You are previewing Level Up!: The Guide to Great Video Game Design.

Level Up!: The Guide to Great Video Game Design

Cover of Level Up!: The Guide to Great Video Game Design by Scott Rogers Published by John Wiley & Sons
  1. Copyright
  2. Publisher's Acknowledgments
  3. FOREWORD
  4. ABOUT THE AUTHOR
  5. PRESS START!
    1. IF YOU ARE ANYTHING LIKE ME ...
    2. NO, YOU CAN'T HAVE MY JOB
    3. WHO IS THIS BOOK FOR?
  6. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: EVERYTHING I LEARNED ABOUT WRITING A BOOK
  7. 1. WELCOME, N00BS!
    1. 1.1. A BRIEF HISTORY OF VIDEO GAMES
    2. 1.2. GAME GENRES
    3. 1.3. WHO MAKES THIS STUFF?
      1. 1.3.1. PROGRAMMER
      2. 1.3.2. ARTIST
      3. 1.3.3. DESIGNER
      4. 1.3.4. PRODUCER
      5. 1.3.5. TESTER
      6. 1.3.6. COMPOSER
      7. 1.3.7. SOUND DESIGNER
      8. 1.3.8. WRITER
    4. 1.4. HAVE YOU THOUGHT ABOUT PUBLISHING?
      1. 1.4.1. PRODUCT MANAGER
      2. 1.4.2. CREATIVE MANAGER
      3. 1.4.3. ART DIRECTOR
      4. 1.4.4. TECHNICAL DIRECTOR
      5. 1.4.5. AND THE REST ...
    5. 1.5. Level 1's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  8. 2. IDEAS
    1. 2.1. IDEAS: WHERE TO GET THEM AND WHERE TO STICK THEM
    2. 2.2. WHAT DO GAMERS WANT?
      1. 2.2.1.
    3. 2.3. Why I Hate "Fun"
      1. 2.3.1.
    4. 2.4. BRAINSTORMING
    5. 2.5. BREAKING WRITER'S BLOCK
    6. 2.6. Level 2's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  9. 3. WRITING THE STORY
    1. 3.1. THE TRIANGLE OF WEIRDNESS
    2. 3.2. TIME TO WRAP IT UP
    3. 3.3. CREATING CHARACTERS
    4. 3.4. A FEW POINTERS ON WRITING FOR KIDS OF ALL AGES
    5. 3.5. WRITING FOR LICENSES
    6. 3.6. Level 3's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  10. 4. YOU CAN DESIGN A GAME, BUT CAN YOU DO THE PAPERWORK?
    1. 4.1. WRITING THE GDD, STEP 1: THE ONE-SHEET
      1. 4.1.1. ESRB RATINGS
    2. 4.2. WRITING THE GDD, STEP 2: THE TEN-PAGER
      1. 4.2.1. THE RULE OF THREES
      2. 4.2.2. TEN-PAGER OUTLINE
    3. 4.3. THE GAME DESIGN DOCUMENT (AND THE AWFUL TRUTH ABOUT WRITING THEM)
      1. 4.3.1.
    4. 4.4. GAMEPLAY PROGRESSION
    5. 4.5. THE BEAT CHART
    6. 4.6. ABOVE ALL, DON'T BE A SCHMUCK
    7. 4.7. Level 4's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  11. 5. THE THREE CS, PART 1—CHARACTER
    1. 5.1. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
      1. 5.1.1. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
    2. 5.2. PERSONALITY: DO WE REALLY NEED ANOTHER BADASS?
    3. 5.3. LET'S GET PERSONAL
    4. 5.4. FINALLY, WE TALK ABOUT GAMEPLAY
    5. 5.5. WHY WALK WHEN YOU CAN RUN?
      1. 5.5.1.
    6. 5.6. THE ART OF DOING NOTHING
    7. 5.7. MIGHT AS WELL JUMP
    8. 5.8. HOISTS AND TEETERS
    9. 5.9. WHAT GOES UP, MUST FALL DOWN
      1. 5.9.1. ME AND MY SHADOW
    10. 5.10. THE WATER'S FINE... OR IS IT?
    11. 5.11. BE KIND TO OUR FOUR-LEGGED FRIENDS
    12. 5.12. USING ALL OF THE PARTS
    13. 5.13. WE ARE NOT ALONE
