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Liquid Crystal Displays: Fundamental Physics and Technology

Book Description

An unprecedented look into the basic physics, chemistry, and technology behind the LCD

Most notably used for computer screens, televisions, and mobile phones, LCDs (liquid crystal displays) are a pervasive and increasingly indispensable part of our lives. Providing both an historical and a business-minded context, this extensive resource describes the unique scientific and engineering techniques used to create these beautiful, clever, and eminently useful devices.

In this book, the history of the science and technology behind the LCD is described in a prelude to the development of the device, presenting a rational development theme and pinpointing innovations. The book begins with Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism, and the ultimately profound realization that light is an electromagnetic wave and an electromagnetic wave is light.

The power of mathematical physics thus was brought to bear upon the study of light, and particularly the polarization of light by material bodies, including liquid crystals. After a brief historical description of polarization, a physical interpretation provides substance to the mathematical concepts. Subsequent chapters cover:

  • Thermodynamics for liquid crystals

  • The Maier-Saupe mean field, phenomenological, static continuum, and dynamic continuum theories

  • The transistor and integrated circuit

  • Glass, panels, and modules

  • The calculus of variations

  • The active matrix

  • Semiconductor fabrication

  • The global LCD business

  • Additionally, the book illustrates how mathematics, physics, and chemistry are put to practical use in the LCDs we use every day. By describing the science from an historical perspective and in practical terms in the context of a device very familiar to readers, the book presents an engaging and unique view of the technology for everyone from science students to engineers, product designers, and indeed anyone curious about LCDs.

    Series Editor: Anthony C. Lowe, The Lambent Consultancy, Braishfield, UK

    The Society for Information Display (SID) is an international society, which has the aim of encouraging the development of all aspects of the field of information display. Complementary to the aims of the society, the Wiley-SID series is intended to explain the latest developments in information display technology at a professional level. The broad scope of the series addresses all facets of information displays from technical aspects through systems and prototypes to standards and ergonomics.

