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Linux in a Nutshell, Fourth Edition

Book Description

Linux in a Nutshell, now in its fourth edition, has won awards in the Linux community as the most indispensable book about Linux. It is an essential desktop reference for the commands that users of Linux utilize every day, with the depth of information and the practical, succinct "In a Nutshell" format that made the previous editions so popular. Comprehensive but concise, Linux in a Nutshell covers all substantial user, programming, administration, and networking commands for the most common Linux distributions. It's several quick references rolled into one: sed, gawk, RCS, CVS, vi, Emacs, bash, tcsh, regular expressions, package management, bootloaders, and desktop environments are all covered in this clear, to-the-point volume, along with core command-line utilities. The fourth edition continues to track the major changes in bootloaders, the GNOME and KDE desktops, and general Unix commands. Several commands related to CDs and music reflect the evolution of multimedia on Linux. Coverage has been added for GRUB, which has become the default bootloader on several Linux distributions, and for vim, the popular and feature-loaded extension to vi. The addition of several new options to the iptables firewall command and new commands related to DNSSEC and ssh show the book's value as a security tool. With this book, you no longer have to grope through long manpages and info documents for the information you need; you'll find it here in clear language and an easy-to-read format. Contents include:

  • Programming, system administration, networking, and user commands with complete lists of options

  • GRUB, LILO, and Loadlin bootloaders

  • Shell syntax and variables for the bash, csh, and tcsh shells

  • Pattern matching

  • Emacs, vi, and vim editing commands

  • sed and gawk commands

  • The GNOME and KDE desktops and the fvwm2 window manager

  • Red Hat and Debian package managers

  • Table of Contents

    1. Linux in a Nutshell, 4th Edition
      1. Preface
        1. Other Resources
          1. Online Documentation
          2. Web Sites
          3. Linux Journal and Linux Magazine
          4. Usenet Newsgroups
          5. Online Linux Support
          6. Linux User Groups
        2. Conventions
        3. We’d Like to Hear from You
        4. Acknowledgments
      2. 1. Introduction
        1. The Excitement of Linux
        2. Distribution and Support
        3. Commands on Linux
        4. What This Book Offers
        5. Sources and Licenses
        6. Beginner’s Guide
          1. Communication
          2. Comparisons
          3. File Management
          4. Media
          5. Printing
          6. Programming
          7. Program Maintenance
          8. Searching
          9. Shell Programming
          10. Storage
          11. System Status
          12. Text Processing
          13. Miscellaneous
      3. 2. System and Network Administration Overview
        1. Common Commands
          1. Clocks
          2. Daemons
          3. Hardware
          4. Host Information
          5. Installation
          6. Mail
          7. Managing Filesystems
          8. Managing the Kernel
          9. Networking
          10. Printing
          11. Security and System Integrity
          12. Starting and Stopping the System
          13. System Activity and Process Management
          14. Users
          15. Miscellaneous
        2. Overview of Networking
          1. TCP/IP Administration
          2. NFS and NIS Administration
        3. Overview of TCP/IP
          1. IP Addresses
          2. Gateways and Routing
            1. Gateway protocols
            2. Routing daemons
            3. Routing tables
          3. Name Service
            1. DNS and BIND
            2. Domain names
          4. Configuring TCP/IP
            1. ifconfig
            2. Serial-line communication
          5. Troubleshooting TCP/IP
        4. Overview of Firewalls and Masquerading
        5. Overview of NFS
          1. Administering NFS
          2. Daemons
          3. Exporting Filesystems
          4. Mounting Filesystems
        6. Overview of NIS
          1. Servers
          2. Domains
          3. NIS Maps
          4. Map Manipulation Utilities
        7. Administering NIS
          1. Setting Up an NIS Server
          2. Setting Up an NIS Client
          3. NIS User Accounts
        8. RPC and XDR
      4. 3. Linux Commands
        1. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
          1. aclocal
          2. addr2line
          3. agetty
          4. anacron
          5. apmd
          6. apropos
          7. apt
          8. ar
          9. arch
          10. arp
          11. as
          12. at
          13. atd
          14. atq
          15. atrm
          16. audiosend
          17. autoconf
          18. autoheader
          19. automake
          20. autoreconf
          21. autoscan
          22. autoupdate