    14. 5.14. WHO ARE THE PEOPLE IN YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD?
      1. 5.14.1.
    15. 5.15. Level 5's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  12. 6. THE THREE CS, PART 2—CAMERA
    1. 6.1. GET IT RIGHT: CAMERA VIEWS
    2. 6.2. FIRST PERSON CAMERA
    3. 6.3. THIRD PERSON CAMERA
    4. 6.4. GIVING UP CONTROL
      1. 6.4.1. SO YOU'VE DECIDED TO LET THE PLAYER CONTROL THE CAMERA
      2. 6.4.2. SO YOU'VE DECIDED TO NOT LET THE PLAYER HAVE CONTROL OVER THE CAMERA
      3. 6.4.3. SO YOU'VE DECIDED TO LET THE PLAYER SOMETIMES HAVE CONTROL OVER THE CAMERA
    5. 6.5. TWO AND A HALF D
    6. 6.6. ISOMETRIC CAMERA
    7. 6.7. TOP-DOWN CAMERA
    8. 6.8. SPECIAL CASE CAMERAS
    9. 6.9. TUNNEL VISION
    10. 6.10. CAMERA SHOT GUIDE
    11. 6.11. CAMERA ANGLE GUIDE
    12. 6.12. CAMERA MOVEMENT GUIDE
    13. 6.13. OTHER CAMERA NOTES
      1. 6.13.1. ALWAYS POINT THE CAMERA TO THE OBJECTIVE
      2. 6.13.2. NEVER LET THE CHARACTER GET OUT OF THE CAMERA'S SIGHT
    14. 6.14. MULTIPLE PLAYER CAMERAS
    15. 6.15. Level 6's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  13. 7. THE THREE CS, PART 3—CONTROLS
    1. 7.1. ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT HUMANS ARE PLAYING THESE GAMES
      1. 7.1.1. ALWAYS REMEMBER THAT HUMANS ARE PLAYING THESE GAMES
    2. 7.2. DANCE, MONKEY, DANCE
      1. 7.2.1.
    3. 7.3. CHARACTER OR CAMERA RELATIVE?
    4. 7.4. SHAKE, RATTLE AND ROLL
    5. 7.5. Level 7's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  14. 8. SIGN LANGUAGE—HUD AND ICON DESIGN
    1. 8.1. HEALTH BAR
    2. 8.2. TARGETING
    3. 8.3. AMMO GAUGE
    4. 8.4. INVENTORY
    5. 8.5. SCORE
    6. 8.6. RADAR/MAP
    7. 8.7. CONTEXT-SENSITIVE PROMPT
    8. 8.8. THE CLEAN SCREEN
    9. 8.9. ICON HAS CHEEZBURGER3?
      1. 8.9.1.
    10. 8.10. DON'T GET QTE
    11. 8.11. HUDS, AND WHERE TO STICK 'EM
      1. 8.11.1.
    12. 8.12. THERE ARE OTHER SCREENS THAN THE HUD
    13. 8.13. THE PAUSE THAT REFRESHES
      1. 8.13.1.
    14. 8.14. A FINAL WORD ON FONTS
    15. 8.15. Level 8's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  15. 9. EVERYTHING I LEARNED ABOUT LEVEL DESIGN, I LEARNED FROM LEVEL 9
    1. 9.1. THE TOP 10 CLICHÉ VIDEO GAME THEMES
    2. 9.2. THE NAME GAME
    3. 9.3. EVERYTHING I LEARNED ABOUT LEVEL DESIGN, I LEARNED FROM DISNEYLAND
    4. 9.4. THE BEAT CHART
    5. 9.5. RE-USING RE-USE
    6. 9.6. THE GARY GYGAX MEMORIAL MAPPING SECTION
    7. 9.7. THE DAVE ARNENSON MEMORIAL MAPPING SECTION
      1. 9.7.1. WALKING IS NEVER, EVER GAMEPLAY!
      2. 9.7.2. IF IT EVER FEELS LONG OR BORING, THEN IT IS
      3. 9.7.3. EVERY FINGER SHOULD HAVE A REWARD AT THE END, EVEN IF IT'S JUST A TRASHCAN
    8. 9.8. WRAPPING UP MAPPING
    9. 9.9. ILLUSIONAL NARRATIVE
    10. 9.10. GRAY MATTERS
      1. 9.10.1. IF IT LOOKS LIKE THE PLAYER CAN GO THERE, THEN THEY SHOULD BE ABLE TO
    11. 9.11. LEAVE THE TRAINING LEVEL FOR LAST
    12. 9.12. Level 9's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  16. 10. THE ELEMENTS OF COMBAT
