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Lens Design Fundamentals, 2nd Edition

Book Description

  • Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the substantial changes in the field since its publication in 1978
  • Strong emphasis on how to effectively use software design packages, indispensable to today’s lens designer
  • Many new lens design problems and examples - ranging from simple lenses to complex zoom lenses and mirror systems - give insight for both the newcomer and specialist in the field

Rudolf Kingslake is regarded as the American father of lens design; his book, not revised since its publication in 1978, is viewed as a classic in the field. Naturally, the area has developed considerably since the book was published, the most obvious changes being the availability of powerful lens design software packages, theoretical advances, and new surface fabrication technologies.

This book provides the skills and knowledge to move into the exciting world of contemporary lens design and develop practical lenses needed for the great variety of 21st-century applications. Continuing to focus on fundamental methods and procedures of lens design, this revision by R. Barry Johnson of a classic modernizes symbology and nomenclature, improves conceptual clarity, broadens the study of aberrations, enhances discussion of multi-mirror systems, adds tilted and decentered systems with eccentric pupils, explores use of aberrations in the optimization process, enlarges field flattener concepts, expands discussion of image analysis, includes many new exemplary examples to illustrate concepts, and much more.

Optical engineers working in lens design will find this book an invaluable guide to lens design in traditional and emerging areas of application; it is also suited to advanced undergraduate or graduate course in lens design principles and as a self-learning tutorial and reference for the practitioner.

Rudolf Kingslake (1903-2003) was a founding faculty member of the Institute of Optics at The University of Rochester (1929) and remained teaching until 1983. Concurrently, in 1937 he became head of the lens design department at Eastman Kodak until his retirement in 1969. Dr. Kingslake published numerous papers, books, and was awarded many patents. He was a Fellow of SPIE and OSA, and an OSA President (1947-48). He was awarded the Progress Medal from SMPTE (1978), the Frederic Ives Medal (1973), and the Gold Medal of SPIE (1980).

R. Barry Johnson has been involved for over 40 years in lens design, optical systems design, and electro-optical systems engineering. He has been a faculty member at three academic institutions engaged in optics education and research, co-founder of the Center for Applied Optics at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, employed by a number of companies, and provided consulting services. Dr. Johnson is an SPIE Fellow and Life Member, OSA Fellow, and an SPIE President (1987). He published numerous papers and has been awarded many patents. Dr. Johnson was founder and Chairman of the SPIE Lens Design Working Group (1988-2002), is an active Program Committee member of the International Optical Design Conference, and perennial co-chair of the annual SPIE Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering Conference.



  • Thoroughly revised and expanded to reflect the substantial changes in the field since its publication in 1978
  • Strong emphasis on how to effectively use software design packages, indispensable to today’s lens designer
  • Many new lens design problems and examples - ranging from simple lenses to complex zoom lenses and mirror systems - give insight for both the newcomer and specialist in the field