          23. badblocks
          24. banner
          25. basename
          26. bash
          27. batch
          28. bc
          29. biff
          30. bison
          31. bootpd
          32. bootpgw
          33. bootptest
          34. bzcmp
          35. bzdiff
          36. bzgrep
          37. bzip2
          38. bzless
          39. bzmore
          40. c++
          41. c++filt
          42. cal
          43. cardctl
          44. cardmgr
          45. cat
          46. cc
          47. cdda2wav
          48. cdparanoia
          49. cdrdao
          50. cdrecord
          51. cfdisk
          52. chage
          53. chat
          54. chattr
          55. checkpc
          56. chfn
          57. chgrp
          58. chmod
          59. chown
          60. chpasswd
          61. chroot
          62. chsh
          63. chvt
          64. cksum
          65. clear
          66. cmp
          67. col
          68. colcrt
          69. colrm
          70. column
          71. comm
          72. compress
          73. cp
          74. cpio
          75. cpp
          76. cron
          77. crontab
          78. csh
          79. csplit
          80. ctags
          81. cut
          82. cvs
          83. date
          84. dd
          85. deallocvt
          86. debugfs
          87. depmod
          88. devdump
          89. df
          90. diff
          91. diff3
          92. dig
          93. dip
          94. dir
          95. dircolors
          96. dirname
          97. dmesg
          98. dnsdomain-name
          99. dnssec-keygen
          100. dnssec-makekeyset
          101. dnssec-signkey
          102. dnssec-signzone
          103. domainname
          104. dosfsck
          105. du
          106. dumpe2fs
          107. dumpkeys
          108. e2fsck
          109. e2image
          110. e2label
          111. echo
          112. egrep
          113. eject
          114. elvtune
          115. emacs
          116. env
          117. etags
          118. ex
          119. expand
          120. expr
          121. false
          122. fdformat
          123. fdisk
          124. fetchmail
          125. fgconsole
          126. fgrep
          127. file
          128. find
          129. finger
          130. fingerd
          131. flex
          132. fmt
          133. fold
          134. formail
          135. free
          136. fsck
          137. fsck.minix
          138. ftp
          139. ftpd
          140. fuser
          141. g++
          142. gawk
          143. gcc
          144. gdb
          145. getkeycodes
          146. gpm
          147. gprof
          148. grep
          149. groff
          150. groffer
          151. groupadd
          152. groupdel
          153. groupmod
          154. groups
          155. grpck
          156. grpconv
          157. gs
          158. gunzip
          159. gzexe
          160. gzip
          161. halt
          162. hdparm
          163. head
          164. hexdump
          165. host
          166. hostid
          167. hostname
          168. htdigest
          169. hwclock
          170. iconv
          171. id
          172. identd
          173. ifconfig
          174. imake
          175. imapd
          176. inetd
          177. info
          178. init
          179. insmod
          180. install
          181. ipchains
          182. ipchains-restore
          183. ipchains-save
          184. ipcrm
          185. ipcs
          186. iptables
          187. iptables-restore
          188. iptables-save
          189. isodump
          190. isoinfo
          191. isosize
          192. isovfy
          193. ispell
          194. join
          195. kbd_mode
          196. kbdrate
          197. kernelversion
          198. kill
          199. killall
          200. killall5
          201. klogd
          202. ksyms
          203. last
          204. lastb
          205. lastlog
          206. ld
          207. ldconfig
          208. ldd
          209. less
          210. lesskey
          211. lftp
          212. lftpget
          213. link
          214. ln
          215. loadkeys
          216. locale
          217. locate
          218. lockfile
          219. logger
          220. login
          221. logname
          222. logrotate
          223. look
          224. losetup
          225. lpc
          226. lpd
          227. lpq
          228. lpr
          229. lprm
          230. lpstat
          231. ls
          232. lsattr
          233. lsmod
          234. m4
          235. mail
          236. mailq
          237. mailstats
          238. mailto
          239. make
          240. makedbm
          241. makemap
          242. man
          243. manpath
          244. mattrib
          245. mbadblocks
          246. mcat
          247. mcd
          248. mcopy
          249. mdel, mdeltree
          250. mdir
          251. mdu
          252. merge
          253. mesg
          254. metamail
          255. metasend
          256. mformat
          257. mimencode
