You are previewing Linked Data.
O'Reilly logo
Linked Data

Book Description

The World Wide Web has enabled the creation of a global information space comprising linked documents. As the Web becomes ever more enmeshed with our daily lives, there is a growing desire for direct access to raw data not currently available on the Web or bound up in hypertext documents. Linked Data provides a publishing paradigm in which not only documents, but also data, can be a first class citizen of the Web, thereby enabling the extension of the Web with a global data space based on open standards - the Web of Data. In this Synthesis lecture we provide readers with a detailed technical introduction to Linked Data. We begin by outlining the basic principles of Linked Data, including coverage of relevant aspects of Web architecture. The remainder of the text is based around two main themes - the publication and consumption of Linked Data. Drawing on a practical Linked Data scenario, we provide guidance and best practices on: architectural approaches to publishing Linked Data; choosing URIs and vocabularies to identify and describe resources; deciding what data to return in a description of a resource on the Web; methods and frameworks for automated linking of data sets; and testing and debugging approaches for Linked Data deployments. We give an overview of existing Linked Data applications and then examine the architectures that are used to consume Linked Data from the Web, alongside existing tools and frameworks that enable these. Readers can expect to gain a rich technical understanding of Linked Data fundamentals, as the basis for application development, research or further study. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Introduction / Principles of Linked Data / The Web of Data / Linked Data Design Considerations / Recipes for Publishing Linked Data / Consuming Linked Data / Summary and Outlook

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Synthesis Lectures on the Semantic Web: Theory and Technology
  3. Copyright
  4. Title Page
  5. Abstract
  6. Contents
  7. List of Figures
  8. Preface
  9. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 The Data Deluge
    2. 1.2 The Rationale for Linked Data
      1. 1.2.1 Structure Enables Sophisticated Processing
      2. 1.2.2 Hyperlinks Connect Distributed Data
    3. 1.3 From Data Islands to a Global Data Space
    4. 1.4 Introducing Big Lynx Productions
  10. 2 Principles of Linked Data
    1. 2.1 The Principles in a Nutshell
    2. 2.2 Naming Things with URIs
    3. 2.3 Making URIs Defererenceable
      1. 2.3.1 303 URIs
      2. 2.3.2 Hash URIs
      3. 2.3.3 Hash versus 303
    4. 2.4 Providing Useful RDF Information
      1. 2.4.1 The RDF Data Model
      2. 2.4.2 RDF Serialization Formats
    5. 2.5 Including Links to other Things
      1. 2.5.1 Relationship Links
      2. 2.5.2 Identity Links
      3. 2.5.3 Vocabulary Links
    6. 2.6 Conclusions
  11. 3 The Web of Data
    1. 3.1 Bootstrapping the Web of Data
    2. 3.2 Topology of the Web of Data
      1. 3.2.1 Cross-Domain Data
      2. 3.2.2 Geographic Data
      3. 3.2.3 Media Data
      4. 3.2.4 Government Data
      5. 3.2.5 Libraries and Education
      6. 3.2.6 Life Sciences Data
      7. 3.2.7 Retail and Commerce
      8. 3.2.8 User Generated Content and Social Media
    3. 3.3 Conclusions
  12. 4 Linked Data Design Considerations
    1. 4.1 Using URIs as Names for Things
      1. 4.1.1 Minting HTTP URIs
      2. 4.1.2 Guidelines for Creating Cool URIs
      3. 4.1.3 Example URIs
    2. 4.2 Describing Things with RDF
      1. 4.2.1 Literal Triples and Outgoing Links
      2. 4.2.2 Incoming Links
      3. 4.2.3 Triples that Describe Related Resources
      4. 4.2.4 Triples that Describe the Description
    3. 4.3 Publishing Data about Data
      1. 4.3.1 Describing a Data Set
      2. 4.3.2 Provenance Metadata
      3. 4.3.3 Licenses, Waivers and Norms for Data
    4. 4.4 Choosing and Using Vocabularies to Describe Data
      1. 4.4.1 SKOS, RDFS and OWL
      2. 4.4.2 RDFS Basics
      3. 4.4.3 A Little OWL
      4. 4.4.4 Reusing Existing Terms
      5. 4.4.5 Selecting Vocabularies
      6. 4.4.6 Defining Terms
    5. 4.5 Making Links with RDF
      1. 4.5.1 Making Links within a Data Set
      2. 4.5.2 Making Links with External Data Sources
      3. 4.5.3 Setting RDF Links Manually
      4. 4.5.4 Auto-generating RDF Links
  13. 5 Recipes for Publishing Linked Data
    1. 5.1 Linked Data Publishing Patterns
      1. 5.1.1 Patterns in a Nutshell
      2. 5.1.2 Additional Considerations
    2. 5.2 The Recipes
      1. 5.2.1 Serving Linked Data as Static RDF/XML Files
      2. 5.2.2 Serving Linked Data as RDF Embedded in HTML Files
      3. 5.2.3 Serving RDF and HTML with Custom Server-Side Scripts
      4. 5.2.4 Serving Linked Data from Relational Databases
      5. 5.2.5 Serving Linked Data from RDF Triple Stores
      6. 5.2.6 Serving Linked Data by Wrapping Existing Application or Web APIs
    3. 5.3 Additional Approaches to Publishing Linked Data
    4. 5.4 Testing and Debugging Linked Data
    5. 5.5 Linked Data Publishing Checklist
  14. 6 Consuming Linked Data
    1. 6.1 Deployed Linked Data Applications
      1. 6.1.1 Generic Applications
      2. 6.1.2 Domain-specific Applications
    2. 6.2 Developing a Linked Data Mashup
      1. 6.2.1 Software Requirements
      2. 6.2.2 Accessing Linked Data URIs
      3. 6.2.3 Representing Data Locally using Named Graphs
      4. 6.2.4 Querying Local Data with SPARQL
    3. 6.3 Architecture of Linked Data Applications
      1. 6.3.1 Accessing the Web of Data
      2. 6.3.2 Vocabulary Mapping
      3. 6.3.3 Identity Resolution
      4. 6.3.4 Provenance Tracking
      5. 6.3.5 Data Quality Assessment
      6. 6.3.6 Caching Web Data Locally
      7. 6.3.7 Using Web Data in the Application Context
    4. 6.4 Effort Distribution between Publishers, Consumers and Third Parties
  15. 7 Summary and Outlook
  16. Bibliography
  17. Authors’ Biographies