    1. 10.1. 400 QUATLOOS ON THE NEWCOMER!
      1. 10.1.1. "PEOPLE WANT TO PLAY GAMES THAT MAKE THEM LOOK COOL
    2. 10.2. NOW YOU HAVE TO KISS ME
    3. 10.3. ON MOVING
    4. 10.4. ON GUARDING
      1. 10.4.1. "WATCH OUT!
    5. 10.5. STATE OF THE ART BANG BANG
      1. 10.5.1. PLAY THE BEST SHOOTERS AND STUDY THEIR SOLUTIONS
    6. 10.6. THE BEST GUN FOR YOU
    7. 10.7. RUN AND GUN
    8. 10.8. NOT JUST SHOOTING
      1. 10.8.1. ALWAYS STRIVE TO ENABLE THE PLAYER, EVEN WHEN YOU'RE DISABLING THEM
    9. 10.9. DAMMIT JONES, WHERE DOESN'T IT HURT?
    10. 10.10. DEATH: WHAT IS IT GOOD FOR?
      1. 10.10.1. YOU WANT TO KEEP THEM PLAYING
    11. 10.11. Level 10's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  17. 11. THEY ALL WANT YOU DEAD
    1. 11.1. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION!
      1. 11.1.1. FORM FOLLOWS FUNCTION
    2. 11.2. BRING ON THE BAD GUYS
      1. 11.2.1.
    3. 11.3. I LOVE DESIGNING ENEMIES
    4. 11.4. I HATE YOU TO PIECES
      1. 11.4.1.
    5. 11.5. NON-ENEMY ENEMIES
    6. 11.6. HOW TO CREATE THE WORLD'S GREATEST BOSS BATTLE
    7. 11.7. WHO'S THE BOSS?
    8. 11.8. SIZE MATTERS
      1. 11.8.1.
    9. 11.9. LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION
    10. 11.10. WHY NOT TO CREATE THE WORLD'S GREATEST BOSS BATTLE
      1. 11.10.1.
    11. 11.11. Level 11's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  18. 12. THE NUTS AND BOLTS OF MECHANICS
    1. 12.1. HOLY DEATH TRAP!
      1. 12.1.1.
    2. 12.2. TIME TO DIE
    3. 12.3. THE MUSIC OF MECHANICS
    4. 12.4. A NICE LITTLE CALM SPOT
    5. 12.5. RIDDLE ME THIS
      1. 12.5.1.
    6. 12.6. A SHORT WORD ON MINIGAMES AND MICROGAMES
    7. 12.7. Level 12's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  19. 13. NOW YOU'RE PLAYING WITH POWER
    1. 13.1. "LOVE THY PLAYER"
      1. 13.1.1.
    2. 13.2. MORE WEALTH THAN YOU CAN IMAGINE!
      1. 13.2.1.
    3. 13.3. Level 13's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  20. 14. MULTIPLAYER—THE MORE THE MERRIER
    1. 14.1. HOW MANY IS THE RIGHT NUMBER?
    2. 14.2. MMORPGS, OR HELL IS OTHER PEOPLE
      1. 14.2.1.
    3. 14.3. Level 14's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  21. 15. SOME NOTES ON MUSIC1
    1. 15.1. ALWAYS MAKE THE MUSIC MORE EXCITING THAN THE ACTION ON SCREEN
      1. 15.1.1. ALWAYS MAKE THE MUSIC MORE EXCITING THAN THE ACTION ON SCREEN
    2. 15.2. SOUNDS LIKE A GAME TO ME
    3. 15.3. Level 15's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  22. 16. CUTSCENES, OR NO ONE'S GONNA WATCH 'EM ANYWAY
    1. 16.1. CAN IT BE DONE IN THE GAME?
      1. 16.1.1. CAN IT BE DONE IN THE GAME?
    2. 16.2. HOW TO WRITE A SCREENPLAY IN EIGHT EASY STEPS
      1. 16.2.1.
    3. 16.3. Level 16's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  23. 17. AND NOW THE HARD PART
    1. 17.1. NO ONE CARES ABOUT YOUR STUPID LITTLE WORLD
      1. 17.1.1.
    2. 17.2. VIDEO GAMES IS A HAAAARD BUSINESS
      1. 17.2.1.