          258. minfo
          259. mkdir
          260. mkdosfs
          261. mke2fs
          262. mkfifo
          263. mkfs
          264. mkfs.ext3
          265. mkfs.minix
          266. mkisofs
          267. mklost+found
          268. mknod
          269. mkpasswd
          270. mkraid
          271. mkswap
          272. mktemp
          273. mlabel
          274. mmd
          275. mmount
          276. mmove
          277. modinfo
          278. modprobe
          279. more
          280. mount
          281. mountd
          282. mpartition
          283. mpg123
          284. mpg321
          285. mrd
          286. mren
          287. mshowfat
          288. mt
          289. mtools
          290. mtoolstest
          291. mtype
          292. mv
          293. mzip
          294. named
          295. namei
          296. nameif
          297. netstat
          298. newaliases
          299. newgrp
          300. newusers
          301. nfsd
          302. nfsstat
          303. nice
          304. nm
          305. nohup
          306. nslookup
          307. nsupdate
          308. objcopy
          309. objdump
          310. od
          311. openvt
          312. passwd
          313. paste
          314. patch
          315. pathchk
          316. perl
          317. pidof
          318. ping
          319. portmap
          320. poweroff
          321. pppd
          322. pr
          323. praliases
          324. printenv
          325. printf
          326. ps
          327. pwck
          328. pwconv
          329. pwd
          330. python
          331. quota
          332. raidstart
          333. ramsize
          334. ranlib
          335. rarpd
          336. raw
          337. rcp
          338. rcs
          339. rdate
          340. rdev
          341. rdist
          342. rdistd
          343. readelf
          344. readlink
          345. reboot
          346. rename
          347. renice
          348. reset
          349. resize2fs
          350. rev
          351. rexecd
          352. richtext
          353. rlogin
          354. rlogind
          355. rm
          356. rmail
          357. rmdir
          358. rmmod
          359. rootflags
          360. route
          361. routed
          362. rpcgen
          363. rpcinfo
          364. rpm
          365. rsh
          366. rshd
          367. runlevel
          368. run-parts
          369. rup
          370. ruptime
          371. rusers
          372. rusersd
          373. rwall
          374. rwho
          375. rwhod
          376. scp
          377. screen
          378. script
          379. sdiff
          380. sed
          381. sendmail
          382. seq
          383. setfdprm
          384. setkeycodes
          385. setleds
          386. setmetamode
          387. setsid
          388. setterm
          389. sftp
          390. sh
          391. shar
          392. showkey
          393. showmount
          394. shred
          395. shutdown
          396. size
          397. skill
          398. slattach
          399. sleep
          400. snice
          401. sort
          402. split
          403. ssh
          404. ssh-add
          405. ssh-agent
          406. ssh-keygen
          407. ssh-keyscan
          408. sshd
          409. stat
          410. statd
          411. strace
          412. strfile
          413. strings
          414. strip
          415. stty
          416. su
          417. sudo
          418. sum
          419. swapoff
          420. swapon
          421. sync
          422. sysctl
          423. sysklogd
          424. syslogd
          425. tac
          426. tail
          427. talk
          428. talkd
          429. tar
          430. tcpd
          431. tcsh
          432. tee
          433. telinit
          434. telnet
          435. telnetd
          436. test
          437. tftp
          438. tftpd
          439. time
          440. tload
          441. top
          442. touch
          443. tr
          444. traceroute
          445. troff
          446. true
          447. tset
          448. tty
          449. tune2fs
          450. tunelp
          451. ul
          452. umount
          453. uname
          454. uncompress
          455. unexpand
          456. unicode_start
          457. unicode_stop
          458. uniq
          459. unshar
          460. update
          461. uptime
          462. useradd
          463. userdel
          464. usermod
          465. users
          466. usleep
          467. uudecode
          468. uuencode
          469. uuidgen
          470. vacation
          471. vdir
          472. vi
          473. vidmode
          474. vim
          475. vmstat
          476. volname
          477. w
          478. wall
          479. watch
          480. wc
          481. whatis
          482. whereis
          483. which
          484. who
          485. whoami
          486. whois
          487. write
          488. xargs
          489. xinetd
          490. yacc