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright page
  5. Dedication
  6. Preface to the Second Edition
    1. Acknowledgments
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. A Special Tribute to Rudolf Kingslake
    1. The Early Years
    2. The Institute of Applied Optics
    3. The Kodak Years
    4. Books
    5. Acknowledgments
  9. Chapter 1: The Work of the Lens Designer
    1. 1.1 RELATIONS BETWEEN DESIGNER AND FACTORY
    2. 1.2 THE DESIGN PROCEDURE
    3. 1.3 OPTICAL MATERIALS
    4. 1.4 INTERPOLATION OF REFRACTIVE INDICES
    5. 1.5 LENS TYPES TO BE CONSIDERED
  10. Chapter 2: Meridional Ray Tracing
    1. 2.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 2.2 GRAPHICAL RAY TRACING
    3. 2.3 TRIGONOMETRICAL RAY TRACING AT A SPHERICAL SURFACE
    4. 2.4 SOME USEFUL RELATIONS
    5. 2.5 CEMENTED DOUBLET OBJECTIVE
    6. 2.6 RAY TRACING AT A TILTED SURFACE
    7. 2.7 RAY TRACING AT AN ASPHERIC SURFACE
  11. Chapter 3: Paraxial Rays and First-Order Optics
    1. 3.1 TRACING A PARAXIAL RAY
    2. 3.2 MAGNIFICATION AND THE LAGRANGE THEOREM
    3. 3.3 THE GAUSSIAN OPTICS OF A LENS SYSTEM
    4. 3.4 FIRST-ORDER LAYOUT OF AN OPTICAL SYSTEM
    5. 3.5 THIN-LENS LAYOUT OF ZOOM SYSTEMS
  12. Chapter 4: Aberration Theory
    1. 4.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 4.2 SYMMETRICAL OPTICAL SYSTEMS
    3. 4.3 ABERRATION DETERMINATION USING RAY TRACE DATA
    4. 4.4 CALCULATION OF SEIDEL ABERRATION COEFFICIENTS
  13. Chapter 5: Chromatic Aberration
    1. 5.1 INTRODUCTION
    2. 5.2 SPHEROCHROMATISM OF A CEMENTED DOUBLET
    3. 5.3 CONTRIBUTION OF A SINGLE SURFACE TO THE PRIMARY CHROMATIC ABERRATION
    4. 5.4 CONTRIBUTION OF A THIN ELEMENT IN A SYSTEM TO THE PARAXIAL CHROMATIC ABERRATION
    5. 5.5 PARAXIAL SECONDARY SPECTRUM
    6. 5.6 PREDESIGN OF A THIN THREE-LENS APOCHROMAT
    7. 5.7 THE SEPARATED THIN-LENS ACHROMAT (DIALYTE)
    8. 5.8 CHROMATIC ABERRATION TOLERANCES
    9. 5.9 CHROMATIC ABERRATION AT FINITE APERTURE
  14. Chapter 6: Spherical Aberration
    1. 6.1 SURFACE CONTRIBUTION FORMULAS
    2. 6.2 ZONAL SPHERICAL ABERRATION
    3. 6.3 PRIMARY SPHERICAL ABERRATION
    4. 6.4 THE IMAGE DISPLACEMENT CAUSED BY A PLANOPARALLEL PLATE
    5. 6.5 SPHERICAL ABERRATION TOLERANCES
  15. Chapter 7: Design of a Spherically Corrected Achromat
    1. 7.1 THE FOUR-RAY METHOD
    2. 7.2 A THIN-LENS PREDESIGN
    3. 7.3 CORRECTION OF ZONAL SPHERICAL ABERRATION
    4. 7.4 DESIGN OF AN APOCHROMATIC OBJECTIVE
  16. Chapter 8: Oblique Beams
    1. 8.1 PASSAGE OF AN OBLIQUE BEAM THROUGH A SPHERICAL SURFACE
    2. 8.2 TRACING OBLIQUE MERIDIONAL RAYS
    3. 8.3 TRACING A SKEW RAY
    4. 8.4 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF SKEW-RAY ABERRATIONS
    5. 8.5 RAY DISTRIBUTION FROM A SINGLE ZONE OF A LENS
  17. Chapter 9: Coma and the Sine Condition
    1. 9.1 THE OPTICAL SINE THEOREM
    2. 9.2 THE ABBE SINE CONDITION
    3. 9.3 OFFENSE AGAINST THE SINE CONDITION
    4. 9.4 ILLUSTRATION OF COMATIC ERROR
  18. Chapter 10: Design of Aplanatic Objectives
    1. 10.1 BROKEN-CONTACT TYPE
    2. 10.2 PARALLEL AIR-SPACE TYPE
    3. 10.3 AN APLANATIC CEMENTED DOUBLET
    4. 10.4 A TRIPLE CEMENTED APLANAT
    5. 10.5 AN APLANAT WITH A BURIED ACHROMATIZING SURFACE
    6. 10.6 THE MATCHING PRINCIPLE
  19. Chapter 11: The Oblique Aberrations
    1. 11.1 ASTIGMATISM AND THE CODDINGTON EQUATIONS
    2. 11.2 THE PETZVAL THEOREM
    3. 11.3 ILLUSTRATION OF ASTIGMATIC ERROR
    4. 11.4 DISTORTION
    5. 11.5 LATERAL COLOR
    6. 11.6 THE SYMMETRICAL PRINCIPLE
    7. 11.7 COMPUTATION OF THE SEIDEL ABERRATIONS
  20. Chapter 12: Lenses in Which Stop Position Is a Degree of Freedom
    1. 12.1 THE <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">H</span>&#8242;&#160;&#8722;&#160;′ − <span xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:epub="http://www.idpf.org/2007/ops" class="italic">L</span> PLOT PLOT
    2. 12.2 SIMPLE LANDSCAPE LENSES
    3. 12.3 A PERISCOPIC LENS
    4. 12.4 ACHROMATIC LANDSCAPE LENSES
    5. 12.5 ACHROMATIC DOUBLE LENSES
  21. Chapter 13: Symmetrical Double Anastigmats with Fixed Stop
    1. 13.1 THE DESIGN OF A DAGOR LENS
    2. 13.2 THE DESIGN OF AN AIR-SPACED DIALYTE LENS
    3. 13.3 A DOUBLE-GAUSS–TYPE LENS
    4. 13.4 DOUBLE-GAUSS LENS WITH CEMENTED TRIPLETS
    5. 13.5 DOUBLE-GAUSS LENS WITH AIR-SPACED NEGATIVE DOUBLETS
  22. Chapter 14: Unsymmetrical Photographic Objectives
    1. 14.1 THE PETZVAL PORTRAIT LENS
    2. 14.2 THE DESIGN OF A TELEPHOTO LENS
    3. 14.3 LENSES TO CHANGE MAGNIFICATION
    4. 14.4 THE PROTAR LENS
    5. 14.5 DESIGN OF A TESSAR LENS
    6. 14.6 THE COOKE TRIPLET LENS
  23. Chapter 15: Mirror and Catadioptric Systems
    1. 15.1 COMPARISON OF MIRRORS AND LENSES
    2. 15.2 RAY TRACING A MIRROR SYSTEM
    3. 15.3 SINGLE-MIRROR SYSTEMS
    4. 15.4 SINGLE-MIRROR CATADIOPTRIC SYSTEMS
    5. 15.5 TWO-MIRROR SYSTEMS
    6. 15.6 MULTIPLE-MIRROR ZOOM SYSTEMS
    7. 15.7 SUMMARY
  24. Chapter 16: Eyepiece Design
    1. 16.1 DESIGN OF A MILITARY-TYPE EYEPIECE
    2. 16.2 DESIGN OF AN ERFLE EYEPIECE
    3. 16.3 DESIGN OF A GALILEAN VIEWFINDER
  25. Chapter 17: Automatic Lens Improvement Programs
    1. 17.1 FINDING A LENS DESIGN SOLUTION
    2. 17.2 OPTIMIZATION PRINCIPLES
    3. 17.3 WEIGHTS AND BALANCING ABERRATIONS
    4. 17.4 CONTROL OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS
    5. 17.5 TOLERANCES
    6. 17.6 PROGRAM LIMITATIONS
    7. 17.7 LENS DESIGN COMPUTING DEVELOPMENT
    8. 17.8 PROGRAMS AND BOOKS USEFUL FOR AUTOMATIC LENS DESIGN
  26. Appendix: A Selected Bibliography of Writings by Rudolf Kingslake
    1. The Early Years
    2. The Institute Years
    3. The Kodak Years
    4. Books and Edited Volumes
  27. Index