    3. 17.3. WHAT TO DO FOR AN ENCORE?
    4. 17.4. Level 17's Universal Truths and Clever Ideas:
  24. 1. THE ONE-SHEET SAMPLE
  25. 2. THE TEN-PAGE DESIGN DOCUMENT SAMPLE
    1. 2.1. Page 1: Title Page
    2. 2.2. Page 2: Story and Gameplay
    3. 2.3. Page 3: Game Flow
    4. 2.4. Page 4: Character(s) and Controls
    5. 2.5. Page 5: Main Gameplay Concepts and Platform Specific Features
    6. 2.6. Page 6: Game World
    7. 2.7. Page 7: Interface
    8. 2.8. Page 8: Mechanics and Power-ups
    9. 2.9. Page 9: Enemies and Bosses
    10. 2.10. Page 10: Cutscenes, Bonus Material, and Comps
  26. 3. GAME DESIGN DOCUMENT TEMPLATE
    1. 3.1. COVER
    2. 3.2. YOUR GAME'S TITLE
    3. 3.3. GDD Outline (for action, adventure, platform, RPG, or shooter-video game)
  27. 4. THE MEDIUM-SIZED LIST OF STORY THEMES
  28. 5. THE BIG LIST OF ENVIRONMENTS1
  29. 6. MECHANICS AND HAZARDS
  30. 7. ENEMY DESIGN TEMPLATE
  31. 8. BOSS DESIGN TEMPLATE
    1. 8.1. Boss Fight Arena
  32. 9. HIGH CONCEPT PITCH PRESENTATION
    1. 9.1. Slide 1: Cover Page
    2. 9.2. Slide 2: Company Profile
    3. 9.3. Slide 3: Target Specs
    4. 9.4. Slide 4: Game Story
    5. 9.5. Slide 5: Game Goals
    6. 9.6. Slide 6: Gameplay Summary
    7. 9.7. Slide 7: Gameplay details
    8. 9.8. Slide 8: Download strategy
    9. 9.9. Slide 9: Production Specs
  33. ACHIEVEMENT UNLOCKED: EXACTLY LIKE MAKING CHILI
  34. CONTINUE?
    1. TIME TO LEVEL UP!
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Chapter 15. SOME NOTES ON MUSIC1

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SOME NOTES ON MUSIC1

When the imagineers were creating the Star Wars Star Tours attraction at Disneyland, they initially intended the experience to be "realistic"; the audience would hear only the sound of the Starspeeder 3000 and the pilot's dialogue. However, when they tested the attraction, something didn't feel right. Without John Williams' music, the attraction just didn't seem like "Star Wars" and so the classic theme was added in.

Music brings a lot to any entertainment experience, be it a theme park attraction, movie, or a video game. But it also requires a lot of work and coordination between many members of a team, which contributes to why music and sound is usually left until late in production. This is a mistake. Sound and music can bring so much to a game that to leave it to the last minute is missing out on great design opportunities.

Music and sound in gaming has come a long way in a short time. Back in the 1970s and 1980s, arcade and console programmers had only electronic beeps and boops to play with. Even with the limitations, game creators were able to create some simple but memorable musical themes (or even just jingles) for games like Pac-Man, Donkey Kong, and The Legend of Zelda. Sound advances happened with almost every system; voice synthesizing and MIDI format audio meant that music became more lush. However, game creators were limited because ...

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