          491. yes
          492. ypbind
          493. ypcat
          494. ypchfn
          495. ypinit
          496. ypmatch
          497. yppasswd
          498. yppasswdd
          499. yppoll
          500. yppush
          501. ypserv
          502. ypset
          503. yptest
          504. ypwhich
          505. ypxfr
          506. zcat
          507. zcmp
          508. zdiff
          509. zdump
          510. zforce
          511. zgrep
          512. zic
          513. zless
          514. zmore
          515. znew
      5. 4. Boot Methods
        1. The Boot Process
        2. LILO: The Linux Loader
          1. The LILO Configuration File
            1. Global options
            2. Image options
            3. Kernel options
          2. The lilo Command
          3. lilo Command Options
        3. GRUB: The Grand Unified Bootloader
          1. Installing GRUB
            1. Creating a GRUB boot floppy
            2. Using grub-install
            3. Installing from the GRUB command line
          2. The GRUB Configuration File
          3. Using the Menu Interface
          4. The GRUB Shell
        4. GRUB Commands
          1. Command-Line and Global Menu Commands
            1. bootp
            2. color
            3. device
            4. dhcp
            5. hide
            6. ifconfig
            7. pager
            8. partnew
            9. parttype
            10. password
            11. rarp
            12. serial
            13. setkey
            14. splashimage
            15. terminal
            16. tftpserver
            17. unhide
          2. Command-Line and Menu Entry Commands
            1. blocklist
            2. boot
            3. cat
            4. chainloader
            5. cmp
            6. configfile
            7. debug
            8. displayapm
            9. displaymem
            10. dump
            11. embed
            12. find
            13. fstest
            14. geometry
            15. halt
            16. help
            17. impsprobe
            18. initrd
            19. install
            20. ioprobe
            21. kernel
            22. lock
            23. makeactive
            24. map
            25. md5crypt
            26. module
            27. modulenounzip
            28. pause
            29. quit
            30. read
            31. reboot
            32. root
            33. rootnoverify
            34. savedefault
            35. setup
            36. testload
            37. testvbe
            38. uppermem
            39. vbeprobe
        5. Loadlin: Booting from MS-DOS
          1. Using a Parameter File
          2. Putting Parameters on the Command Line
        6. Dual-Booting Linux and Windows NT/2000/XP
        7. Boot-Time Kernel Options
        8. initrd: Using a RAM Disk
      6. 5. Red Hat and Debian Package Managers
        1. The Red Hat Package Manager
          1. The rpm Command
            1. General options
            2. Install, upgrade, and freshen options
            3. Query options
            4. Package selection options
            5. Information selection options
            6. Uninstall options
            7. Verify options
            8. Database rebuild options
            9. Signature check options
            10. Miscellaneous options
            11. FTP/HTTP options
          2. The rpmbuild Command
          3. RPM Examples
        2. The Debian Package Manager
          1. Files
          2. Package Priorities
          3. Package and Selection States
          4. Package Flags
          5. Scripts
          6. Debian Package Manager Command Summary
            1. apt-cache
            2. apt-cdrom
            3. apt-config
            4. apt-extract-templates
            5. apt-ftparchive
            6. apt-get
            7. apt-sortpkgs
            8. dpkg
            9. dpkg-deb
            10. dpkg-query
            11. dpkg-split
            12. dselect
      7. 6. The Linux Shells: An Overview
        1. Purpose of the Shell
          1. Interactive Use
          2. Customizing Your Linux Session
          3. Programming
        2. Shell Flavors
        3. Common Features
        4. Differing Features
      8. 7. bash: The Bourne-Again Shell
        1. Invoking the Shell
          1. Options
          2. Arguments
        2. Syntax
          1. Special Files
          2. Filename Metacharacters
            1. Examples
          3. Command-Line Editing
          4. Quoting
            1. Examples
          5. Command Forms
            1. Examples
          6. Redirection Forms
            1. Examples
        3. Variables
          1. Variable Substitution
          2. Built-in Shell Variables
        4. Arithmetic Expressions
          1. Operators
          2. Examples
        5. Command History
          1. Line-Edit Mode
          2. The fc Command
            1. Examples
          3. Command Substitution
          4. Variables in Prompt
        6. Job Control
        7. Built-in Commands
          1. #
          2. #!