    Table of Contents

    1. Cover
    2. Wiley-SID Series in Display Technology
    3. Title page
    4. Copyright page
    5. Series Editor’s Foreword
    6. Preface
    7. Acknowledgments
    8. About the Author
    9. 1 Double Refraction
    10. 2 Electromagnetism
      1. Faraday’s Intuitive Field
      2. Maxwell’s Equations
      3. The Derivation of ∇ º E = ρ/ε
      4. The Derivation of ∇ º B = 0
      5. The Derivation of ∇ × E = - ∂B/∂f
      6. The Derivation of ∇ × B = εμ(∂E/∂f) + μJ
      7. Vector Analysis
      8. Light Is an Electromagnetic Wave
      9. The Light Wave
    11. 3 Light in Matter
      1. The Electric Dipole Moment
      2. The Lorentz–Lorenz Equation
    12. 4 The Polarization of an Electromagnetic Wave
      1. Unpolarized Light
      2. Elliptical, Linear, and Circular Polarization
      3. Birefringence
      4. Ordinary and Extraordinary Waves
      5. Quantum Mechanical Polarization
    13. 5 Liquid Crystals
      1. Carrots
      2. Liquid Crystal Genealogy
      3. The Chiral Nematic
      4. The Ferroelectric Chiral Smectic-C
      5. The Blue Flash
      6. Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
      7. The Director and the Order Parameter
      8. Stiff But Flexible
      9. Liquid Crystal Character
      10. The Induced Dipole Moment
    14. 6 Thermodynamics for Liquid Crystals
      1. The Three Laws of Thermodynamics
      2. Phase Transitions
      3. Entropy
      4. The Boltzmann Distribution
      5. The Minimization of Free Energy
    15. 7 The Calculus of Variations
      1. The Brachistochrone Problem
      2. Catenary and Suspension
      3. The Euler–Lagrange Equation
      4. Deeper Meanings of the Euler–Lagrange Equation
    16. 8 The Mean Field
      1. Ideal Gas in Crystal Lattice
      2. Long Rod Models
      3. The Composite Electric Field and Average Index of Refraction
      4. The Dipole Mean Field Is Born
    17. 9 Maier—Saupe Theory
      1. The Nematic to Isotropic Phase Transition Calculation
      2. Dielectric Anisotropy Calculation
      3. Near Neighbor Correlation
    18. 10 Phenomenological Theory
      1. The Nematic to Isotropic Phase Transition Calculation
      2. Birefringence Calculation
    19. 11 Static Continuum Theory
      1. Basic Principles
      2. Static Continuum Theory Examples
      3. The Freedericksz Cell
      4. In Memoriam
    20. 12 Dynamic Continuum Theory
      1. Conservation Principles
      2. The Leslie Work Hypothesis
      3. Turn-On Example
      4. Hydrodynamic Instability
      5. Conclusion
    21. 13 The First Liquid Crystal Display
      1. Dynamic Scattering
      2. The Liquid Crystal Display Calculator
    22. 14 Liquid Crystal Display Chemistry
      1. The Aromatic Compounds
      2. The Search for a Robust Display Liquid Crystal
    23. 15 The Twisted Nematic
      1. A Twist of Fate
      2. The Gathering Patent Storm
      3. Watches and Calculators
    24. 16 Engineering the Liquid Crystal
      1. Poincaré Sphere
      2. Refractive Index Ellipsoid
      3. Jones Vector
      4. The Phase Retardation Parameter
      5. The Mauguin Condition
      6. The Gooch–Tarry Condition
      7. Twisted Nematic Waveguiding
      8. The Twisted Nematic Cell
    25. 17 The Active Matrix
      1. Matrix Addressing
      2. The Super Twisted Nematic
      3. Active Matrix Addressing
    26. 18 New Screens
      1. Twisted Nematic Television
      2. Notebook Computer Screens
    27. 19 The Transistor and Integrated Circuit
      1. The Bohr Atom
      2. The Point Contact Transistor
      3. The Junction Transistor
      4. The Tyranny of Numbers
      5. Monolithic Component Integration
      6. Monolithic Circuit Integration
    28. 20 A Transistor for the Active Matrix
      1. Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon
      2. The Field Effect Transistor
      3. The a-Si:H Field Effect Thin-Film Transistor
    29. 21 Semiconductor Fabrication
      1. Growing Crystals
      2. The Planar Process
      3. The Four-Mask Bottom Gate
    30. 22 Enhancing the Image
      1. The Grayscale
      2. The On/Off Ratio
      3. The Production of Color
      4. The CCFL Backlight and Color Filter
      5. Field Sequential Color
      6. The LED Backlight
      7. Signal Processing
    31. 23 The Wider View
      1. c-axis a-plate c-plate
      2. Mid-Layer Tilt
      3. Twisted Nematic Display Oblique Viewing
      4. Negative and Positive Compensation
      5. The Discotic Solution
      6. Grayscale Inversion
      7. Compensation Overview
    32. 24 Liquid Crystal Television
      1. Vertical Alignment
      2. Multiple-Domain Vertical Alignment
      3. In-Plane Switching
      4. Fringing Field Switching
      5. Response Time
      6. Overdrive
      7. Flicker
    33. 25 Glass, Panels, and Modules
      1. Glass Generations
      2. The TFT Array Plate
      3. The Color Filter Plate
      4. Side Injection and One Drop Fill
      5. Spacers
      6. Sealing, Cutting, and Inspection
      7. Electrostatic Damage Protection
      8. Laser Repair
      9. Yield
      10. LCD Module Assembly
    34. 26 The Global LCD Business
      1. RCA’s Legacy
      2. Optical Imaging Systems
      3. The Electronics Manufacturing Paradigm
      4. Korea, the Emerging Economy Model
      5. Taiwan’s Twin Stars
      6. Japan’s Closed Shop
      7. The Worldwide Financial Tsunami
      8. Is China a Rising Liquid Crystal Star?
      9. The Solar Cell
    35. 27 New Technologies and Products
      1. Light Scattering
      2. Liquid Crystal Polymer Composites
      3. Cholesteric Bistable Reflective Displays
      4. Ferroelectric Chiral Smectic-C Bistable Displays
      5. Electrophoretic Paper
      6. The Organic Light-Emitting Diode Display
      7. The Blue Phase Display
      8. Reflective Displays
      9. Transflective Displays
      10. Projection Displays
      11. Brightness Enhancement Film
      12. Touch Screens
      13. 3D
      14. LCD Products
    36. Index