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Light & Skin Interactions: Simulations for Computer Graphics Applications

Book Description

Light and Skin Interactions immerses you in one of the most fascinating application areas of computer graphics: appearance simulation. The book first illuminates the fundamental biophysical processes that affect skin appearance, and reviews seminal related works aimed at applications in life and health sciences. It then examines four exemplary modeling approaches as well as definitive algorithms that can be used to generate realistic images depicting skin appearance. An accompanying companion site also includes complete code and data sources for the BioSpec model, which is considered to be the most comprehensive first principles model in the field. Despite its wide scope of simulation approaches, the book's content is presented in a concise manner, focusing on relevant practical aspects. What's more, these approaches can be successfully applied to a wide range of additional materials, such as eye tissue, hair, and water.

Table of Contents

  1. Copyright
  2. Acknowledgements
  3. List of Figures
  4. Nomenclature
  5. Acronyms
  6. 1. Introduction
  7. 2. Light, optics, and appearance
    1. 2.1. Light as radiation
    2. 2.2. Optics concepts
    3. 2.3. Light interactions with matter
      1. 2.3.1. Emission
      2. 2.3.2. Scattering
      3. 2.3.3. Absorption
    4. 2.4. Radiometric quantities
    5. 2.5. Tissue optics definitions and terminology
    6. 2.6. Measurement of appearance
      1. 2.6.1. Measuring the spectral distribution of light
      2. 2.6.2. Measuring the spatial distribution of light
  8. 3. Image-synthesis context
    1. 3.1. Global light transport
      1. 3.1.1. Monte Carlo concepts
      2. 3.1.2. Path tracing overview
    2. 3.2. Local light transport
      1. 3.2.1. The Kubelka–Munk methods
      2. 3.2.2. Monte Carlo methods
    3. 3.3. Techniques for model evaluation
      1. 3.3.1. Actual and virtual spectrophotometry
      2. 3.3.2. Actual and virtual goniophotometry
    4. 3.4. Color conversion
  9. 4. Bio-optical properties of human skin
    1. 4.1. Structural and biophysical characteristics
    2. 4.2. Spectral signatures
    3. 4.3. Scattering profiles
    4. 4.4. Interactions with invisible light
      1. 4.4.1. Ultraviolet domain
      2. 4.4.2. Infrared domain
      3. 4.4.3. Terahertz domain
  10. 5. Simulations in health and life sciences
    1. 5.1. Scope of applications
    2. 5.2. Kubelka–Munk theory–based models
    3. 5.3. Diffusion theory–based models
    4. 5.4. Radiative transport models
    5. 5.5. Monte Carlo–based models
  11. 6. Biophysically inspired approach
    1. 6.1. The multiple-layer scattering model
      1. 6.1.1. Overview
      2. 6.1.2. Scattering simulation
        1. Surface reflection
        2. Subsurface reflection and transmission
      3. 6.1.3. Implementation issues
      4. 6.1.4. Strengths and limitations
      5. 6.1.5. Extensions
    2. 6.2. The discrete-ordinate model
      1. 6.2.1. Overview
      2. 6.2.2. Scattering simulation
        1. Surface reflection
        2. Subsurface reflection and transmission
      3. 6.2.3. Implementation issues
      4. 6.2.4. Strengths and limitations
  12. 7. First principles approach
    1. 7.1. Overview
    2. 7.2. Scattering simulation
      1. 7.2.1. Surface reflection
      2. 7.2.2. Subsurface reflection and transmission
    3. 7.3. Absorption simulation
    4. 7.4. Implementation issues
    5. 7.5. Strengths and limitations
  13. 8. Diffusion approximation approach
    1. 8.1. Overview
    2. 8.2. Scattering simulation
    3. 8.3. Implementation issues
    4. 8.4. Strengths and limitations
    5. 8.5. Evolution of diffusion approximation–based models
  14. 9. Simulation challenges
    1. 9.1. Input data issues
    2. 9.2. Modeling issues
    3. 9.3. Evaluation issues
    4. 9.4. Performance issues
  15. 10. Beyond computer graphics applications
  16. References