          3. :
          4. .
          5. alias
          6. bg
          7. bind
          8. break
          9. builtin
          10. case
          11. cd
          12. command
          13. compgen
          14. complete
          15. continue
          16. declare
          17. dirs
          18. disown
          19. echo
          20. enable
          21. eval
          22. exec
          23. exit
          24. export
          25. fc
          26. fg
          27. for
          28. function
          29. getopts
          30. hash
          31. help
          32. history
          33. if
          34. jobs
          35. kill
          36. let
          37. local
          38. logout
          39. popd
          40. printf
          41. pushd
          42. pwd
          43. read
          44. readonly
          45. return
          46. select
          47. set
          48. shift
          49. shopt
          50. source
          51. suspend
          52. test
          53. times
          54. trap
          55. type
          56. typeset
          57. ulimit
          58. umask
          59. unalias
          60. unset
          61. until
          62. wait
          63. while
      9. 8. tcsh: An Extended C Shell
        1. Overview of Features
        2. Invoking the Shell
          1. Options
          2. Arguments
        3. Syntax
          1. Special Files
          2. Filename Metacharacters
            1. Examples
          3. Quoting
            1. Examples
          4. Command Forms
            1. Examples
          5. Redirection Forms
            1. Simple redirection
            2. Multiple redirection
            3. Examples
        4. Variables
          1. Variable Substitution
            1. Examples
          2. Variable Modifiers
            1. Examples using pathname modifiers
            2. Examples using quoting modifiers
          3. Predefined Shell Variables
          4. Formatting for the Prompt Variable
          5. Sample .tcshrc File
          6. Environment Variables
        5. Expressions
          1. Operators
            1. Assignment operators
            2. Arithmetic operators
            3. Bitwise and logical operators
            4. Comparison operators
            5. File inquiry operators
          2. Examples
        6. Command History
          1. Command Substitution
          2. Command Substitution Examples
          3. Word Substitution
          4. Word Substitution Examples
          5. History Modifiers
            1. Printing, substitution, and quoting
            2. Truncation
          6. History Modifier Examples
          7. Special Aliases
        7. Command-Line Manipulation
          1. Completion
          2. Related Shell Variables
          3. Related Command-Line Editor Commands
          4. Related Shell Built-ins
          5. Command-Line Editing
            1. Emacs mode
            2. vi mode
        8. Job Control
        9. Built-in Commands
          1. @
          2. #
          3. #!
