes in Liquid Crystals
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes
    3. 10.3 Liquid Crystal Phases of Carbon Nanotubes
    4. 10.4 Carbon Nanotubes Aligned by Thermotropic Liquid Crystals
    5. 10.5 Carbon Nanotubes Aligned by Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
    6. 10.6 Carbon Nanotubes in Liquid Crystalline Polymers or Polymerized Liquid Crystals
    7. 10.7 Conclusions and Outlook
    8. References
  16. Chapter 11: Liquid Crystals in Metamaterials
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Metamaterials Background
    3. 11.3 RF LC Metamaterials
    4. 11.4 RF Tunable “Meta-Surfaces” with LCs
    5. 11.5 LC Tuning of Meta-Atoms
    6. 11.6 Optical Metamaterials with LCs
    7. 11.7 LC Interaction with Plasmonic Metamaterial Structures
    8. 11.8 Liquid Crystals in Self-Assembled Metamaterials
    9. 11.9 Chiral Metamaterials
    10. 11.10 Conclusion Outlook
    11. References
  17. Chapter 12: Ferroelectric Colloids in Liquid Crystals
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Particles Interaction and the Problem of Colloid Stability
    3. 12.3 Preparation of the Ferroelectric Colloids
    4. 12.4 Orientational Ordering in Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Colloids
    5. 12.5 Dielectric and Reorientational Properties of Ferroelectric LC Colloids
    6. 12.6 Conclusions
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. References
  18. Chapter 13: Fact or Fiction: Cybotactic Groups in the Nematic Phase of Bent Core Mesogens
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Nematic Phase of Rod-Like Molecules
    3. 13.3 X-Ray Scattering
    4. 13.4 Nematic Phase of Bent Core Mesogens
    5. 13.5 Summary
    6. References
  19. Chapter 14: Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals: Emerging Applications
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Structures and Phase Properties of LCLCs
    3. 14.3 Emerging Applications of LCLCs
    4. 14.4 Conclusions
    5. References
  20. Chapter 15: Liquid Crystal-Based Chemical Sensors
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Design of Chemically Functionalized Surfaces for use in LC-Based Chemical Sensors
    3. 15.3 LC-Based Sensors for Coordinating Compounds
    4. 15.4 LC Sensors Designed to Report Acid–Base Interactions
    5. 15.5 Concluding Comments
    6. Acknowledgments
    7. References
  21. Chapter 16: Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Liquid Crystal for Switchable Windows
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Cholesteric Liquid Crystal
    3. 16.3 Polymer Stabilization
    4. 16.4 Polymer Stabilized Cholesteric Texture
    5. 16.5 Conclusion
    6. References
  22. Chapter 17: Liquid Crystals for Nanophotonics
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Carbon Nanotubes
    3. 17.3 Uniform Patterned Growth of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes
    4. 17.4 Properties of LCs Exploited in Nanophotonic Devices
    5. 17.5 The Optics of Nematic Liquid Crystals
    6. 17.6 LC Hybrid Systems Doped With Nanotechnology
    7. 17.7 Carbon Nanotubes as Electrode Structures
    8. 17.8 Nanophotonic Device Characterization
    9. 17.9 Carbon Nanotube Electrode Optimization in the Device
    10. 17.10 Carbon Nanotube Electrode Optimization: Experimental Results
    11. 17.11 Transparent Nanophotonic Device
    12. 17.12 Nanophotonic Compound Eye-Based 3D Vision Sensor
    13. 17.13 Optical Reconstruction Technique
    14. 17.14 Imaging Using the Nanophotonic Lens Array
    15. 17.15 Conclusions and Discussion
    16. References
  23. Color Plate
  24. Index