          4. :
          5. alias
          6. alloc
          7. bg
          8. bindkey
          9. break
          10. breaksw
          11. built-ins
          12. bye
          13. case
          14. cd
          15. chdir
          16. complete
          17. continue
          18. default
          19. dirs
          20. echo
          21. echotc
          22. else
          23. end
          24. endif
          25. endsw
          26. eval
          27. exec
          28. exit
          29. fg
          30. filetest
          31. foreach
          32. glob
          33. goto
          34. hashstat
          35. history
          36. hup
          37. if
          38. jobs
          39. kill
          40. limit
          41. log
          42. login
          43. logout
          44. ls-F
          45. newgrp
          46. nice
          47. nohup
          48. notify
          49. onintr
          50. popd
          51. printenv
          52. pushd
          53. rehash
          54. repeat
          55. sched
          56. set
          57. setenv
          58. settc
          59. setty
          60. shift
          61. source
          62. stop
          63. suspend
          64. switch
          65. telltc
          66. time
          67. umask
          68. unalias
          69. uncomplete
          70. unhash
          71. unlimit
          72. unset
          73. unsetenv
          74. wait
          75. watchlog
          76. where
          77. which
          78. while
      10. 9. Pattern Matching
        1. Filenames Versus Patterns
        2. Metacharacters, Listed by Linux Program
        3. Metacharacters
        4. Examples of Searching
          1. Examples of Searching and Replacing
      11. 10. The Emacs Editor
        1. Emacs Concepts
          1. Modes
          2. Buffer and Window
          3. Point and Mark
          4. Kill and Yank
        2. Typical Problems
        3. Notes on the Tables
          1. Absolutely Essential Commands
        4. Summary of Commands by Group
          1. File Handling Commands
          2. Cursor Movement Commands
          3. Deletion Commands
          4. Paragraphs and Regions
          5. Stopping and Undoing Commands
          6. Transposition Commands
          7. Capitalization Commands
          8. Incremental Search Commands
          9. Word Abbreviation Commands
          10. Buffer Manipulation Commands
          11. Window Commands
          12. Special Shell Mode Characters
          13. Indentation Commands
          14. Centering Commands
          15. Macro Commands
          16. Detail Information Help Commands
          17. Help Commands
        5. Summary of Commands by Key
          1. Control-Key Sequences
          2. Meta-Key Sequences
        6. Summary of Commands by Name
      12. 11. The vi Editor
        1. Review of vi Operations
          1. Command Mode
          2. Insert Mode
          3. Syntax of vi Commands
            1. Examples
          4. Status-Line Commands
        2. vi Command-Line Options
        3. ex Command-Line Options
        4. Movement Commands
          1. Character
          2. Text
          3. Lines
          4. Screens
          5. Searches
            1. Line numbering
            2. Marking position
        5. Edit Commands
          1. Inserting New Text
          2. Changing and Deleting Text
        6. Saving and Exiting
        7. Accessing Multiple Files
        8. Window Commands
        9. Interacting with the Shell
        10. Macros
        11. Miscellaneous Commands
        12. Alphabetical List of Keys in Command Mode
        13. Syntax of ex Commands
          1. Options
          2. Addresses
          3. Address Symbols
        14. Alphabetical Summary of ex Commands
          1. abbrev
          2. append
          3. args
          4. cd
          5. bdelete
          6. buffer
          7. buffers
          8. center
          9. change
          10. close
          11. copy
          12. delete
          13. edit
          14. exusage
          15. file
          16. fold
          17. foldclose
          18. foldopen
          19. global
          20. help
          21. hide
          22. insert
          23. join
          24. jumps
          25. k
          26. list
          27. left
          28. map
          29. mark
          30. marks
          31. mkexrc
          32. move
          33. new
          34. next
          35. nohlsearch
          36. number
          37. open
          38. preserve
          39. previous
          40. print
          41. put
          42. qall
          43. quit
          44. read
          45. read
          46. recover
          47. redo
          48. resize
          49. rewind
          50. right
          51. sbuffer
          52. sbnext
          53. snext
          54. split
          55. sprevious
          56. script
          57. set
          58. shell
          59. source
          60. stop
          61. substitute
          62. suspend
          63. sview
          64. t
          65. tag
          66. tags
          67. unabbreviate
          68. undo
          69. unhide
          70. unmap
          71. v
          72. version
          73. vi
          74. view
          75. visual
          76. viusage
          77. vsplit
          78. wall
          79. wnext
          80. wq
          81. wqall
          82. write
          83. write
          84. X
          85. xit
          86. yank
          87. z
          88. !
          89. =
          90. < >
          91. address
          92. Return
          93. @
          94. @@
          95. &
          96. ~
        15. vi Configuration
          1. The :set Command
          2. Options Used by :set
          3. Sample ~/.exrc File
      13. 12. The sed Editor
        1. Command-Line Syntax
        2. Syntax of sed Commands
          1. Pattern Addressing
            1. Examples
        3. Group Summary of sed Commands
          1. Basic Editing
          2. Line Information
          3. Input/Output Processing
          4. Yanking and Putting
          5. Branching Commands
          6. Multiline Input Processing
        4. Alphabetical Summary of sed Commands
          1. #
          2. :
          3. =
          4. a
          5. b
          6. c
          7. d
          8. D
          9. g
          10. G
          11. h
          12. H
          13. i
          14. l
          15. n
          16. N
          17. p
          18. P
          19. q
          20. r
          21. s
          22. t
          23. w
          24. x
          25. y
      14. 13. The gawk Scripting Language
        1. Command-Line Syntax
          1. Options
        2. Patterns and Procedures
          1. Patterns
          2. Procedures
          3. Simple Pattern/Procedure Examples
        3. gawk System Variables
        4. PROCINFO Array
        5. Operators
        6. Variable and Array Assignments
        7. Group Listing of gawk Commands
        8. Alphabetical Summary of Commands
          1. and
          2. asort
          3. atan2
          4. break
          5. close
          6. compl
          7. continue
          8. cos
          9. delete
          10. do
          11. exit
          12. exp
          13. fflush
          14. for
          15. for
          16. function
          17. gensub
          18. getline
          19. gsub
          20. if
          21. index
          22. int
          23. length
          24. log
          25. lshift
          26. match
          27. mktime
          28. next
          29. nextfile
          30. or
          31. print
          32. printf
          33. rand
          34. return
          35. rshift
          36. sin
          37. split
          38. sprintf
          39. sqrt
          40. srand
          41. strftime
          42. strtonum
          43. sub
          44. substr
          45. system
          46. systime
          47. tolower
          48. toupper
          49. while
          50. xor
      15. 14. RCS
        1. Overview of RCS Commands
        2. Basic RCS Operations
        3. General RCS Specifications
          1. Keyword Substitution
            1. Keywords
            2. Example values
          2. Revision Numbering
          3. Specifying the Date
          4. Specifying States
          5. Standard Options and Environment Variables
        4. Alphabetical Summary of RCS Commands
          1. ci
          2. co
          3. ident
          4. rcs
          5. rcsclean
          6. rcsdiff
          7. rcsmerge
          8. rlog
      16. 15. CVS
        1. Basic Concepts
          1. Locking and Merging
          2. Conflicts and Merging
          3. Tagging
          4. Branching
        2. CVS Command Format
        3. Common Global Options
        4. Gotchas
        5. CVS Administrator Reference
          1. Creating a Repository
            1. Setting up the password server with inetd
            2. Setting up the password server with xinetd
          2. Security Issues
          3. Repository Structure
            1. The CVSROOT directory
            2. The checkoutlist file
            3. The commitinfo file
            4. The config file
            5. The cvsignore file
            6. The cvswrappers file
            7. The history file
            8. The loginfo file
            9. The modules file
            10. The notify file
            11. The passwd file
            12. The rcsinfo file
            13. The readers file
            14. The taginfo file
            15. The users file
            16. The verifymsg file
            17. The writers file
          4. Hacking the Repository
            1. Restructuring a project
            2. Obsolete and temporary files
          5. Importing
            1. Importing code snapshots
            2. Importing from RCS
            3. Importing from SCCS
            4. Importing from PVCS
          6. Using an Interim Shared Sandbox
          7. Global Server Option
          8. Administrator Commands
            1. admin
            2. init
            3. kserver
            4. pserver
            5. server
        6. CVS User Reference
          1. Repository Locators
          2. Configuring CVS
          3. Creating a Sandbox
          4. Sandbox Structure
            1. .cvsignore files
            2. .cvswrappers files
            3. CVS directories
          5. Client Global Options
          6. Common Client Options
            1. Date formats
            2. Keyword substitutions
          7. User Commands
            1. add
            2. annotate
            3. checkout
            4. commit
            5. diff
            6. edit
            7. editors
            8. export
            9. help
            10. history
            11. import
            12. log
            13. login
            14. logout
            15. rannotate
            16. rdiff
            17. release
            18. remove
            19. rlog
            20. rtag
            21. status
            22. tag
            23. unedit
            24. update
            25. version
            26. watch
            27. watchers
      17. 16. Graphical Desktop Overview
        1. Desktop Environments and Window Managers
        2. Desktop Differences: Development
      18. 17. GNOME
        1. Desktop Overview
          1. Adding Desktop Icons
        2. The Panel
          1. Additional Panels
          2. Adding an Application Launcher to the Panel
          3. GNOME Panel Applets
            1. Workspaces and the Workspace Switcher
            2. The Window List Applet
            3. Miscellaneous applets
        3. The GNOME Menu and the Menu Panel Menus
        4. The GNOME Control Center
          1. Personal Settings
            1. Accessibility
            2. Menus
            3. Password
          2. Look and Feel Settings
            1. Background
            2. Fonts
            3. Screensaver
            4. Keyboard Shortcuts
            5. Theme Selector
          3. Hardware Settings
            1. Keyboard
            2. Mouse
            3. Sound
          4. System Settings
            1. Date and Time
            2. File Associations (MIME Types)
            3. URL Handlers
            4. Manage Software
            5. Network Proxies
            6. Sessions
          5. Advanced Settings Control with GConf
            1. Window managers and window behavior
            2. The panel
        5. History and Changes in GNOME 2
      19. 18. KDE
        1. Desktop Overview
          1. Application Windows
          2. The Konqueror File Manager and Web Browser
          3. The Konsole Terminal Emulator
          4. Adding a Link to the Desktop
          5. The Desktop Folder
        2. The Panel
          1. The Desktop Pager
          2. The Taskbar
          3. Adding an Application Link to the Panel
          4. Running an Application on the Panel
        3. The KDE Control Center
          1. File Browsing
            1. File Associations
            2. File Manager
          2. Information
          3. Look & Feel
            1. Background
            2. Colors
            3. Desktop
            4. Fonts
            5. Icons
            6. Launch Feedback
            7. Panel
            8. Screensaver
            9. Shortcuts
            10. Style
            11. Taskbar
            12. Theme Manager
            13. Window Behavior
            14. Window Decoration
          4. Network
            1. Email
            2. Preferences
            3. SOCKS
            4. Windows Shares
          5. Password
          6. Peripherals
            1. Keyboard
            2. Mouse
          7. Personalization
            1. Accessibility
            2. Country & Language
            3. Crypto
            4. Konsole
            5. Passwords
            6. Session Manager
            7. Spell Checking
          8. Power Control
            1. Battery Monitor
            2. Energy
            3. Laptop Power Control
            4. Low Battery Critical
            5. Low Battery Warning
          9. Sound
            1. Midi
            2. Sound Server
            3. System Bell
            4. System Notifications
          10. System
            1. Date & Time
            2. Font Installer
            3. Login Manager
            4. Printing Manager
          11. Web Browsing
            1. Cache
            2. Cookies
            3. Enhanced Browsing
            4. Konqueror Browser
            5. Netscape Plugins
            6. Proxy
            7. Stylesheets
            8. User Agent
      20. 19. An Alternative Window Manager: fvwm2
        1. Running fvwm2
          1. Configuration Files
          2. A Modular Approach
        2. Implementing Window Manager Customizations
          1. A Quick Tour of the fvwm2 Environment
          2. Specifying Click-to-Type Focus
          3. Raising the Focus Window Automatically
          4. Changing the Size of the Desktop
          5. Using Multiple Desktops
          6. Making the Same Window Appear on Every Page
          7. Starting Windows on Different Desktops and Pages
          8. If It’s Too Hard (or Easy) to Move the Pointer Between Pages
        3. Adding Keyboard Shortcuts
          1. Navigating the Desktop
          2. Moving the Pointer
          3. Menu and Window Manipulation
        4. Customizing Menus
        5. The WinList: Switching the Focus
          1. Distinguishing Multiple Instances of Windows in WinList
          2. Making the WinList Part of Your Default Environment
      21. Index
      22. Colophon